Discuss about the Contemporary Perspective Of Learning & Development.
Socialization refers to the process by which an infant of human organism remoulds into a social person, a person who is capable of being interacting with others. Transformation of a child is a very complex process that can be achieved through proper socialization of a child. There are various kinds of activities for which socialization is required -carrying on a conversation; forming affectionate links; participating in many organizations, such as classroom, a social club, a peer group, in a shop or office. Socialization includes the teaching of various skills to an individual, teaching of ethics and ethos of individual’s nation, behaviour pattern, values. Socialization is the transformation of one generation to another (Berns, 2015).
Socialization is carried out by many persons in our life these are, agents, peers, groups, family, and others. Each of them has a different socialization impact on our life, all of these carried out a child in a different way. Socialization starts from adolescence stage of one’s life and continues till adulthood (Handel, 2011).
Aims Of Socialization
There are mainly six aims of socialization further elaborated below.
Develop self -concept:
Self-concept is all about perception of a child or an individual towards own, everyone has their own identity and beliefs distinct from others. Attitudes and expectations of a person build personality. Self-concept in an individual starts developing from the early age and last until adulthood; it includes trust, intimacy, enjoyment, and many more (Very well mind, 2017).
This aim of socialization focuses on the ability to control one’s compulsion, behavior, emotions, feelings, until and unless there is a right place and time to express them. (Simply psychology, 2008). Self-regulation can be interpreted as the routing of our emotions through our brain while acting on any situation around. It is all about to control frustration or able to tolerate. Through real experiences in his/her life a child can learn, how to control emotions, feelings and express them according to the situation prevailing, at the same time he/she also developed strategies to deal with the frustration and anger (Responsible home schooling, 2016).
As we know that socialization plays a very important role in the development of a child, it also furnishes goals for our adulthood. It also provides grounds for a child to act in all of his generations. Various skills are also provided by the socialization one of them is the motivation that is required by an individual to flourish in his/her life; socialization also better explains the concept of right and wrong, success, and failure.
Teach appropriate social rules:
Everyone wants to be the part of some group, family, club and many more, so to be the part of these one has to have social rules that plays very important role in becoming well acquainted with them, and an individual possess some features that leads to complements the particular group. A person in his life plays various roles throughout his journey like, child, sibling, partner, friend, mother, father, colleagues; therefore, a person requires social rules that make an individual a perfect social animal.
Implement developmental skills:
Skills that are provided by socialization are based on the culture of a country, as US has different culture and Australia has different culture and many more. Mainly there are two types of skills provided by socialization, one is emotional, and another is cognitive. Emotional skills consist of controlling of frustration, dealing with anger. Cognitive skills include reading, writing, reasoning, problem solving. Socialization is extremely crucial for the development of a child; development of a child requires values, morals, and attitudes. If a child is introvert or extrovert, it is the result of socialization only, good socialization results in better transformation of a child, on the other hand bad socialization results in untransformed child.
Agents Of Socialization
Agents of socialization plays a very important role in building a child into socially accepted person, these agents of socialization teaches various values to the child, and these values helps in becoming a social person, they teaches a child in such a way that is acceptable in society.
Following are the key agents of socialization
Family of a child shares a most intimate bond that is why family is the first agent of socialization. Family teaches love and affection, way of interaction and all of the values that are expecting from a child (Family socialization, 2011).
After the family of a child, who shares intimacy are the colleagues or peers, child spend most of his/her time with peers. Same age factor of peers makes the child more comfortable and attracted to learn what they do or teaches, peers socializes in specific way that are expected from a person of such age group (Sociology discussions, 2018).
Educational system of a child plays a very crucial role in socialize a child; school of a child is another place where he/she can learn values. Nowadays schools teach a child about societal issues, environmental issues, political issues and many more. Knowledge of environmental issues helps in generating concern about environment, further he/she can also aware someone about environment, so education system of a child makes him aware about what is happening in society in surroundings.
Media is the ultimate source of socialization of the child; it makes a child aware about the public. Characters in television programs, ads, attracted a child to mold him/her in the same way, as they watch them acting. Media helps in shaping the way of child.
Apart from all the above agents of socialization religion is the very important agent that plays a very significant role in the lives of child, the society develops the sense of secularism by minimizing the role of religion in young adults (Schreiber, Jill, Culbertson & Michael, 2014).
Thus, all agents plays different role in shaping a child and makes him socially acceptable person.
Methods Of Socialization
Under this method, child is trying to imitate the person with whom he/she spends most of his/her time, family members of a child affects him/her a lot, with them a child made some sort of relationship or we can say attachment, that attachment drives a child towards adopting the habits, values, beliefs that person possess. Taking an example of a mother and her child, a child can learn helping nature from her mother; a child can learn benevolent nature from her mother, daily routine habits a child can learn only from their parents.
Under this method, child learns through his/his behavior’s response. Behavior of a person gives some response, that response towards behavior makes the child to learn what is wrong or right. Taking an example of a child, if a child starts stealing things, his parents scolded him for the same, and these scolding results in shaping the behavior of a child, and from this he/she learned that stealing is unacceptable in society.
This method describes that a child can learn through observing others in his/her day-to-day life, from that observation child take some sort of lesson and implement that lesson in his /her life. Taking an example where, child observes abusing someone hurts a lot, accident will take place if someone on the wrong side (Anderson & Thomas, 2013).
