Discuss about the Consumption Patterns of Major Sports Events.
Community or an individual well-being refers to as the positive outcomes that create a sense of meaning to a both individual and community (Little, 2018). The positive outcomes includes aspects such as the presence of positive emotions, satisfaction with life, stable psychology and many others aspects. In a nutshell, community well-being is a concept developed to recognize the cultural, social, and psychological wants of people, society, and institutions (McLead & Wright, 2016). Therefore, the ideas of well-being used to assess the development of individuals and the entire community are measured in two different ways that are: the subjective and objective methods. The subjective provides self-report on the level of emotions, moods and the level of volunteerism of church leaders in developing a community and providing a self-report, while on the other hand, the objective indicator determines the indicators such social variables, child abuse, number of homeless (Herman, Grama & Stuparid, 2016). The choice of approach to be used depends on the purpose of the assessment; however, the conventional indicators to all methods include the rate of unemployment, education level, physical and mental health, level of crime and many others. While the journal search generates considerable and enough knowledge on the socio-cultural effects, there is still inadequate knowledge on certain types of tourism situations. The socio-cultural complexity creates a second reason for the inadequate theoretical development on tourism. The available theoretical frame works offers less information on the cultural, social, and human capital than the amount of information offered in natural and financial capital.
Tourism is one of the globe’s fastest expanding industries creating major sources of revenue and employment opportunities to many countries (Longchar, 2014). Like any other industry, tourism too poses disadvantages on both social, economic and environment, hence creating the need of having responsible tourism, called sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism refers to tourism that takes full responsibility for the present and future social, economic, and environmental impacts by responding to the needs of the tourist, the environment, and the local community (Nwankwo & Anozie, 2013). Sustainable tourism provides a platform for development in various sectors such as education, gender mainstreaming, good governance, environmental and cultural conservation thus improving the community well-being.
Sustainability is best explained when both the “empty” and “full” world models of economies are compared and contrasted (Cusumano, 2018). In an “empty world” model, production capital is the only capital that matters and the well-being of individual results from the consumption of the products and services, and the factors of production get depleted over a period of time (Thorburg, 2017). To achieve sustainability, then “full world” that comprises various capitals such as human, social, natural, and cultural must all be included, and all depend on the natural capital. However, the natural capital faces the risk of destruction when other capitals are not sustained; therefore, taking into account of this approach, sustainable tourism dictates that from destination perspective, all forms of capital are of great importance.
Social capital refers to the relationship constructed based on trust, reciprocity, shared norms, and values that allow mutual connection between the local people and other people from other places that come as a tourist (Wearing & Darcy, 2011). However, as much as all these aspects are seen as the basis of the social capital, the confusion always arises on the mechanism that allows the development of such factors. And therefore, as per the study, social capital and community well being are defined to entail trust and reciprocity and cohesiveness within a community. The several link between social capital and the events and include: events act as a source of identity and pride to the community; locals to socialize and strengthen bonds with families and friends use events. Finally, the events leading to the development of both the internal and external networks .
Human capital is defined as the accumulation of assets, skills, knowledge, experience, and capabilities. Proper investment in human capital ensures socio-economic sustainability and growth that eventually determines the well-being of a community, and at the same time, human capital can bring self-destruction such as violence (Tyndorf & Glass, 2017). Sustainable tourism ensures that all human that come together live in harmony by protecting the rights and values of one another. Human Capital evolved into three stages, the physical stage whereby the community struggle for physical survival, shelter food, and self-defense. During the important stage, human interaction begins, and the interaction with nature reduces leading to the development of the market and then the mental phase where the mind becomes the principal resource leading to technological, industrialization and social complex. The mental phase enables individuals to acquire skills and experience that facilitate the growth of various sectors such as tourism which directly employees about 100 million individuals and supports 1 in 10 of all jobs in the word (Chuan et al., 2017). The constant mutual interaction between the locals and the visitors provide a basis for self-development and self-augmenting. The augmenting accounts for the civilization in terms of education and culture that enable the locals to acquire skills for sustainability, and this is well proven from the report by the United Nations Development Program, that states that: humanity has made greater improvement in the past 50 years as compared to the previous 500 years because of the sustainable tourism.
Cultural capital refers to the forms of traditional ways of life such as rituals, languages that support and define a specific community and gives individual social mobility. The aspects are always either tangible or intangibles (Kimmil et al 2015). Cultural capital is categorized into three, which are: institutionalized such as specialized knowledge and education, embodied such as personality and speech skills, and objectified such as clothes and any other belongings. Cultural events are always the source of tourist attraction in many countries especially in Africa in the last decade. Many of the cultural events adapt ancient rituals to attract and develop the tourism sector. With the mixture of all races, cultural capital of a community tends to change as the locals imitate the behaviors of the victors.
