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Design Theory: Module 3

Discuss about the Conducting Educational Design Research.

The reflective journal or report is the documentation of the self assessment and development on the learning outcome. It is a reflection of the weekly blog entries and understanding of the workshops. Below I have mentioned the impact of the workshops conducted.

In the workshop, Module 3 of Design Theory was discussed. Various aspects of the Design Theory were discussed in this workshop. The workshop dealt with the reasoning logic, convergent and divergent thinking, Triple Loop Learning, Action Research, Philosophical view, Creative Learning Spiral, and co-creation or co-design to throw light on Design Theory. I learnt the definition of Design Theory and how this is applied and relevant in the business processes. Design Theory is based on the Design Thinking. According to Glen et al. (2014), Design Thinking is a required approach to deal with the complex and improperly defined issues through analytical perspectives. In the words of Reigeluth (2013), it is a problem solving approach through a creative manner for creating different new values with positive impacts. In the workshop, the fundamental tools of this theory were discussed. I got to learn about Design Logic, Abductive reasoning and deductive reasoning and how those can be done. It was also explained by the instructor what happens in case of reasoning logic without design and in the case of logical reasoning with design. The design incorporates many more logical and scientific steps in the system. Next, the details about the divergent and convergent thinking, their analysis and synthesis and triple loop learning were discussed. In the next topic of Philosophical Worldview, I learnt about Subjectivism and Objectivism. Subjectivism includes Interpretivism and Action Research Methodology. On the other hand, objectivism includes Positivism and Scientific Method. Therefore, the fundamental tools were all taught by the instructor. Some other relevant theories were also highlighted, such as, ideation, creativity theories, left and right brain theories, team working theories, reflection actions, task versus relationship conflicts and decision making theories (Lindner & Rodger, 2017). Through this workshop, I gained knowledge about these aspects of business management and how to incorporate the logical thinking of human beings into some actions or decision making. This will be helpful or me in my future life.

In this workshop, I learnt about the Design Problem, module 4. This workshop focused on the difference between problem finding and problem solving, critical evaluation of the function of the Design Thinking in finding of the problems, and application of various design thinking tools, such as, Visualization, Brain Storming, and spotting the obvious. These theories can be broken down into tools for design thinking. This helps in further innovation. However, I also understood that, there can be any other tools relevant for different situation, and should be applied accordingly. It is important to understand the issue, that is, problem finding or solving and how that can be explained through Design Theory (Johansson?Sköldberg, Woodilla & Çetinkaya, 2013). My instructor said that Design Theory is mostly a methodology for problem solving, rather than problem finding. The tools for Design Thinking were taught through practical activities. The brainstorming process required to think extremely fast and make and execute plans (Brown & Chandrasekaran, 2014). It also taught what is needed to make a right decision during brainstorming. Another activity was organized to teach the tool called Spotting the Obvious. It taught me that how to spot the obvious things depending on the topic. Through this spotting, the solution to a possible problem can be designed beforehand. Lastly, session was taken for teaching visualization process. How ideas can be represented visually in an interesting manner, with images and/or texts, how to keep it simple, how to use metaphors, create personas, story, guided imagery etc. are helpful in visualization. In future, for any type of business problem, I hope to be able to understand the situation and provide solution.

Design Problem: Module 4

This workshop was based on Module 5, Design Research 1. This included journey mapping, overview and activity on value network and value chain, overview of mind mapping and introduction to research. The learning objectives are to understand and execute the above mentioned Design Thinking tools. In this workshop, we were asked to perform in a group. I got to learn the process of journey mapping, that it is more of generation of ideas through the establishment of current experience, visualization of potential experience and prototyping of new ideas (Oxman, 2017). Observation power and empathy is required at this stage. The process of journey mapping was practiced through group activities. This is helpful in the development of thinking process and observation power. Next come the value chain and addition of value. How it is formed and how it is applied was the topic of discussion. Through this, I learnt how to identify the competencies, key resources, and how to find out the ways for increasing value or decreasing cost. We were asked to perform a value chain analysis on the value chain example of UGG Australia. From this, the knowledge and practice on value network could be gained. Definition of value network and the usage of it, through understanding of the cost or price structure, identification of profit pools, the decision for making or buying, and partnerships and relationships were discussed in the workshop to give us a detailed idea. I came to know about an alternative value chain diagram (An, Zhang & Zeng, 2015). Details of Mind mapping and introduction to research with research problems, aims and objectives types of data, data collection process, research types, was also taught in this workshop.


