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Describe about the Computer Crime and Security Survey?



Networking of Wireless gives many benefits: Productivity will recover as of raised the convenience to resources of information. Reconfiguration and configuration of network is faster, easier, and reduce the expensive. Though, technologies of wireless which will creates threats which is new and modify the information security which is existing one of risk report. Just for example, since a connection takes position "through air" with frequencies of radio, the interception of risk is superior to network which is wired. Though networking of wireless modifies the risk which is connected with different threats to the security, the generally objective of security stay the similar as with networks which is wired: confidentiality which is preserved, integrity ensured, and maintaining the information which is available and systems of information. The aim of this document is to aid managers in creation of such results by giving them with the essential considerate of nature for different threats which is connected with networking of wireless and accessible countermeasures. The advantages of Networks of wireless comprise: Productivity, Mobility, Convenience, Cost, Expandability and Deployment.

Network technology of Wireless, whereas stuffed with benefits of conveniences as illustrated over has its downfalls share. The majority of these contain with the limits of inherent of technology. The drawbacks of using the network of wireless are: Range, Security, Speed and Reliability. Networks of Wireless present the issues of host for managers of network. Most network investigation vendors like Instruments of Network, General Network, and the Fluke, which will propose troubleshooting tools of WLAN or functionalities of product stroke.

Wireless Vulnerabilities, Countermeasures and Threats

Networks of wireless contain 4 components which are basic: The broadcast data by frequencies of radio; points of Access which will give the association to network managerial and/or devices of Client (PDAs, laptops etc.); and the Users. Every component will give an opportunity for assault which will outcome in cooperation of one or more of 3 fundamental with objective of security for availability, reliability and confidentiality.

Wireless Networking Components

Network Attacks of Wireless

In today’s IT enabled environment we are moving from wired networks to wireless networs.As the number of wireless networks are increases the risk of network attacks also increases same time. There are couples of known treats as below:

Accidental connection

Unofficial access to business of networks for wireless and wired will come from the number of various intents and techniques. One of the techniques is referred as “accidental connection”. When the user rotates on the computer and it handles on to the access point of wireless from the overlapping system of neighboring firms, the user should not still know that it has happened. This is particularly true if laptop is also enthusiastic to the network which is wired.

Malicious connection

 “Malicious connections” are when plans which are wireless which can be aggressively made by crazy to attach to the firm through network by cracking laptop in its place of the firm access point (AP). The laptop types are called as the “soft APs” and they are generated when the cracker runs few of the software which creates his/her network of wireless card which will look like the access point which is genuine. Once the cracker has increased the access, he/she will steal the passwords; commence attacks on network which is wired, or the plant the trojans.

The Ad-hoc networks

Networks which are Ad-hoc will pretense the threat of the security. Networks of Ad-hoc are distinct as networks of peer-topeer among computers of wireless which do not have the point of access among them. Whereas these networks types regularly have slight protection, techniques which are encryption can be used to give security.

The Non-traditional networks

Networks which are Non-traditional like private network and devices of Bluetooth will not be safe from furious and must be observed as the risk of security. Every reader of barcode, PDAs handheld, and the printers of wireless and copiers would be protected. The networks of nontraditional can be simply unnoticed by employees of IT who have barely paying attention on access points and laptops.


Individuality to stealing (MAC spoofing)

Individuality to stealing (or the MAC spoofing) happens when the cracker is capable to snoop in traffic system and recognize the address of MAC of the computer with rights of network. Many systems of wireless permit some sort of filtering tool of MAC to only permit computers which are authorized with precise MAC IDs which will increase network utilize and access.

Attacks of Man-in-the-middle

The attackers of man-in-the-middle persuade systems to log into the system which will be set up the soft AP (Access Point). Formerly that will be done, the attach of hacker to the actual access point during another card of wireless contribution the steady traffic flow during the translucent computer hacking to real network. The forces of attack with computers AP-connected to fall their connections and reconnect with cracker’s soft AP. Attacks of Man-in-the-middle are improved by software like AirJack and LANjack, which computerize multiple steps of process.

The Denial of service

The attack of Denial-of-Service (DoS) happens when the assailant frequently barrages the embattled AP (Access Point) or bogus requests with network, untimely victorious messages of connection, disappointment messages, and/or some other commands. The attacks rely on protocols abuse like the Extensible Substantiation Protocol (EAP).

