1. What is the role of the enrolled nursed in nursing research?
2. Discuss the purpose of nursing research in relation to:
discovering new nursing knowledge
solving nursing problems
3. Define ‘validity’ and ‘reliability’ in relation to research.
4. Explain the stages in evidence-based practice under the following headings:
5. What are 3 individual values and perceptions that may need to be addressed if requesting an individual to participate in research?
6. What are the emotional and physical needs of family and significant others when supporting the individual to participate in research?
7. Discuss the following ethical considerations when undertaking nursing research:
Safeguards – e.g. ethical committees, consent forms
8. What are 5 forms of data collection used in research and how are they used?
9. Define and discuss the following 3 research methodologies:
10. Using the two articles provided on Blackboard answer the following questions and also explain your answer (do not just state yes or no) using the evidence within the article.
11. Define evidence-based practice?
12. What is the EN’s role regarding using evidence-based practice? Provide one example.
1. The role of the enrolled nurse in nursing research is to develop interventions for an existing issue that the patients face and the nurses encounter while treating them (Parahoo 2014). EN in nursing research also makes plans and strategies to evaluate and impart treatment to the patients.
2. From the aspect of discovering new nursing knowledge, nursing research is necessary. When a nurse carries out relevant research concerning the ailment of a patient, it helps the nurse in widening the hemisphere on knowledge. This, results in effective treatment and care provided to the patient.
From the aspect of solving nursing problems, nursing research is also necessary. Having a background on the research, it helps in facing issues of the patients with greater confidence and without any assistance on the part of the physician.
From the aspect of professional curiosity, nursing research will increase the inquisitiveness of the nurses, helping in exploration of newer dimensions.
3. ‘Validity’ and ‘reliability’ in relation to research
Validity is said to be the extent to what a particular concept is precisely measured in a research study (Parahoo 2014). Reliability indicates the result accuracy. Validity is a narrowed-down idea that illustrates the closeness what is believed and what is actually measured by the researchers (Parahoo 2014). Simultaneously, reliability is crucial condition for research validity.
4. The steps in evidence-based practice include assessment, analysis, problem identification, planning, implementation and evaluation. In evidence-based practice, assessment is an important step, whether the researchers decide on the contemporary practice and select a suitable topic relevant to their area of practice (Papathanasiou, Tsaras and Sarafis 2014). Next, they carry out a thorough analysis, where they could obtain required literature and identify certain problems. Based on that, aims and objectives could be developed. Subsequently, proper planning is done in order to understand the budget, people and estimate time to accomplish the research. Upon approval, they could implement the plan and finally evaluate the data to reach to a valid conclusion.
5. While carrying out a nursing research, individual values and perceptions should be addressed, if requesting individuals to participate in research. Consent, confidentiality and ethics need to be addressed while requesting participants to take part in a research. A written consent enables the researchers to inform the participants about the research topic (Munhall 2012). Written consent should also be taken from the organizations or authorities under which a research is about to be accomplished. It is a mode of transparent communication, where the participants understand the purpose of the research. The researchers should also be informed if participants are unwilling to take part in a research. The researchers should also ensure that the data obtained from the participants are kept confidential by not revealing to a third party and thereby, carried out the research under strict ethical consideration. This further provides data safety of the entire nursing research. By maintaining these values, the researchers could make sure that they carry out any research under strict ethical consideration.
6. The emotional and physical needs of family and significant others needs to be catered to by the nurse while carrying out the research on the subject. It is necessary to provide emotional support to the family members as they might be in distress.
7. It is necessary to consider the informed consent in respect to the ethical considerations, because the subject (patient) as well as the family members needs to know the details of the research, which is to be carried out on the patient. The patient will be detailed regarding it (Johnstone 2015).
Both the patient and the nurse should fill the confidentiality form. The patient should not reveal the details of the research to anyone and the nurse should not reveal any details of the subject to anyone outside the research facility.
The nurse should get prior permission in carrying out the research involving live human subjects from the ethical committee responsible for this kind of research. Necessary consent forms should be signed by everyone related to the research.
8. The five forms of data collection method used and their uses are given below (Lewis 2015):
- Self reports – refers to gathering information from people by questioning them and it can be on the basis of a self administered questionnaire or with the help of interview methods.
- Bio-physiologic measurements – refers to collecting biophysical based data from the patients with the help of specialized equipments in order to assess the physical as well as the biological status of the patients.
- Observational method – refers to the involvement of the systemic form of selection, observation as well as the recording of the behavior, settings as well as the events, which is relevant to an issue related to the patient who is under investigation.
- Psychometric measurements – refers to the use of psychometric tools such as inventories, instruments, questionnaires, measures, surveys that the nurses use in order to quantify and analyze abstract variables.
- Projective technique (for analyzing quanititative data), Q sorts (to measure the progress of the patient in respect to time), Vignette (tool for measuring the process of care in respect to the clinical aspect)
9. Research methodologies in respect to nursing can be divided into two broad categories, such as qualitative and quantitative research methodology. Qualitative research is further divided into different categories such as, phenomenology, ethnology, grounded theory, historical method and case study (Holloway and Wheeler 2013). Quantitative research is further divided into different categories such as, descriptive, co relational, quasi-experimental and experimental.