Impact Of Socialization On Child’s Learning And Development
Socialization starts from the very beginning in a child’s life and continues into adulthood. It helps in developing and shaping the child into a well-versed person. Every event that may be wedding, sports, party, and many more has significant effect on the child, these events teaches a child to manage stress, happiness, excitement, emotions, frustrations, anxiety. There are various stages of child development (Washington family, 2017). At every stage there are many influencers, they plays very important role, which have an impact on socialization of child. Development of a child takes place in various aspects such as, psychological, emotional, social, physical and many more, the agents who plays the role of socialiser have both types of impact on child either positive or negative impacts. Learning and development of a child starts from its home, after home next place where he/she get socialization lesson is his/her school, where he encountered with many people, like teachers, peers, and others, these all personalities have great influence on the child’s learning (Keel, 2016). Hierarchy of child’s learning and development given below:
A child learning and development passes through various stages, and every stage has great impact on child. All the stages of learning and development with their significant impacts are elaborating below:
At this stage of life child’s parents plays a very important role. Parents’, nurturing, caring, bothering will develop trust, confidence, and security in child. Careful nurturing of a child has positive impact on him and, it helps in building positive personality of a child. If do not handled properly or carefully by parents leaves negative impact on child, or child may develop fear, frustration, anger, anxiety, or he/she will become introvert (Learning theory, 2017).
Second stage of a child is toddler, at this stage child starts developing some sort of self-esteem, starts learning new skills, new things, listening others, and learn what is wrong, and what is right. At this stage child develops vulnerability, they feels low, insecure, inability to do things. So, all of the agents will properly socialize the child, if they are unable to do so, led to the conversion of less socialize child, and this ultimately develops negativity in child and becomes big hurdle in his/her future life (Pulgiese, John, Tinsley, & Barbara, 2007).
During this stage child try to imitate their adults, starts generating desires, starts taking initiatives to do little things like, playing games, demanding things. If child’s desire does not fulfill he/she experiences sort of guilt and this guilt tends to makes him/her negative towards people around with whom he/she interact on daily basis (Facts for life, 2018).
This stage describes the capability, learning, and accomplishing of things done by the child. At this stage child learns number of new things, skills, knowledge that develops sense of industriousness in child. This stage is also known as social stage, at this stage if, a child encountered with feeling of inferiority within its group, tends to many problems related to competency, safety and self-respect. Parents of a child are no longer his/her educator, most significant bond child shares are with the neighbors, school, and friends, and they leave their impacts on child. Some parents keep their children away from their neighbors and friends, as they think these people have negative impact on child’s life. Alcohol, drug abuse; premature sexual longings are the main reasons behind such behavior of parents.
This stage is the very crucial stage of child’s development. At this point of development child totally depends on what he/she does. An age of adolescent is that age where he/she struggles to discover and find its own identity, here a child also develops morality and identifies the difference between right and wrong. Child with failure at this stage experiences a confusion and pandemonium. A child also develops attraction, affiliation, and devotion (Marotz & Allen, 2013).
This stage of a child development forces him/her to seek a relationship, love, companionship. At this stage, adults want to settle down in his/her life and want to have their own families. At this stage young adults starts seeking relationship, isolation may occur if failed to get in that relationship. At this stage, relationships are with friends and partners. Early age of a child is a very influential age, parents should be very careful about their children (Thomas, Yawkey, & Johnson, 2013).
At this stage career and work becomes most important thing, along with family and friends. People also start taking responsibilities and control of family and attempting to produce something that makes him/her different from society. Two most important fears at this stage are indolence and hollowness, life takes a shift during this stage.
Older adults give the society a meaningful life, because they look the society with the sense of integrity, contentedness, and promise. This led to the valuable contribution to community. Most people at this stage have sense of despair or hopelessness, reflecting their experiences, achievements, and failures.
Factors That Influences The Teaching Of A Child
There are many factors influence the teaching of a child, some factors are controllable, and some are uncontrollable, some of them elaborated below:
Social factors influence a child’s development a lot. Richness and poorness of families ‘forces the child towards making comparison between owns choices and others’ choices. Social isolation leads to many issues in child’s development, and becomes the reason for many problems and issues. Neighbors, peers classmates are the elements that influence the development of a child, if these elements divert the path of child to another way (Early childhood news, 2018).
Cultural factors have influence on child’s development and these factors influences the teaching strategies of child. Cultural factors comprises of norms, values, religion, languages, tradition, beliefs. Communication between teacher and student hindered, if both of them belong to the different cultures. Religious practices of different communities also affect the teaching of a child (Mom.me, 2018).
Environmental factors that affects the teaching of a child comprises of natural and manmade factors elaborated below:
Natural factors: Natural factors are the climatic conditions of particular country, summer, winter, high temperature; these factors hindered the way of teaching and, reduce the intellectual of a person.
Manmade factors: Manmade factors also affects the teaching in various ways, these factors comprises of locality, school and home. There are various physical conditions generated by these factors are noise, insufficient temperature, bad working conditions, and rude behavior with child (Med-Health.net, 2018).
Historical factors are related to the diversity, heterogeneity, living conditions, and historical background of a child, all these factors affect the learning of a child. Conservative method of studies in school and at home is the biggest example of historical factors that affect the learning and teaching of child.
It can be concluded from the above that, socialization of each child is very important, when an infant of a human enter in this world, he/she is unaware about the conditions present all around, and socialization is the only process that provides a child all of the knowledge that is required to survive in this world. Socialization of a child starts from the conception of the life of a child and continues lifelong.
Socialization of a child done by many agents like, family, friends, peers, community, media and religion, these all have their significant effect on child’s learning and development. Learning of a child affected by various factors, these are natural, political, cultural, and social. Socialization of a child is very important; through socialization, a child can learn many things and convert into a socially accepted person. Well-socialized personality is accepted everywhere on this planet, and attracts respect. So socialization is very important and provided to every child, this concept turn out to be very fruitful if implemented carefully.
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