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Comparison Of Physicians From Two Hospitals

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Is There A Relationship Between Health And Human Rights?

Is Homophobia Still A Problem In Healthcare Today?

Is Economic Inequality A Threat To Good Health?




Nursing practice since it equips nurses with new ways with which to discern the needs of different patients. This assignment supports the view that sociology is vital in nursing practice and it helps nurses to develop a sociological imagination. Sociological perspective enables nurses to embrace holism when delivering care and causes them not to focus on biomedical aspect only.


The value of sociology in nursing practice

Sociology gives nurses an approach to practice, supported by critical thinking, analytic as well as questioning, which is important to identify and meet patient needs. This kind of nursing practice is known as reflective practice and can close the theory-practice gap (Green & Earle, 2005). The knowledge of sociology allows nurses to understand the psychology and social needs of the patients. Besides, sociology instils sociological imagination among nurses. In this case, the nurses can have a sociological viewpoint rather than biomedical view when examining and caring for a patient. For instance, sociology enables nurses to appreciate that old age is a socially constructed category (Green & Earle, 2005). Hence, sociology entails both the acquisition of knowledge and cultivation of new ways of looking at the world. 

Since sociology enhances the understanding of social and psychological needs of a patient, it promotes holistic care of patients. The justification of sociology is that nurses view patients as people in the context of their society and pathology. Another justification is that nursing students understand the holistic needs of the patient as well as their families. This knowledge opens a new opportunity for patient care since it enables nurses to discern the patient’s personality and their circumstances (Cooke, 1993).

In the health profession, there is an understanding and acknowledgement that health is determined by various factors such as social and cultural. Nurses thus require the knowledge of the determinants of health, which can be achieved through sociology (Matthews, 2015). This understanding would enable them to view each patient as a person with different needs from those of their social groups. Sociology allows nursing students to have an overview of the different patients they are likely to meet during their practice.

An understanding of the patient’s social setting offers a substantial insight into how they perceive the world, specifically their experiences of care and health. This enables nurses to reflect on the kind of care they deliver to patients from diverse social backgrounds (McPherson, 2008). When offering this kind of care, nurses exhibit a transformation of thought, which is a radical shift from initially held values and beliefs. The shift can be applied to the distinction between training and education, which when transferred into suitable action by nurses would be appropriate as required by the nursing profession.

As evident in this discussion, sociology is vital in nursing because it cultivates new ways of thinking and understanding patient needs. Hence, sociology is an integral part of studies. It will differentiate nurses from other medical students. Nurses would be distinguished by their sociological imagination, which allows them to deliver holistic care instead of focusing on biomedical aspect.

There is a significant relationship between health and human rights. The promotion of human rights results in improved health in the community, mainly in the vulnerable and economically disadvantaged communities. This assignment aims to support this view with evidence from scholarly literature. The international human rights law has recognied that health can be promoted by observing the social, cultural and economic rights of people.


The relationship between health and human rights

The first argument that supports the view of this assignment is that violation of human rights results in adverse health outcomes. Violation of human rights always leads to mortality and morbidity (Hunt, 2006). Asylum practices and policies violating human rights are linked to psychological health effects. Torture and mandatory detention of innocent people including asylum seekers might have far-reaching health impacts (Johnston, Allotey, Mulholland, & Markovic, 2009). On the other hand, healthcare programmes have an important contribution towards the achievement of human rights. The right to health, which is a human right, expands beyond health care to include the determinants of health including substantial sanitation, and safe drinking water. Further, it includes the right of freedom such as the right to a voluntary medical assessment. The right to highest attainable health demands the state to design and implement health care plans with the involvement of the communities. Literature suggests that pro-poor health policy has to address some issues of human rights such as access to education and information on control and prevention of health problems in local communities (Hunt, 2006).

The second argument that supports the thesis of this assignment is the aspect of rights-based public health nursing care. Based on this principle, nurses deliver indivisible and interdependence care. Indivisible insinuates that all rights including political and civil have equal status and ranks. Interdependence, on the other hand, proposes that the realisation of one right depends on the realisation of the other. Other aspects of nursing care that apply to this view are inclusion, accountability and equality. Evidently, health professionals are mandated to offer care without discrimination, be accountable to the promotion of human rights and promote the right of equality (Ivanov & Oden, 2013). When considering these aspects, it is clear that health is related to human rights. A healthcare professional cannot achieve the aim of offering the highest attainable care without promoting human rights.

