Discuss about the Componential Model of Creative Performance for Theory.
The componential theory of creative performance is a model that explains the social and cognitive components that an individual requires to produce creative work. The model has a broad application in which it can be applied in both academic institutions and the corporate world. According to this theory, creativity is an art and science of producing novel ideas that are necessary and appropriate in actualizing a particular goal (Amabile, 2012). The model has four key features or components that can be broadly classified into two categories: elements within the individual, domain-relevant skills, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation and component outside the individual that is the individual’s social environment.
Creative domain-relevant skills consist of knowledge, technical skills, expertise, talent, and intelligence that an individual holds in a particular domain. It also includes factual knowledge and familiarity of the domain in question such as in product design or chemistry. Usually, the accurate knowledge is derived from the formal education. The nature of the domain-relevant skills significantly affects the degree of creativity exhibited. For instance, an individual that has a conscious understanding of the general principle surrounding a particular domain question will be more creative than a person with narrow collections of facts (Amabile, 2012). Creative domain skills form a foundation from which a problem solver can draft possible response or solutions to a given domain problem. Similarly, an individual can use this knowledge to assess the viability of postulated reaction.
Creative thinking skills otherwise termed as the creativity-relevant process includes cognitive processes characterized by the ability understanding complexities and an aptitude to break perceptual set during problem-solving. Similarly, it takes into account the cognitive process and personality traits that are necessary for taking a novel perspective on problems and skills of generating new ideas (Amabile & Pratt, 2016). The cognitive processes entail the ability to deploy broad and flexible categories for synthesizing information as well as the aptitude to break out of the standard perceptual scripts. Creative thinking process involves a working model attributed with the ability to concentrate effort on a particular problem for a considerable period. The ideal personality characteristics include self-discipline, patience, independence, perseverance from frustration, and tolerance of ambiguity. According to this mode, more creative work or responses are generated when individuals undertake activities that suspend judgment during brainstorming, entertains response options, and applies broad categories in connecting several bits of information (Simonton, 2012). Creative thinking skills are enhanced through training and experience in generating novel ideas.
Task motivation is also an essential feature in the componential model of creative performance. There are two forms of task motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. The former is centered on the passion. Intrinsically motivated individual to undertake a task simply because it is satisfying, involving, exciting, or personally challenging (Cerasoli, Nicklin & Ford, 2014). In extrinsic motivation, the individual is motivated to work as a result of rewards, evaluation, surveillance, or work requirements. This model emphasizes the importance of intrinsic task motivation: it argues that individuals tend to be creative when they are motivated by intrinsic factors such as passion, interest, and satisfaction.
The social environment feature of the componential theory of creativity takes into account the extrinsic motivators that can potentially undermine or stimulate intrinsic motivation (Amabile & Pillemer, 2012). It also includes social factors that serve as stimulants or obstacles to creativity. Norms of criticism of new ideas and emphasis of the status quo have shown to limit creativity; however, factors such as real challenges within school or work, teamwork, and freedom in excessing new ideas have proved to stimulate intrinsic motivation and creativity.
The componential model of creative performance can be integrated into learning programs as a strategy to enhance creativity among students in the discipline of sciences. In a science-based subject classroom, teachers should ensure that learners are engaged in building their domain relevant skills in regards to the specific discipline such as in biology, chemistry, earth sciences, and physics. Therefore, educators should offer comprehensive academic content that will enable students to have sound knowledge in science-based subjects. To enhance creative thinking process, the educator should give students the liberty to formulate a hypothesis and practical methodologies detailing how they will execute a particular experiment. During the process of developing the hypothesis, the learners can exercise their creative thinking skills. In case the experiment fails to produce results that are in line with their hypothesis or the expected results, the students will be intrinsically motivated to find out what they need to amend in their methodologies to obtain the desired results. Similarly, educators should engage learners in project-based learning: this further enhances intrinsic motivation. Moreover, teachers should enhance a social environment that encourages new ideas, expression, innovation, and brainstorming.
It is clear that componential model of creative performance, when implemented efficiently, can significantly boost creativity among student. The model specifies that creativity requires a convergence of domain-relevant skills, creative, relevant process, task motivation, and social environment. Therefore, the highest degree of creativity is achieved when an intrinsically motivated individual with a sound domain knowledge and excellent creative thinking skills works in a social environment that encourages creativity.
Amabile, T. (2012). Componential theory of creativity (pp. 3-4). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
Amabile, T. M., & Pillemer, J. (2012). Perspectives on the social psychology of creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 46(1), 3-15.
Amabile, T. M., & Pratt, M. G. (2016). The dynamic componential model of creativity and innovation in organizations: Making progress, making meaning. Research in Organizational Behavior, 36, 157-183.
Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 140(4), 980.
Simonton, D. K. (2012). Teaching creativity: Current findings, trends, and controversies in the psychology of creativity. The teaching of Psychology, 39(3), 217-222.