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Discuss about the Research Methodology.


Research Design

The cross sectional analysis is chosen in which the data is collected from the population or a subset at a particular time. This method is widely used in nursing or healthcare settings as large amount of data can be collected at very less expense. The cross-sectional design is chosen as it might involve special data collection and focus on a specific subject. For the purpose of this research, the relationship between perception of nurses and conflict regarding professionalism can be analysed using cross-sectional design (Ausserhofer et al., 2014).

Research Setting

The subject of this research study is the nurses in Saudi Arabia. Three health-care organizations in Saudi Arabia were selected to conduct the research study. Three kinds of nurses shall be targeted for the research study: First line nurse managers, middle level nurse managers and bedside nurses. These nurses shall be provided with the questionnaire form as attached in Appendix 2. The results generated from the survey shall be analysed by the researcher to build arguments and implement in several educational fields (Gerrish, Lacey & Cormack, 2012).

Population Sample

A total population of 300 nurses shall participate in the study. Through simple random sampling, a sample size of 200 participants shall be selected. Simple random sampling is a probability sampling method in which every participant has an equal chance of being chosen.  Only the survey forms that have fully been answered shall be chosen as a part of the research study (Levy & Lemeshow, 2013).



The data for this research study is collected using a questionnaire containing the instruments: Perceived Conflict Scale and Valiga Concept of Nursing Scale (Zakari, Al Khamis, & Hamadi, 2010).

The Perceived Conflict Scale is designed to measure the level of conflict with 16 items on a Liker-type scale. The items are classified into four subscales that are provided as under:



Intrapersonal Conflict

5, 14, 15, 16

Interpersonal Conflict

1, 2, 3, 4

Intergroup/ Other Departments

6, 7, 8, 9

Intergroup/ Support Conflict

10, 11, 12, 13

Table 1: Classification of Perceived Conflict Scale

Source: Created by Author

The Valiga Concept of Nursing Scale is used to assess professionalism of nurses. The scale has 25 items on a 5-point Likert scale that measures the ideas held by nurses about their profession, role played by them, relationship with their clients, colleagues and other physicians (Kelly & Crawford, 2013). The scores for the responses are provided as under:

Likert Scale Responses


Strongly Agree








Strongly Disagree


Table 2: Scoring for Valiga Concept of Nursing Scale

Source: Created by Author

The total minimum score and maximum score possible is -50 and +50 respectively. The reliability test shall be conducted on this score (Kelly & Crawford, 2013).

Validity & Reliability

The research study shall be able to draw conclusion that would draw relationship between variables. The research shall also be validated by exploring level of conflict and professionalism among nurses in Saudi Arabia. Reliability shall be measured by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient in which the score greater than equal to 60% shall show high reliability. However, the reliability shall be low if the coefficient is less than 60% (Sacks & Volker, 2015).


Data Collection Methods

Data can be collected using primary and secondary methods. For the purpose of this research study, primary data is collected. In primary method of collection, data is directly collected by the researcher for the purpose of research study. The method is chosen as the data is accurate and highly reliable. As the data will be originally collected, subjective bias shall be eliminated. There are two approaches to collecting data- Qualitative and quantitative approach. A variety of techniques and methods in quantitative data collection methods are survey, observation, scales and physiological measurement (Coombs, 2015). This research study shall significantly involve quantitative data as the survey shall be analysed based on numerical data. The questionnaire shall be handed over in the hospital wards with paper and pencil so that the participants can participate in the survey (Dempsey & Reilly, 2016).

Data Analysis

The data collected from the surveys were done using SPSS software package. SPSS or Statistical Package for the Social Science shall be useful to compute complex data. It is chosen as the software also prepares the graphs and charts for the results. Firstly, the collected data shall be entered in the SPSS software package. The data shall be processed for calculating multiple coefficients and relationships (Gunasingam et al., 2015). The quantitative results can be analysed using Pearson correlation analysis to assess the inter-relationships among the quantitative variables. To measure internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to assess reliability. Further, measures of central tendency shall be calculated where mean will be computed. The mean scores will be converted into percentage to compute standard deviation (Glazer, Clark & Bankston, 2015).


Ethical Consideration

This research study shall have ethical considerations to address issues with participants. The participants shall be provided with consent forms that shall state the overall benefits or risks associated with participation. Written consent shall be generated and the consent forms shall be signed by the participants ensuring that they participated in the research study voluntarily. The anonymity or confidentiality of the participants such as name, contact or any responses provided by them shall be maintained. The participants shall not be penalized if they choose to withdraw from the research study at any time. The research study involves no anticipated risk to the participants (Glogowska et al., 2015). Any response provided by the participants shall not affect their nature of employment. No misleading information shall be provided to the research participants. Any bias shall be avoided that would distort the primary result findings. The participants have the right to contact the supervisor or ethics committee if they find any discrepancy in the method of conducting research. None of the research questions in the study was sensitive that could hurt religious, cultural or political sentiments of the participants (Keeling, 2015).

