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Compare And Contrast In Nursing

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Question:

Choose two children of the Same age, One Development within Normal limits and One with Some Degree of Physical or Cognitive Delay. Compare and Contrast their Development levels linking in with Developmental theories.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

Children have diverse rates/ways of developing. As the brain of a child develops, there are things they learn from the basic abilities such as, recognizing a person’s parents to tasks that are complex that are incorporated in mathematics, language and plays that are imaginary. Unfortunately, about 8% of youngsters have an impaired development and can be considered to be having a cognitive delay. (Arlin, 2015)This paper shows the similarities and differences between a child with development within the normal limits and one with some degree of cognitive or physical delay. It also shows us ways in which cognitive delay can be treated and diagnosed as well as a summary of the risk factors. Their levels of development linking with theories of development and evidence available from family and child evidence of health (Brickhard, 2008).

The cognitive delay is defined as a lag that is significant in the cognitive development of a child when compared to milestones that have been standardized. It is important to comprehend cognition, which is a process of understanding and acquiring knowledge via our senses, experiences, and thoughts. For a child to suffer delays a standard has to be established against which their development is compared. The standard comes in form of developmental milestones or a frame of time of development during which an individual can expect a child developing within the normal range to gain some kind of abilities. (Broughton, 2009) For instance, using a seven months old youngster. A child at this age, with normal development, should be able to comprehend his or her name when one speaks to them. They will not be able to write, speak or read their name but he or she should be able to acknowledge it in one way or another (be excited by waving the arms or turning to the one speaking). Now, just because a youngster at this age does not acknowledge his or her name when they turn 6 months old doesn’t mean that their guardians should be alarmed. For each and every developmental milestone there’s some room for wiggle, so a young individual may develop such abilities at 4 months or take as long as nine months. However, if he or she is one year and can’t recognize his or her name, then it’s a very strong sign that they are cognitive delayed?

Youngsters develop and grow at various rates (Rumaine, 2013). However, most of them go via skills that can be identified set along the path known as developmental milestones. These are skills built on one another to complex from simple predictable periods of time. For instance, an infant must be able to babble single letters at around four to six months before the multiple letters at seven to nine months before three to two sentenced words at eighteen to twenty-four months.  Charts of milestone represents a timetable for mastering these skills which act as a guide to the development of a child within the normal range. Keeping in mind that youngsters have different rates of development and that a child can develop faster in one are compared to the other.

 


Children do not develop skills on a timetable that’s strict. For instance, some youngsters begin to walk at the age of nine months while some do not take their initial steps until the age of fifteen months. Both of these infants are within the typical range of development. (Biggs, 2012) The types of delays that are short lived when babies catch up by themselves usually cause no concern. But for those with cognitive delay is just more than slower in developing. It only means that your young one is far behind in skills than the rest at his or her age. For instance, a child who is not rolling over by the fourth month might just be behind in that single skill. But if she’s not capable of holding her head high and pushing up when lying on his stomach, she is far much behind. That is a sign of delay in development (Scardamalia, 2012).

Any child can be affected by cognitive developmental delays, but there’re factors that are risky. Gender is one of our greatest concerns with a lesser proportion of females being affected than males. For example, autism affects five times the men’s number than women. This can be explained by many conditions of genetics carried by X chromosome. Males have one Y and one X chromosome while the females carry two X chromosomes. With a single X chromosome, the probability of a present abnormality is lesser with females because in female cases there can be a compensation with the 2nd chromosome. (Beilin, 2011)The mother’s background can also affect the child’s chance of being given birth to with a developmental delay. Under 18 mothers, with fewer education years, and mothers who are not married have a greater chance of giving birth to cognitively delayed children. If a pregnant mother uses alcohol or tobacco, she’s putting her kid at a delay risk as well as if not have a prenatal cares that is proper at her early pregnancy stages. There’re are also factors of risk for a child. Underweight and premature are prone to cognitive developmental delays. Multiple births also have greater delay risks as does any youngster with the abnormality of genetics. (Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome).