The Network insertion

In the network insertion attack, the cracker will make use of the access points which are uncovered to the system traffic which is non-filtered, particularly broadcasting traffic of network like “Spanning Tree” (802.1D), HSRP, RIP and OSPF. The cracker inserts counterfeit networking commands of re-configuration which influence intelligent hubs, switches and routers.

Attack of Caffe Latte

The assault of Caffe Latte is an additional means to overcome WEP. It is not essential for attacker to be area of system by this utilize. By the process that targets Windows stack of wireless, it is probable to attain the key of WEP from the remote client. By distributing the flood of request of encrypted ARP, the attacker takes benefit of authentication for shared key and modification of message flaws in WEP 802.11. The attackers use the responses of ARP to attain the key of WEP in less than 6 minutes.


Implement Security in Wireless Network:

Wireless Networks can be secure in various ways like securing transmission, protecting access points or devices, educate users of network and auditing on networks. We can Use an Modem from Netgear DGND3700 to help User to avoid security issues in wireless communication.

Securing the Wireless Transmissions

The character of communications which is wireless which generates three essential threats: Disruption, Alternation and Interception.

Protecting Privacy of Transmissions which are Wireless

DGND3700 uses 2 counter measures types survive for decreasing the eavesdropping risk on transmissions of wireless. The first engages techniques for creating it additional hard to situate and interrupt the signals of wireless. The 2nd engages the use of the encryption for confidentiality protect even if signal of wireless is intercepted.

Techniques of Signal-Hiding

In sort to interrupt transmissions of wireless, attackers primary require to recognize and situate networks of wireless. The easiest and least costly include the following:

From DGND3700 modem we can Turning off the service set identifier (SSID) broadcasting and Assign cryptic names to SSIDs, Reducing signal strength to the lowest level that still provides requisite coverage or Locating wireless access points in the interior of the building, away from windows and exterior walls.


The finest technique for securing the confidentiality of transmitted information over networks of wireless is to encrypt all traffic of wireless. This is particularly significant for firms subject to the regulations. DGND3700 have features to provide this.

Securing Alteration of Communications Intercepted

 Alteration and Interception of transmissions wireless symbolizes the form of attack "man-in-the middle". DGND3700 can appreciably decrease the risk of these attacks: encryption and authentication will be strong of both users and devices.

Countermeasures to Decrease the Denial-of-Service Risk Attacks

Communications Wireless is also susceptible to attacks of denial-of-service (DoS). Firms can obtain numerous steps to decrease the risk of these accidental DoS attacks. Cautious site examination can recognize site where the signals from additional devices stay alive; conclusions of these surveys would be used when choosing where to situate access points wireless.

Protecting Access Points Wireless

Unconfident, badly configured access points wireless can cooperation privacy by permitting unauthorized network access.

Countermeasures to Protect Access Points Wireless

Use of  DGND3700  can decrease the hazard of illegal admission to networks wireless by getting those 3 steps:

Eradicating scoundrel access points;
Correctly configuring all the access points which are authorized; and
Use 802.1x to devices which are authenticate.

Eradicate Rogue Access Points

The finest technique for selling with hazard of rogue the access points to utilize 802.1x on networks of agitated to validate DGND3700 device which are stop into network. Use 802.1x will stop any illegal devices from network which is linking.

Protect Configuration of Certified Access Points

Companies also require making sure that all certified access points wireless are firmly configured on DGND3700. It is particularly significant to modify all settings which is default as they are well known and can be subjugated by attackers.

Utilize 802.1x to all Devices to Authenticate

Strong verification of plans effecting to attach to network which can avoid access point’s rogue and other illegal devices from starting anxious backdoors. The protocol 802.1x converse previous gives the means for powerfully validating devices preceding to transmission them addresses of IP.

Protecting Wireless Networks

We can protect wireless networks by using encryption or firewall or antivirus software.

Encryption usage

The mainly efficient way to protect the network of wireless from interloper is for encrypt, or mix up, communications over system. Main routers of wireless like DGND3700, base stations and access points have the mechanism of built-in encryption.

Use anti-spyware and anti-virus software, and the firewall

Computers on the system which is wireless require the similar protections as the computer which is connected to Internet. Install anti-spyware and anti-virus software, and remain them up-to-date. If the firewall was shipped in “off” mode, which turn it on.