The last argument is that the promotion of human rights has been found to advance sexual health. For sexual health to be advanced, several values are required including respect, protection as well as the fulfilment of human rights. Decriminalisation of consensual sex and making sexual health information available has led to the improvement of sexual health (Kismödi, Cottingham, Gruskin, & Miller, 2015). This finding expounds the view of human rights and health. Human rights guarantee the access to medical services and healthy working environment, which reduces the risk of adverse health outcomes.

Human rights are related to health, meaning that promotion of human rights leads to good health. Based on this viewpoint, health professionals, the government and pertinent stakeholders are required to promote human rights. The rights to education, access to health information, and access to health care services play an important role in advancing health.

Homophobia is a still a problem in healthcare today. In fact, Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, and Transgenders (LGBT) experience immense discrimination and prejudice in accessing and using health care services. This assignment aims to discuss the prevalence of homophobia in healthcare today and the tenets that advance homophobic ideas. The essay supports its argument with peer-reviewed studies.

The problem of homophobia in healthcare today

A significant proportion of the mental health professionals have negative views about the gay men and lesbians. Studies have found that about one-third of mental healthcare professionals have negative attitudes towards LGBT communities (Morgan & Nerson, 1993). Homosexuality is perceived as non-criminal, although it is thought to be pathological. The viewpoint of mental healthcare professionals towards lesbians and gays is shaped through training. It has been found that the training of mental health providers does not substantially focus on the mental health problems of gay men and lesbians (Morgan & Nerson, 1993). Studies have concluded that although major strides have been made towards addressing homophobia in healthcare, more work is still needed.

Besides, LGBT patients face discrimination in the healthcare due to heterosexist and homophobic perspectives of health professionals and nurses. Heterosexism is the belief that all people have be heterosexual and that other sexual orientations are unhealthy and a threat to the society (Irwin, 2007). Heterosexism and homophobia views might affect the gay men and lesbians access to healthcare in different ways. Some healthcare professionals may define health issues of LGBT as marginal or negligible since they impact a small number of people in the society. Admission forms in healthcare institutions that require clients to identify themselves as married, divorced or widowed further exhibit discrimination against LGBT in accessing healthcare (Irwin, 2007). In Australia, there are reports that LGBT people experience discrimination when seeking care and some decided to conceal their sexual orientation to healthcare professionals for fear of discrimination.

Recent studies present specific examples of discrimination against gay men and lesbians in healthcare facilities. Gay men and lesbians assert that they leave primary care settings with unmet needs. These unmet needs include annual physical examinations and screening for specific sexual diseases.  Besides, gay men and lesbians note that medical doctors do not spend sufficient time with them compared to heterosexual people. Another aspect is respect, where LGBT people feel that they are disrespected by the healthcare providers (Jabson, Mitchell, & Doty, 2016). Lesbians and gay men report experiencing harassment when seeking healthcare services.  Lesbians argue that they encounter atmospheres of humiliation and intimidation in healthcare settings. They interpret such environment as hostile and consequently fear for their safety in health care interactions (Stevens, 1992).

As evident in this assignment, homophobia is a significant issue in the health-care today. This problem can be addressed by integrating LGBT health-related content in education curricula. Health professionals required information on how to offer competent care to lesbians and gay men. In addition, they require skills of communicating with LGBT without using offensive language. This approach will help to address the issue of homophobia in healthcare.

Economic inequality is a threat to good health in both developed and developing countries. Affluent people in the society tend to have better health compared to the less disadvantaged people. This aspect is attributed to the difference in accessing better health care services as well as healthy diets. This assignment will use week four readings on wealth, inequality and health to support the view.


Economic inequality is a threat to good health

Various indicators reveal that economic inequality is a significant threat to good health. Economically disadvantaged individuals are likely to die of diseases such as diabetes. Even normal incidences like homicide and accidental injury tend to occur to the people with low incomes. It has been found that females with a family income of under $10,000 have a high risk of dying from diabetes and heart disease than those with incomes of above $25,000 (Reuss, 2001). Also, people with low incomes are more likely to live without health insurance, which increases the risk of poor health outcomes.