10. Research article 1
- Qualitative research method was used to carry out the present research (Agar et al. 2012).
- The research aimed to carry out a comparison between nurses regarding delirium related decision making, who are working in aged care, oncology department, palliative care and aged care psychiatry. In order to carry out the comparison, it is necessary to obtain and understand the perspectives of the respective nurses. Qualitative methods are majorly used in exploratory research that enables the researchers to understand the underlying motivations, opinion and reasons. In case of article 1, the researchers have conducted a semi-structured interview of the participant nurses in order to explore their ideas and views on delirium evaluation and management. Hence, it could be mentioned that the application of qualitative method is appropriate to the research question.
- It is mentioned in the research article that the data was collected by using semi-structured interviews, which included series of open questions that provided the participants with an opportunity to express their views and ideas. Hence, it could be mentioned that the data collection was identified.
- The researchers considered 40 nurses to carry out the present research, from which it could be mentioned that, for a sole qualitative study, 40 participants were large enough to obtain data in order to evaluate their views and opinions on delirium assessment and management, which further provided the researchers with an opportunity to develop short and precise themes. Sample size of more than 40 might have generated a risk of getting diverted from the research aim. However, from a statistical perspective, it should be mentioned that participant selection for group survey involves certain percentage of ‘margin of error’, for example: at confidence level of 95%, a sample group of 10 numbers of people could give rise to almost 32% of ‘margin of error’, a sample group of 10 numbers of people could give rise to almost 22.4% of ‘margin of error’. Less number of samples, therefore, would not be a reliable data source.
- From the participants’ responses the researchers have developed four analytical themes that include superficial understanding and recognition of delirium, management, assessment and consequences on others. Hence, it could be stated that the article explored the reactions or feelings of the participants. The themes pinpointed the real-life occurrences related to the selected research topic that further enabled the researchers to come to a logical conclusion.
- The researchers not only developed themes from the gathered data, but also have clearly mentioned about the participants’ demographics that include age, qualification, time of work, experience in different areas like aged care, oncology, aged care psychiatry and palliative care facility, which further demonstrated that the findings were well documented and established.
Research article 2
- The research method that was used was qualitative analysis, which was in relation to the quality of life
- Yes, the participants were clearly identified.
- The study was valid.
- The sample group was not large enough. The numbers of participants allotted for each sub group for the means of analysis were comparatively less.
- No, the study was not reliable as there were several limitations, such as, it was difficult to assess whether the ratings were influenced by any means due to the relationship between the proxy to the person affected by dementia. It was also observed that the reports related to the influence that depression has on quality of life in respect to both self-report as well as in case of proxy accounts, has not been recognized in the research.
- The results are not generalized.
- The aim of the research was to determine the quality of life of the older people who have been affected with dementia, by others who are also affected with dementia. It was proved by the research that people affected with dementia is able to assess their quality of life. Hence, the research question was answered (Moyle et al. 2012).
11. Evidence practiced can be defined as the use of currently best available evidence, which has been incorporated while making decisions in respect to the care imparted to an individual patient (Grove, Burns and Gray 2014). It requires for the incorporation of clinical expertise as well as patient values in the treatment and care provided to a patient.
12. The role of the EN in respect to using evidence-based practice is that it helps in proving the patients with quality care, which is both safe as well as efficient (DiCenso, Guyatt and Ciliska 2014). The role of the EN is to provide treatment and care, which is aligns with the effective prognosis carried out for a disease affecting the patient, proper analysis of the etiology of the disease, the significance of the diagnostic tests as well as the therapeutic effects on the patient.
For example, a patient might be in need of assessment of his worsening situation while he has been admitted in the general ward. An EN who is equipped with evidence-based practice will be able to identify the problem with the patient based on the EN’s previous experiences as well as research knowledge. The EN will not lose a single minute in providing treatment to the patient by carrying out a swift and accurate prognosis and carry out diagnostic tests which will help in assessing the situation with the ailing patient.
Agar, M., Draper, B., Phillips, P.A., Phillips, J., Collier, A., Harlum, J. and Currow, D., 2012. Making decisions about delirium: a qualitative comparison of decision making between nurses working in palliative care, aged care, aged care psychiatry, and oncology. Palliative Medicine, 26(7), pp.887-896.
DiCenso, A., Guyatt, G. and Ciliska, D., 2014. Evidence-based nursing: A guide to clinical practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Grove, S.K., Burns, N. and Gray, J.R., 2014. Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Holloway, I. and Wheeler, S., 2013. Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. John Wiley & Sons.
Johnstone, M.J., 2015. Bioethics: a nursing perspective. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, p.1524839915580941.
Moyle, W., Murfield, J.E., Griffiths, S.G. and Venturato, L., 2012. Assessing quality of life of older people with dementia: A comparison of quantitative self?report and proxy accounts. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(10), pp.2237-2246.
Munhall, P.L., 2012. Nursing research. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Papathanasiou, I.V., Tsaras, K. and Sarafis, P., 2014. Views and perceptions of nursing students on their clinical learning environment: Teaching and learning. Nurse education today, 34(1), pp.57-60.
Parahoo, K., 2014. Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.