Concerns on Societal Social Lives by Different Type Organizations?
A central theme refers to a unifying theme that cuts across all topics or articles under consideration. It is a theme found to have been discussed in all the writings under study.
The central theme identified after the analysis of the case study and the theoretical perspectives is “The role of different institutions in relation to improvement of the social lives of the society.”In the article about corporate social responsibility, the origin of corporate social responsibility emergence is traced back to 1950s in the USA corporate social responsibility. During that time, businesses that were perceived to be socially responsible did try to make the society better through different activities such as charity donations offering services to the community and improving the welfare of the society. The influential people of that time tried by all means to persuade the managers in various business sectors to value good conduct and help the society out of any social problem that emerged good management. Many writings have been published and their title reflects ideas of how to manage organizations in the current complex world and these all emphasize on people living good lives. In the article as much as many writers advocated for social responsible by businesses, some warned against its misuse claiming tat some managers may misuse corporate social responsibility. A scholar by the name Johnson 1958 said that man has two faces or nature; the angelic nature and the devil nature. The angel nature in man utilizes business to serve a social purpose while the evil part may misuse corporate power and responsibility n that the managers may emphasize on their socially responsible idea to be function yet such philosophy may be just benefiting them to maintain power and continue oppressing the citizens. (Henry, 2009)
The second article that discusses about improvement of social lives is the non-profit article. The non profit organizations may help improve social lives in different ways as discussed below. The first strategy is service provision; always, the government programs are large-scale in nature and uniform. On profit organizations can play vital roles in the society that both the government and profit-oriented organizations are not willing to perform or not able. Non profit organization may also act as change agents in that they are always and mostly the first people to embrace and utilize new ideas .If the new ideas and innovations promoted by the non profit become successful, other service providers especially the government institutions may end up adopting and businesses sell them as new products in the market Businesses and the government may also fail to guard the rights of the society due to different factors but the non profit organization comes in to help guard rights such freedom of worship, ideological rights, and political, cultural and social rights. The outcome of this is a meaningful democracy in the nation that may promote fairness. The critical and postmodernism theories were developed to counteract the contemporary society in which industrial and science have been emphasized too much to extend of ignoring the social aspects of the societies. The two theories emphasize on social development of the society. According to the theories, social aspects in the society matters a lot in the development. (Inic and Bugarcic, 2015)
In most cases, much of the writings used to link organizational structure to performance are divided into two major parts. The first one being the formal structure i.e. the hierarchy of authority or the organization of the relationship and extend of standardization, specialization and formalization. The second division is the informal structure which entails a channel of interpersonal and the relationships within the organization. The structural perspective has the following assumptions; that organizations are formed to accomplish certain objectives and goals as well as to increase efficiency and improve performance through specialization and suitable division of labor. When ones decisions are rational, especially the personal agendas, the organization works best. When designing the structures, one should consider the current circumstances of the organization for instance technology, workforce and the goals and the objectives of the organization. The last assumption is that when problems emerge, the performance of an organization is adversely affected because of its failure on how it is structured. (Marr, 2012)
This theoretical perspective views organization from a political angle. The political frame views organizations as roiling arenas hosting ongoing contests of individual and group interests. Five propositions summarize the perspective and its assumptions are as follows; One is that organizations are coalitions of various individuals and groups whose members have enduring differences in terms of values, beliefs, information and a common perception of reality. In this perspective, the most important decisions made are about the allocation of scare resources. This means that there is some conflict over the little available resources. Because every individual is interested in having the scarce resources, there emerges conflict over these scarce resources. According to this perspective, it is only the powerful people in the society who can be advantaged in terms of resource acquisition and therefore people fight to be in power in order to be able to dominate over others and quire materials
According to this perspective, organizations are viewed as open systems that come into contact with the environment and in the process; they continually adapt and improve as they interact with the environment. The theory holds that the influence between the environment and organizations is two way. That is, organizations influence and are influenced by the environment in which they operate. In order to survive, organizations are required to adjust to accommodate changes in the external environment. Just a system cannot function when part of it fails or changes, the same applies to organizations in that organizations are internally connected and interdependent. A change in one component changes the whole system.
The gender perspective in relation to organizational studies tries to reveal the normative construction and politics of knowledge related to gender and sexuality; its main aim being liberation. Unlike other common explanations of gender on the basis of male-female, is perspective goes beyond this and holds the idea that gender is not only with bodies an power but also with the politics of knowledge, and therefore with organizations as containers of different bodies and sexualities, as platforms of power and knowledge, organization theory as a system of knowledge representation” (Gherardi 2003 in Tsoukas (ed .This thoritical attempte to describe man and woman on different basis. The first ne is the body in that a woman is biologically described on her sexuality and capacity to bear children. Basing on society, culture or politics, gender is determined by the social construction of gender and gender roles. Lastly on the basis of language is that practices and activities used t define a woman are fiction and are sine time immemorial been situated in power relations.
The first example of private sector is Apple, an American multinational technology company headquartered in California that designs, develops and sells consumer electronics, computer software and online services. Volkswagen is a German automaker .It is the flagship marquee of the Volkswagen group. Wells Fargo is a an American international banking and financial services holding company .In its present form, the company was formed by merging San Francisco- based Wells and Minneapolis-based Northwest Corporation. Uber is another example of private sector .It is a transportation network company in the USA. It develops markets and operates Uber car transportation and food delivery mobile apps. (Zgrzywa-Ziemak, 2015)
Non profit organizations are formed with an aim f providing humanitarian assistance and services that both the government and the profit-oriented sectors are not able and willing to provide. The first example of such bodies is YMCA, Amnesty international an organization that focuses on human rights .Its main aim is to research and carry out action to prevent and eradicate human rights abuses, fight for justice that have been ignored and violated. Other organizations of the same kind are the international Red Cross and Red Crescent society, RSPCA ns Medecins Sans Frontiers. Non profit organizations have played important roles in societies especially in social development.
International organizations are the organizations with international membership, presence and scope. These organizations help the member states in different ways for example financial, social, political and humanitarian assistance. Examples are IMF responsible for provision of financial assistance to the members’ states. Other examples are United Nations, World Bank Group, World Trade Organization and World Health Organization. (STUDY ON THE VALUE ADDITION IN ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE, 2014)
Henry, O. (2009). Organisational Conflict and its Effects on Organisational Performance. Research Journal of Business Management, 3(1), pp.16-24.
Inic, B. and Bugarcic, M. (2015). Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations. Tehnika, 70(5), pp.859-865.
Kambi, B. (2012). Team Work For Business Organization Perfomance. Saarbru?cken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
Kostetska, I. and Berezyak, I. (2014). Social entrepreneurship as an innovative solution mechanism of social problems of society. Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development, 36(3), pp.567-577.
Marr, B. (2012). Managing and delivering performance. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
STUDY ON THE VALUE ADDITION IN ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE. (2014). ELK Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resource Management and Organisational Behaviour.
Zgrzywa-Ziemak, A. (2015). The Impact of Organisational Learning on Organisational Performance. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 23(4), pp.98-112.
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