This workshop is the continuation of the previous workshop on Design Research. It highlighted various aspects of the research. I learnt about the research approaches, types of data, sources of data, ethics, interview and observations, co-creation and a preliminary idea on data analysis. Firstly, the term research was defined. According to Lyon et al. (2015), research is the systematic and methodical collection and interpretation of the information gathered with a well defined purpose and to find a solution to a specific problem. The research process consists of many steps. Firstly, the problem statement of hypothesis should be formed to narrow down the problem. This includes the aims and objectives of the research, rationale, background study and the structure. I got to know that this is followed by literature review, data collection, analysis, findings and discussion, and finally conclusion. In the data collection and analysis process, the concept of qualitative and quantitative research approach, primary and secondary data collection, and different types of data sources, such as, survey, interview, focus groups, videos, websites, reports, etc. were discussed and the style of writing were also taught. The ethical issues are highlighted here along with the interview for empathy (Norman & Verganti, 2014). We had to participate in an activity to practice the interview session on Design projects. It was a test for our understanding of the subject.

Design Research 1: Module 5

Designing or learning the launch was the topic of this workshop. All related activities regarding launch were taught in this session. It taught us the real customer dealing through experiments in the market. Learning launch is different from business as usual. It is mainly the actions in the real world (McKenney & Reeves, 2013). How to launch the product or services and what parameters should be used for measuring the impact of product launch was discussed by taking an example of Pfizer’s Nicorette launch. All the pros and cons of the techniques for lunching were discussed too. Thus, through this workshop, I got to know about the all types of launching and the processes. Even the prelaunch and postlaunch techniques were taught too. It helps in planning for the launching and how to tackle any situation during the launch.

In this workshop, the designing of entrepreneurial campaign for marketing was taught. The fundamentals of marketing, target markets, competitor analysis, 4Ps of marketing, campaigns and using design as a medium or form of communication are the main topics of this workshop. It started with the basic definition of marketing. For a product or service to be successful, marketing is the most important thing behind that. Well planned and efficient marketing techniques can create a brand image for a product or service and the sales could increase (Khajavi et al., 2015). Various components of marketing were taught to us in this workshop. I got to learn about the target market and how this is created for marketing purpose. Along with that, the identification of competitors in the market and competitive grid were also discussed. Next, I learnt about the 4Ps of marketing. This is a very important concept in marketing. The 4Ps stand for Product, Price, Place and Promotion (Vickery et al., 2015). I understood that, for any marketing activity these 4 components are the most important. These helps in defining the strategies required for marketing for a product or service. The Product defines the variety, quality, design, brand name, features and packaging. Price includes list price, discounts, payment period and credit terms. Promotion defines the advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and personal selling. And, Place includes the channels, coverage, locations, inventory, transportation and logistics. I got to know about these factors in depth in this workshop. Along with that, communication process and methods are important too. For marketing, communication with the consumers plays a major role. Innovation in the process of communication is important, as this helps in attracting the end users and target markets (Stark, 2015). We were taught about various communication channels, such as, Direct, Digital, Social Media, Partners, Word of Mouth and Traditional Media. From this, the entrepreneurial marketing campaigns followed (Chaston, 2015). I understood that it is more of a mind set. However, in these campaigns, it tends to use relatively cheaper marketing techniques. There are some interesting names for entrepreneurial marketing campaigns, such as, Guerrilla marketing, Ambush marketing, Radical marketing, Viral marketing, Buzz or Hype marketing, Expeditionary marketing, Disruptive marketing etc. (Nijssen, 2017). After that, the designs are used for communicating with the consumers. Through this workshop, I gained huge knowledge about the marketing techniques and how the designs can be used for communication.

Design Research 2: Module 6


In workshop 10, the entrepreneurial fundraising campaigns were discussed. The purpose of the workshop was to train us about the fundraising for campaigns. The sources of capitals, basic approaches towards crowdfunding, business angels and grant providers, how to conduct successful fundraising programs and how to conduct launch readiness plan were all discussed in this workshop. I learnt the techniques and types of fund raising for business and product launch. The concept of fund raising comes from sourcing of capital. Capital is one of the key factors of production (Mollick, 2014). Access to capital would ensure access to other resources. Fund raising is an event, which is organized to for a particular time to gain access to the financial resources that is needed to achieve organizational goals, such as, for starting a new business, launching a new product, political campaign, business expansion etc. It can be done for many charitable objectives also, such as, for aid to natural disaster relief, cancer research, for under privileged children etc. (Kleppe & Nilsen, 2017). I also got to learn about sources of finance, such as, internal and external, about which I did not have any prior idea. It helped me to know about informal and formal sources of funds, which would benefit me in the future. I gained knowledge about 3Fs of funding, i.e., family, friends and fools. All these sources have their own pros and cons. Knowing those would be helpful in taking a decision about fund raising in future.