It’s essential to note that these are just factors of risk. A child or mother can have all these factors of risk and a child may even have a completely normal development because developmental cognitive is a wide term. However, parents who may be worried about their child rate of development are advised to seek out for an expert for evaluation. During this evaluation, the expert will test the ability of a child to communicate, their emotional skills of copying, social talents and their ability to solve and identify talents. He or she will also conduct an interview with the child’s parents, review the medical history of a child and possibly a standardized examination given to the child. (Krus, 2013)

 


There’s evidence that youngsters with Down syndrome are different from infants developing in the deployment and development of their attentional resources and have known impairments of neurology. For instance, differences in early infancy and in utero have been found, in the infant habituation rate with Down syndrome (Shaidullah, 2012). They also show various visual preference patterns in early stages of infancy (Fantz & Miranda, 2013). Correspondingly, when carrying out processing tasks of information, individuals with Down syndrome show differences amplitudes of events of the brain. These differences are likely to be consequences of developmental and structural differences of the cortex and frontal lobes

Relying on the diagnosis for what caused the delay in development there’re many options of treatment. If there’s genetic or medical reason for the delay, then the experts will work with the guardians to generate a plan of treatment to maximize the development of a child. Some young individuals like those with Down syndrome or autism, can develop sets that are remarkable with constant treatment and early intervention. (Gump, 2014)  Others with essential medical complications may work hard to develop skills that are far beyond the early stages of infancy. If the delay in development is environmental, like coming from a family that is not stable or a poor background, the progress of development can be aided and monitored by doctors, social services and officials of the school. A youngster with such delays needs treatment in speech form or therapy of language, specialized help in academics or therapy of behavior (Walterss, 2013).

Development is age series-associated changes that may occur over the life span course. Most popular psychologists including Freud Sigmund, Erikson- Erik, Piaget Jean and Kohlberg Lawrence describe development as stage series. Stage is time of development where individuals exhibit typical patterns of behavior and establish various capacities. The different theories of stage share two assumptions: individuals go via stages in a certain order, with every building of stage on capacities that had been developed in the initial stage (Bandura, 2011).

Understanding the development of a child is important because it permits us to appreciate fully the emotional, cognitive, educational, social and economic growth that young individuals go through into early adulthood from birth. Some of the main theories of the development of a child are called grand theories; they try to describe each development aspect, mostly using the staged approach. Theories of child development aim on explaining ways in which children grow and change over childhood course on different development aspects incorporating cognitive, emotional and social growth.  The rest are called mini-theories, they instead aim on a limited development aspect such as social and cognitive growth. (Baldwin, 2015) The following are just few on the many theories of the development of a child that a have been proposed by researchers and theorists. These theories are as follows:

 


The theory of psychoanalytic of the development of a child tends to aim at things like forming the ego. The two basic development theories of psychoanalytic are the theory of Freud Sigmund of the development of psychosis and Erikson-Erik psychosocial development theory. Erik had the belief that every development stage aimed at overcoming conflicts. For instance, the basic conflict during the period of adolescence incorporates establishing a personal sense of identity. Failure or success in handling conflicts at every stage can affect the whole functioning. During the stage of adolescence, for instance, failure for one to develop results of identity in the confusion role. Secondly, behavioral child theories aim at the way interactions in the environment influences conduct and are based on the theorists’ theory like Pavlov Ivan and Watson John. These theories only deal with behaviors that can be observed. This theory is different from other theories of the development of a child because no considerations are given to internal feelings and thoughts. It instead purely focuses on the way experience shapes them.

Theory Cognitive development by theorist Piaget-Jean suggested that youngsters thought differently that adults and then proposed a theory stage of the development of cognitive. He became the first person to note that youngster play roles that are active in gaining world knowledge. Thirdly, the theory of the social development of a child which focuses on the role that caregivers, parents, and peers impact on the development. Some aim on ways the development is influenced by early attachment, while the rest are centered on ways in which youngsters learn by watching individuals in their surroundings.  Some of the instances of social theories of the development of a child include theory of attachment, sociocultural and learning theory. As you can see these theories have been developed by famous thinkers of psychology to aid in explaining and exploring child development aspects. (Bosman, 2012) These theories have a significant influence on our comprehending of the development of a child though not all of them are fully permitted. In the today’s society, psychologists usually draw on various perspectives and theories so as to understand ways in which children think, grow and behave. (Segal, 2007)