Built capital refers to the pre-existing or planned physical infrastructure that enables the performance of various activities in a community (Sen & Quercia, 2018). These capitals are either public or private: examples of privets include homes, restaurants; furniture clothing and examples of public include sidewalks, parking, public septic, and many others. Events tend to facilitate the construction of various public built capitals such as roads that make the place accessible to the visitors (Creaney & Niewiadomski, 2016). These constructions at the end of the day benefit the local community as the infrastructure ease their transportation system too. With the availability of events such as tourism destination site in a community, a large number of the local communities tends to get the source of employment as either tour guide or security, which in turn improves the financial capital of the host. With the increased financial capital, the hosts are capable of investing and acquiring various types of equipment, that in the long run improve the well-being of the community since most of the villages are happy, experience less stress and low emotions.
Natural capital entails all the amenities that are provided by nature for the human being used, these include raw materials used in construction, making food and clothes. The natural capital also includes the services such as air to breath, rainfall that waters our plantations, and wetlands to filter water and prevent flooding (Hen et al., 2016). Natural capital is the basis of all the capitals, and therefore with a constant drawing without allowing adequate time to replenish, then the ecosystem becomes imbalanced thus many populations get displaced.
Events and Sustainable Tourism
Tourism in natural areas can be a major source of degradation of both the local social, economic, ecological systems (Gilmurray 2016). The high number of visitors and foreigners lead to high consumption on the high deposition of waste into habitat that eventually produce changes to the natural, human social capitals. However, different events that have been applied by various individuals; and institutions help in bring positive support in sustaining tourism.
Company’s initiatives for example by the Kandalama Hotel in Sri Lanka have made a tremendous effort to sustain the environment. The Kandalama Hotel stresses the cultural and social employment strategy that ensures that a large number of communities are represented in the staffs resulting in community infrastructure and development (Baskin & Sommer, 2017). The hotel has been on the forefront in fighting in raising environmental awareness in the hotel industry through good international practices, such as designing Eco Park for the treatment of sewage .the hotel have also developed hotel-specific guidance that enables other hotels to implement the planned environmental programs such as planting of trees. These actions have made the hotel to receive three consecutive awards of the Green Globe.
Sports tourism are also significant events that are organized in various countries to act as tourist destinations, such as, Hong Kong, South Africa, Australia and Russia that have hosted various world sports events(Siu et al 2017). Hosting of such significant sports creates economic, social, political benefits to the host, as major repairs are done on the roads, investment opportunities also increase that eventually improve the well being of the host community
Cultural festivals are events organized by various countries to showcase the diversity of cultures and bring together all people across the world to either participate or watch. The cultural festivals have become major events that attract tourists in various countries that eventually bring positive economic and social impacts for example The Padstow May Day celebration and the Oby Oss (Cornish, 2016). The folk festival is assumed to connect the new world to the pre-industrial period and often favor the glossy Golden age.
During such interactions, values and trust are gained, as different ideas such as clothing as passed across from one ethnic group to another and more importantly conserve the culture of the host community. The events also always act as a point of business as many people exchange various cultural belongings for money, building the financial capital and human capital of both engagers (Hein & Lesschen, 2016). Cultural festival also provide incentives to the community by offering business opportunity (Nawar,2014).In exhibitions, educators and environmentalist tend to teach people about the importance of protecting the ecosystem for the future use, hence reducing the rate of poaching and logging.
Synthesis and Recommendations
As discussed above the major factors that support event contributions to destination community well-being and sustainable tourism include cultural festivals end exhibitions, hotel participations on environment conservation, construction of roads. However some of such events do not always come out effective as they are always faced with numerous problems and obstacles, therefore to the future event planners must realize that the three concepts ‘environment, society, and the economy are interlinked and effect on one part is felt on the other parts. The following needs consideration before the actual event.
The event planner should increase interaction between the production n side and the supply side. With such improved communication, obstacles can be pre-determined and addressed properly, for example, the role of each party such as the security, the host, and the visitor in the festival planning and dividend. Bringing all the stakeholders together will ensure that the availability of all music and dancers from the varied cultural background, furthermore it will increase the trust between the host and the visitors. At the national level, the event organizer should promote public-private partnership, and organize campaign awareness at the national level.