This was about designing the entrepreneur himself. During this workshop, I should assess my capabilities to become a future entrepreneur. How much I have understood the previous modules and how much I am capable of applying that knowledge into real experience should be assessed. I need to show my tutor that I could complete all the assignments successfully.


This workshop focused on the design for the future. The outline of the workshop was to teach us on how to implement the gained knowledge on our life as well in the business. The wide range of application of the Design Thinking, the Design for Growth, the Design Thinking process in the Established Organizations, Continuous Design, Growth, Strategy, and Re-Designing an Industry. It aims to teach us the concept of Design as aesthetics and the relevance of Design Thinking in the growth and strategy operations of the businesses. I got to learn about the nuances of design and aesthetics. How the design could be interpreted and applied aesthetically into the business operations must be learnt by the business people. Consumers would mostly choose the products which looks beautiful. Hence, the Design must be attractive to draw attention of people (Sheth & Sisodia, 2015). I realized that it is basically a perception about goods or services. We were taught on how to incorporate the aesthetics into Designs as those create long lasting impressions about the brand image and quality. In every aspect of life, aesthetics play an important role. Similarly, to continue with the Designs for Growth and in Established Organizations, it is important to have a skilled, efficient and creative Design Thinking team (Lindner & Rodger, 2017). They also contribute in re-designing an industry, which includes business diversification or logo design change.

Hence, it can be said that, I learnt many things about Design and its application in the business from these workshops. It has helped me to develop my skills, observation power, and enhanced my knowledge. Through some activities and practical tasks, I could assess my understanding of all the modules and how those can be implemented in real life situation. Thus, the workshops have been beneficial for me.

References

An, Y., Zhang, Y., & Zeng, B. (2015). The reliable hub-and-spoke design problem: Models and algorithms. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 77, 103-122.

Brown, D. C., & Chandrasekaran, B. (2014). Design problem solving: knowledge structures and control strategies. Morgan Kaufmann.

Chaston, I. (2015). Entrepreneurial Marketing: Sustaining Growth in All Organisations. Palgrave Macmillan.

Glen, R., Suciu, C., & Baughn, C. (2014). The need for design thinking in business schools. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(4), 653-667.

Johansson?Sköldberg, U., Woodilla, J., & Çetinkaya, M. (2013). Design thinking: past, present and possible futures. Creativity and Innovation Management, 22(2), 121-146.

Khajavi, S. H., Partanen, J., Holmström, J., & Tuomi, J. (2015). Risk reduction in new product launch: a hybrid approach combining direct digital and tool-based manufacturing. Computers in Industry, 74, 29-42.

Kleppe, I. N., & Nilsen, E. (2017). Crowdfunding sustainability: how do entrepreneurs of sustainability projects utilise the potential of crowdfunding for fundraising? (Master's thesis).

Lindner, C. C., & Rodger, C. A. (2017). Design theory. CRC press.

Lyon, F., Mšllering, G., & Saunders, M. N. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of research methods on trust. Edward Elgar Publishing.

McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2013). Conducting educational design research. Routledge.

Mollick, E. (2014). The dynamics of crowdfunding: An exploratory study. Journal of business venturing, 29(1), 1-16.

Nijssen, E. J. (2017). Entrepreneurial marketing: an effectual approach. Taylor & Francis.

Norman, D. A., & Verganti, R. (2014). Incremental and radical innovation: Design research vs. technology and meaning change. Design issues, 30(1), 78-96.

Oxman, R. (2017). Parametric design thinking.

Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed.). (2013). Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. 2). Routledge.

Sheth, J. N., & Sisodia, R. S. (2015). Does marketing need reform?: Fresh perspectives on the future. Routledge.

Stark, J. (2015). Product lifecycle management. In Product Lifecycle Management (Volume 1) (pp. 1-29). Springer International Publishing.

Vickery, S. K., Bolumole, Y. A., Castel, M. J., & Calantone, R. J. (2015). The effects of product modularity on launch speed. International Journal of Production Research, 53(17), 5369-5381.

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