Turn off broadcasting identifier

Main routers of wireless have the mechanism known as broadcasting identifier. It will send out the signal to the device in vicinity announcing its attendance. Hackers can use broadcasting identifier to the home in the wireless network which is vulnerable. Disable the mechanism of broadcasting identifier if the router which is wireless allows it.

Modify the default modem identifier

The modem DGND3700 which is going to identify is almost certainly to be on standard, allocated the ID which is default by the producer to the hardware. Hence, if modem will not be recognized as broadcasting for the world, then hackers will identify the IDs which are default and then it can use them for trying for the network of the access. Alter the identifier which is unbelievable only to recognize, and remember to systematize the ID which is unique which is comparable into modem which is wireless and the computer consequently they can converse. Use the password which is at least long as 10 characters: If the password which you have used is longer then it will be difficult for the hackers to crack it.

Modify the pre-set password of modem DGND3700 for the administration

The producer of the modem which is wireless almost certainly assigned it the default password which is standard which will permit to set up and then activate the  device.  The passwords which is default can be known by Hackers very easily, so try to use the one which can’t be known by anyone somewhat complex and long. If the password which you have used is longer then it will be difficult for the hackers to crack it.

Permit only precise computers to admission your network which is wireless

Each computer that is capable to converse with the assigned network to its own exclusive address for Media Access Control (MAC). DGND3700 which are wireless typically permit only devices through exacting address of MAC admission to network. Few hackers have impersonated addresses of MAC, so don’t depend on this step only.

Turn off the network which is wireless when you identify you don’t use it

Hackers will not right of entry the modem DGND3700 which is wireless when it will be shut down. If the DGND3700 will be turn off then you will not using it, then bound the quantity of time which is vulnerable to the hack.


Users will get Educating and Training

It will comprise users as basic component for the fourth of networking which is wireless. As the case of security with wired, users are components of key to the networking security of the wireless. Certainly, the significance of education and training users about protected behavior of wireless cannot be showy.


Networking of the Wireless gives several opportunities to raise the costs which will be cut down and the productivity. It also modifies the firm’s on the whole risk profile of the computer security. Even though it is impracticable to completely eradicate all risks which are associated with networking of wireless, it is probable to attain the level which is reasonable for the security of overall by just adopting the methodical technique for risk management and assessment.



[1] Graham, E., Steinbart, P.J. (2006) Wireless Security

[2] Cisco. (2004). Dictionary attack on Cisco LEAP vulnerability, Revision 2.1, July 19.

 [3] CSI. (2004). CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey.

[4] Hopper, D. I.(2002). Secret Service agents probe wireless networks in Washington.

[5] Kelley, D. (2003). The X factor: 802.1x may be just what you need to stop intruders from accessing your network. Information Security, 6(8), 60-69.

[6] Kennedy, S. (2004). Best practices for wireless network security. Information Systems Control Journal (3).

[7] McDougall, P. (2004, March 25). Laptop theft puts GMAC customers’data at risk. Information Week Security Pipeline.

[8] Nokia. (2003). Man-in-the-middle attacks in tunneled authentication protocols

[9] Paladugu, V., Cherukuru, N., & Pandula, S. (2001). Comparison of security protocols for wireless communications.

[10] Slashdot. (2002, August 18). Wardriving from 1500ft Up.

[11] Stoneburner, G., Goguen, A., & Feringa, A. (2002, July). Risk management guide for information technology systems. NIST Special Publication 800-30.

[12] Wailgum, T. (2004, September 15). Living in wireless denial. CIO Magazine.

[13] Jason, 2013, Difference between WEP, WPA and WPA2,

[14] Bowman, Barb, 2008, “WPA Wireless Security for Home Networks,”

[15] Dolcourt, Jessica, 2006, “How to secure your wireless network.”

[16] Collins, Hilton, 2008, “Critical Steps for Securing Wireless Networks and Devices.” Government Tecnology, <>

[17] Gast, Matthew, 2005, Wireless Networks: The Definitive Guide, Second Edition

[18] Potter, Bruce and Fleck, Bob, 2002, 802.11 Security. Sebastopol

[19] Negrino, Tom and Smith, Dori, 2003, Mac OS X Unwired

[20] Ross, John, 2008, The Book of Wireless: A Painless Guide to Wi-Fi and Broadband Wireless=

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