Approximately, 44 percent of poor people in the U.S. lack health insurance. These poor adults with health problems are half likely to see a health professional as adults with high-income. Further, adults living in low socio economic regions are more likely to be hospitalised for health problems that could have been effectively managed in outpatient. Men with low incomes are about six times as likely as wealthy wealth men to experience hypertension (Reuss, 2001). Individuals with low incomes face several other factors that affect their health negatively. They have low chances of getting regular exercise and eat high-fat diets, which are risk factors for chronic diseases.

A specific example of how economic inequality threatens good health is the case of aboriginal Australians. The aboriginal Australians have shorter life expectancy compared to the non-aboriginal Australians because of inequality that can also be viewed as inequity (Leeder, 2003).  The adverse health of the aboriginal Australians is attributable to social and educational achievements. The definition of equity in accessing healthcare for disadvantaged people in the community is different from the wealthy people. Economic inequality also affects the affordability of health services. Low social, economic status affects the direct and indirect costs in accessing healthcare services (Bleich, Jarlenski, Bell, & LaVeist, 2012). Poor people are unable to afford fundamental medicines and medical tests. These factors, in turn, lead to worsening health and eventually death.  Zhao and colleagues did a study to determine the association between health outcomes and socioeconomic disadvantage in Australia. Their study found a strong link between low socioeconomic status and morbidity and mortality. They unravelled that the economically disadvantaged people in Northern Territory of Australia (NT) are more likely to face mortality than the affluent counterparts (Zhao, You, Wright, Guthridge, & Lee, 2013).



Conclusively, economic inequality is a key threat to good health in the society. This finding indicates that good health can be promoted by addressing the economic inequality. In Australia, the poor access to health by the aboriginal community can be addressed by empowering them economically and their increasing education level.



Bleich, S., Jarlenski, M., Bell, C., & LaVeist, T. (2012). Health inequalities: trends, progress, and policy. Annual review of public health , 33, 7-40.

Cooke, H. (1993). Why teach sociology. Nurse Education Today , 13, 210-216.

Green, B., & Earle, S. (2005). Why Should Nurses Study Socioloy? In E. Denney, & S. Earle, Sociology for Nurses. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Hunt, P. (2006). The Human Rights to the Highest Attainable Standards of Health: New operating and challenges. Journal of the Royal Society of Tropicla Medicine and Hygiene , 100, 603-607.

Irwin, L. (2007). Homophobia and Heterosexim: Implications for nursing and nursing practice. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing (25), 70-76.

Ivanov, L., & Oden, T. (2013). Public health nursing, ethics and human rights. Public Health Nursing , 30 (3), 231-238.

Jabson, J., Mitchell, J., & Doty, S. (2016). Associations between non-discrimination and training policies and physicians’ attitudes and knowledge about sexual and gender minority patients: a comparison of physicians from two hospitals. BMC public health , 16 (1), 256.

Johnston, V., Allotey, P., Mulholland, K., & Markovic, M. (2009). Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study. BMC international health and human rights , 9 (1), 1.

Kismödi, E., Cottingham, J., Gruskin, S., & Miller, A. (2015). Advancing sexual health through human rights: The role of the law. Global public health , 10 (2), 252-267.

Leeder, S. (2003). Achieving Equity in the Australian Healthcare System. Medical Journal of Australia , 179, 475-478.

Matthews, D. (2015). Can sociology help to improve nursing practice? Nursing Times , 111 (41), 18-20.

McPherson, N. (2008). The role of sociology in nurse education: a call for consistency. Nurse Education Today , 28, 653-656.

Morgan, K., & Nerson, R. (1993). Homosexuality and Psychopolitics: An project-management overview. Psychotherapy , 30 (1), 133-140.

Reuss, A. (2001). Cause of Death: Inequality. Dollars & Sense , 235, 10-12.

Stevens, P. (1992). Lesbian health care research: a review of the literature from 1970 to 1990. Health Care for Women International , 13 (2), 91-120.

Zhao, Y., You, J., Wright, J., Guthridge, S., & Lee, A. (2013). Health inequity in the northern territory, Australia. International journal for equity in health , 12 (1), 79.

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