The event planner must ensure that there is an adequate source of capital to finance all the requirements of such events, for example, that the entire infrastructure are repaired and maintained to enable free movement of large crowd. This will help in reducing the rate of anxiety among the visitors and the hosts. A large amount of capital will ensure that there is adequate security to reduce the probability of tourist violence and that the resources are well managed for example establishing a proper waste management system that will not pollute the environment. Finally, all the event organizers should perform cost-benefit analysis to ensure that the activity is beneficial to both the community and the visitors.
Baskin, R., & Sommer, C. (2017). Gen X: A Generation That Can Help Save the Planet?. Generations, 4(3), 43-47.
Chuan, L., Christina Yu-Ping, W., Chen-Yu, W., & Jaw, B. (2017). The Role of Human Capital Management in Organizational Competitiveness. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 45(1), 81-92. doi:10.2224/sbp.5614
Cornish, H. (2016). Not All Singing and Dancing: Padstow, Folk Festivals and Belonging. Ethnos: Journal Of Anthropology, 81(4), 631-647. doi:10.1080/00141844.2014.989871
Creaney, R., & Niewiadomski, P. (2016). Tourism and Sustainable Development on the Isle of Eigg, Scotland. Scottish Geographical Journal, 132(3/4), 210-233. doi:10.1080/14702541.2016.1146327
Cusumano, M. A. (2018). The Sharing Economy Meets Reality: Assessing the uncertainties of the business models driving the sharing economy. Communications Of The ACM, 61(1), 26-28. doi:10.1145/3163905
Gilmurray, J. (2016). Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art. Muzikoloski Zbornik (Musicological Annual), 52(2), 71-84. doi:10.4312/mz.52.2.71-84
Hein, L. & Lesschen, J. P. (2016). Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting. Plos ONE, 11(11), 1-25. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164460
Herman, G. V., Grama, V., & Stupariu, M. I. (2016). The International Organisation between Globalization and Regionalization. Case Study: World Tourism Organization. Romanian Review On Political Geography / Revista Româna Geografie Politica, 8(2), 49-59.
Kimmel, C., Perlstein, A., Mortimer, M. J., Dequn, Z., & Robertson, D. P. (2015). Sustainability of Tourism as Development Strategy for Cultural-Landscapes in China: Case study of Ping'an Village. Journal Of Rural & Community Development, 10(2), 121-135.
Little, J. R., Pavliscsak, H. H., Cooper, M. R., Goldstein, L. A., & Fonda, S. J. (2018). Does Mobile Care ('mCare') Improve Quality of Life and Treatment Satisfaction Among Service Members Rehabilitating in the Community? Results from a 36-Wk, Randomized Controlled Trial. Military Medicine, 183(3/4), e148-e156. doi:10.1093/milmed/usx035
Longchar, W. (2014). Tourism Industry - An Instrument of Neo-Liberal Economic Project: A Ministerial Challenge. Asia Journal Of Theology, 28(1), 59-69.
McLeod, J., & Wright, K. (2016). What does wellbeing do ? An approach to defamiliarize keywords in youth studies. Journal Of Youth Studies, 19(6), 776-792. doi:10.1080/13676261.2015.1112887
Nawar, A. (2014). Insights into the Main Difficulties of Achieving Sustainable Development of Tourism in Iraq. Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Geography Series / Analele Universitatii Din Oradea, Seria Geografie, 24(1), 32-43.
Nwankwo, E., & Anozie, O. (2013). Sustainable Tourism Planning of Ndiowu: A Virgin Tourist Ecstasy. IKENGA: International Journal Of Institute Of African Studies, 15287-305.
Sen, R., & Quercia, D. (2018). World wide spatial capital. Plos ONE, 13(2), 1-26. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190346
Siu Yin, C., LO, R. K., MAK, J. Y., & Jing, F. (2017). Destination Image and Sports Tourists' Consumption Patterns of Major Sports Events. Journal Of Multidisciplinary Research (1947-2900), 9(3), 5-15.
Stojanovi?, V., ?or?evi?, J., Lazi?, L., Stamenkovi?, I., & Dragi?evi?, V. (2014). The Principles of Sustainable Development Of Tourism In The Special Nature Reserve »Gornje Podunavlje« And Their Impact On The Local Communities. Acta Geographica Slovenica, 54(2), 391-400. doi:10.3986/AGS54407
Thornburg, J. (2017). Eco-tourism and Sustainable Community Development in Cuba: Bringing Community Back into Development. Journal Of International & Global Studies, 9(1), 18-37
Tyndorf, D. M., & Glass, C. R. (2017). Community Colleges, Human Capital, and Economic Growth in Developing Countries. New Directions For Community Colleges, 2017(177), 105-114. doi:10.1002/cc.20246
Wearing, S., & Darcy, S. (2011). Inclusion of the "Othered" in Tourism. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 3(2), 18-34.