A chart of milestone with evidence- age based can be of value that’s tremendous in surveillance, aiding guardians in learning more about the development of a child and teaching those residing on ways to identify atypical and typical development. Traditionally, clinicians are not aware of the time when delays of the milestone are considered because typical ages of attainments of development exist within the range and percentiles that are referenced are lacking on charts available on clinics. The skills of the development of half of the youngsters fall below the 45th percentile, which could lead to guardians concluding falsely that their young one is delayed or reassured falsely when mild to moderate delays are experienced by the child. Clinicians and residents need to be aware of the time to be concerned; therefore, upper range limits have more surveillance utility (Paul, 2007).

 


Use of milestone ages for surveillance of development is a recommendation that is weak based on a high sensitivity of instruments of screening and evidence of low quality for various milestone ages; it’s expected that detections of the problems present will be missed. High evidence quality for skills of self-care and gross motor at a percentile age of 90 which suggests that they might be of use in delays identification because typical development varies. The judgment of the clinic must be utilized to determine the delays’ significance in environmental context and interplay with the debt in other sectors to choose on the right action of the clinic. (Quon,2008). Despite the low evidence quality for social-emotional, cognitive and communication ages, utilizing them during the taking of history enhances the understanding of the clinician of the typical development in areas that are less familiar with traditions (Andokon, 1982). As a tool of surveillance, the chart of red flags is expected to enhance the rates of detection. Surveillance is very essential, putting into consideration the economic benefits from investing in the intervention of childhood development. In the meantime, I suggest that clinicians should consider the use of screener when flags with red color are identified, to increase specificity and sensitivity referral thresholds (McCall, 2013).

Conclusion

In conclusion, all clinicians of pediatric should carry out surveillance of development to promote a development that’s healthy and identify youngsters who may have problems of development. Surveillance needs comprehending of developmental milestones and trajectories. Milestone ages should be based on the evidence to represent all sectors of development. There’re fewer guidelines available to date in Canada, regarding the utilization of standardized instruments of screening, though these screeners increase the rate of detection of youngsters at risks of disorders of development. Interventions may be initiated before the completion of a diagnostic assessment. (Quaseem,2007)  

 

References

Andokon, J. (2012). Acquisition of cognitive skill: Psychological Review.

Arlin, P. (2015). Cognitive Development in adulthood. A fifth stage developmental psychology.

Baldwin. (2015). Mental development in the child and the race . NewYork: Macmillan.

Bandura, A. (2009). Analysis of modelling processes. Chicago: Atherton.

Beilin, H. (2008). Developmental Stages and developmental process. NewYork: McGraw-Hill.

Biggs, J. a. (2007). Evaluating the Quality of Learning : The SOLO Taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning outcome). NewYork: Academic Press.

Brickhard, M. (2008). The nature of development stages. Human Development.

Broughton, J. (2009). Piaget's structural develoment psychology III. Function and the problem of knowledge.

C Bosman, D. A. (2012). Anticipatory guidance for cognitive and social-emotional Development. Birth to 5 years :Pediatric Child Health.

Gump, B. a. (2014). Big school, Small school. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Krus, B. a. (2013). An ordering theoritic method to determine hierachies among items Educational and Psychological Measurement.

McCall, A. a. (2013). Design and Analysis in Developmental psychology.

Paul, R. (2007). Language Disorders from Infancy through Adoloescence-Assessment and Intervention. St Louis.

Quaseem A, S. S. (2007). Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disesase: a clinical practice guideline from the American college of physicians. Annals of Internal medicine.

Quon BS, G. W. (2008). Contemporary management of acute exacerbations of COPD. A systemmatic review of metaanalysis, Chest.

Rumaine, B. B. (2013). Logical Reasoning Handbook of Psychology vol.3 . Cognitive Development. NewYork.

Scardamalia, M. B. (2012). From conversation to composition: The role of instruction in a developmental process vol2. Hillsdale.

Segal E, T. A. (2007). Compliance of osteoporotic patients with different treatment regimens. Isr Med Assoc J.

Walterss, R. B. (2009). Social Learning and Personality Development. NewYork: Holt,Rinehant And Wilson.

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