Pilot study

It is important to test the survey before using it to collect data. Pre-test and piloting can help in identifying questions that would lead to biased answers. After preparing the questionnaire, the questions were shown to the colleagues and a few people who are in the nursing field. The questionnaire was administered to 10 people where they were debriefed about the survey (Mensik & Nickitas, 2015). The information provided by them was analyzed to clarify any confusion or directions and revision was done as necessary. Observation was made to analyze the questions where the participants took greater amount of time. The sample of 10 responses were collected, coded and analyzed. The questions that made no relevance were discarded and final revisions were made in the questionnaire. On an average, every participant took 15-20 minutes to complete the survey (Moore, Everly & Bauer, 2016).


Limitation of Study

The research study has certain limitations. The scope of study is limited as it only explores the level of conflict and professionalism. The scope of the study does not cover the strategies adopted by the nurses to avoid conflict or enhance professionalism. The research data collection method adopted for this research is only primary in nature (Costa & Yakusheva, 2016). Therefore, the results are solely based on trustworthiness of the respondents. The secondary data collection is not adopted that ignores the results of previous studies. Another major limitation is that the questionnaire is conducted in English. The primary language of the nurses in hospitals is Arabic and the questionnaire is in English. Therefore, it might be difficult for some nurses to interpret the concrete terms (Gomez-Cantorna et al., 2015).


The above research study shall explore the relationship between levels of conflict among the nurses in association with professionalism. A few influential factors are organizational background and climate. Nursing education is required to improve relationship. The cross-sectional design is chosen as it might involve special data collection and focus on a specific subject. Through simple random sampling, a sample size of 200 participants shall be selected. The two instruments used for collecting data the research study are: Perceived Conflict Scale and Valiga Concept of Nursing Scale. After preparing the questionnaire, the questions were shown to the colleagues and a few people who are in the nursing field. Reliability shall be measured by using Cronbach’s alpha. Three kinds of nurses shall be targeted for the research study: First line nurse managers, middle level nurse managers and bedside nurses.



Coombs, L. A. (2015). The growing nurse practitioner workforce in specialty care. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 11(9), 907-909.

Costa, D. K., & Yakusheva, O. (2016). Why Causal Inference Matters to Nurses: The Case of Nurse Staffing and Patient Outcomes. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(2).

Dempsey C. & Reilly B.A., (2016). Nurse Engagement: What are the Contributing Factors for Success? The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21 (1), 2.

Gerrish, K., Lacey, A., & Cormack, D. (2012). The research process in nursing (1st ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Blackwell Pub.

Glazer, G., Clark, A., & Bankston, K. (2015). Legislative: from policy to practice: a case for holistic review diversifying the nursing workforce. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 20(3).

Glogowska, M., Simmonds, R., McLachlan, S., Cramer, H., Sanders, T., & Johnson, R. et al. (2015). Managing Patients With Heart Failure: A Qualitative Study of Multidisciplinary Teams With Specialist Heart Failure Nurses. The Annals Of Family Medicine, 13(5), 466-471.

Gomez-Cantorna, C., Clemente, M., Fariña-Lopez, E., Estevez-Guerra, G. J., & Gandoy-Crego, M. (2015). The Effect of Personality Type on Palliative Care Nursing Staff Stress Levels. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 17(4), 342-347.

Gunasingam, N., Burns, K., Edwards, J., Dinh, M., & Walton, M. (2015). Reducing stress and burnout in junior doctors: the impact of debriefing sessions. Postgraduate medical journal, 91(1074), 182-187.

Keeling, A., (2015). "Historical Perspectives on an Expanded Role for Nursing" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 20 (2), 2.

Kelly, P. & Crawford, H. (2013). Nursing leadership and management (1st ed.). Toronto: Nelson Education.

Levy, P. & Lemeshow, S. (2013). Sampling of populations (1st ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Mensik J. & Nickitas D.M. (2015). Why Nurse Staffing Matters: A Moral Imperative. Nursing Economics, 33(3), 186-187.

Moore, J. M., Everly, M., & Bauer, R. (2016). Multigenerational Challenges: Team-Building for Positive Clinical Workforce Outcomes. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(2).

Sacks, J. L., & Volker, D. L. (2015). For Their Patients: A Study of Hospice Nurses’ Responses to Patient Suffering. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 17(6), 490-498.

Zakari, N., Al Khamis, N., & Hamadi, H. (2010). Conflict and professionalism: perceptions among nurses in Saudi Arabia. International Nursing Review, 57(3), 297-304.

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