The French New Wave is a cover term which was raised by critics for a specific group of filmmakers of the time period between 1950 and 1960. The filmmakers of this period were never formally prearranged yet they were connected by their self-conscious refusal of the literary epoch pieces being made in France and printed by authors along with their courage of childlike iconoclasm in which they had an extreme longing to shoot more existing social issues on position and their purpose of experimenting with the film form. This is a form of Art Cinema in Europe. Many filmmakers of this era also concentrated on making films within the framework of the social and political upheavals thereby making radical experiments with the styles in which editing and visual aids could be extensively used and they succeeded in breaking the monotony of the previous film line. The New Wave Way of filmmaking although intended to work in a documentary style, yet they took no time to set up their area and used portable equipments. They linked together the practical aspects of life with realism and hence the combined effects of objective realism along with subjective realism and the authorial commentary succeeded in creating an ambiguous narration which pointed that the questions that were asked in the starting of the film were not answered in the end (Humphreys, Von Pape and Karnowski, 2013).
Some of the most eminent personalities of the French Wave were Francois Truffant, Jean-Luc Goddard, Eric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol and Jacques Rivette. These producers brought in revolutionary concepts that were burning in the society at the moment and by using their techniques of criticism and editorialization, they laid down the groundwork of these assignments.
Several classical French works were done during this time. These films had the capacity to rebel against the existing norms in the society and at the same time they could also criticize the particular forms and present the ideas to the audience in a plausible form. They resorted to dictatorial plot lines and produced films which were called “the French Classics” (Newwavefilm.com, 2015).
Very often, it was seen that these films were produced on extremely tight budgets. The cost of production also used to be a major concern in many a times. For instance, the film Breathless (A bout de soufflé), was one which was produced using various jump-cuts and they were taken on long shots. After the production, the directors were asked to cut down the length of the film and hence the directors abruptly cut from the middle of each take and intended to make it a stylistic one but failed (Callenbach, 1988).
But these directors and producers gave a new improvised look to the cinema with polished dialogues, rapid changes in scenes and shots shot beyond 180â° axis. The audience used to be dumbstruck with the working of the camera and the producers intended to sway from the challenging approach of the public.
They also gave a feel to the audience that none of the films are any new creation of cinema. They are simply improvised versions of the mainstream notion of our use of light and shadow.
We shall now discuss the film Breathless (d soufflé) in the next paragraphs.
Breathless the movie was released along with the movies 400 Blows and Alian Resnais. There were certain new trends that was introduces by this movie (Guse and Zobitz, 2010). This film was acted by non professional actors, there were naturalistic dialogues, the lighting was natural and this movie has on location shooting as well. This movie had freeze frames and jump cuts as well.
This movie is spontaneous and it is full of allusion in the history of cinema. Breathless has borrowed many elements from many American gangster films and it has beautifully acknowledged it as well. At that time movies were generally made on the personal lives of the actors or on the art of making the films but his movie was the movie was the first to use this approach, i.e. reflexiveness.
Something in addition that Breathless helped advance was the utilization of jump cuts. A jump cut is the point at which you take a consistent shot of something, clasp out a few casings from the center, and graft the two pieces back together. The outcome is that the activity hops ahead somewhat, similar to a proof skipping (Dornfeld, 1992).
Godard and the New Wavers needed to remind crowds that they were, indeed, watching a film. The smooth, nonstop altering that was standard in filmmaking was intended to make the dream of reality, to make you accept (in any event immediately) that this is a genuine article that you are truly seeing. With hop cuts, that figment is broken, and Godard discovered another approach to conflict with customary filmmaking practices.
The recording of Breathless has accumulated about it a group of legend. It was one of the key movies of the French Wave that has newly started, which dismisses the well-made customary French silver screen and grasped a rougher, more trial individual style.
The film had a shocking gathering; it is safe to say the silver screen was forever changed. Youthful executives saw it and had surrendered their thoughts of the customary studio film before they exited the theater. Crowther of the Times, who was later to famously disdain its relative Bonnie and Clyde, said of Short of breath that shameful is truly a gentle word for its heap up of gross indecencies. The bounce slices to him were pictorial bedlam (Austin, 2006).
Micheal’s death scene was the most iconic scene. The last dialogue of the movie also had some confusion as well for the English speaking viewers. There is a translation problem there, it not clear whether Micheal is accusing Patricia or the whole in general.
Another American drama was made called Breathless (1983) by Jim McBride which starred Richard Gere. This was a remake of the Breathless (1960) movie. Another film reference: The bombastic creator that Patricia meetings are played by Jean-Pierre Melville, a chief whose crime movies in part motivated the New Wave. One of them, Bob le flambeur (1956), appears when its title character, Bob the Gambler, is said similar to an associate of Michel's who's presently in prison.
As in the period of 1980, the movies were formed relating to the movement in the society, as it was the reflection of the acts followed in the society of the region (Theculturetrip.com, 2015). During those times, the customer expected the production channel to make something, which is very different from other movies, but the filmmakers fails to understand the expectations of its customers and focused to derive the idea from the society itself. The directors of the film during 1980s’ focused upon the happenings in the society to peek over the situations arising as per the daily affairs in the society.
As per reception theory, it has been stated that the perception of the audience meant to be understand by their own idea by watching out the media produced. Therefore, this are analyzed as per the experience of the audience upon the media they are watching. It leads to passing of review upon the background of the movie including the script, story, synopsis, etc. of the media. The theory is applied in the case of movies and novels.
The audience when visiting to the cinema halls, the expectation rely upon the concept of the movie made as denoted by their names. The audiences’ expectation begins with the name of the movie itself rendering an idea about the segment of people and the characters involved in the movie while preparing the movie review for the audiences. As during that time, the budget of the movie was quite low failing to meet the expectations of the audiences (Kim, 2014). The audiences wanted to watch different concept apart from the concept of the society affairs. In addition, the perception of the audience may highlight the actions and emotions to be induced in the movies. In later 1990s, French New Wave have induced the critics for romance, actions and suspense which have supported the film industry to rise huge amount of revenue from the market bringing about a changes in the era (Baily, 2009).
In the era of 2000s’, the progression made in the industry of movies was quite much as compared in 1980s. Latest technologies were used in the making of the movies and therefore it has encouraged latest concept highlighting the expectations’ of the audiences while in the making up of the film. At this time, the research was conducted before making up the movie and use of action with the implication of latest technologies have promoted the concept of movie to a different level of standard (Teillaud, 2000). The expectations of the audiences were fulfilled at this stage and has enhance the working the new wave in the film industry. New wave highlighted the introduction of new concepts into the movies and introduced uses of technologies while introducing action into the movies during the period of 1958 to 1960s. The romantic scene has also been highlighted in the movies made in late 2000s’ where different scenes were shot to enhance the background of the scene (Frenz and Boyd, 1950).
As per the present scene, it focuses upon the concept and ideas to meet the expectations of the audiences. The present era has been proved to be very modern therefore in order to meet there expectations the thinking of the producers and the directors must be beyond the imagination of the audiences to present something new in the market. In the present time, the rises in the competition level in the film industry have encouraged the promotion of latest movies frequently. The movies made during the present time are of high budget highlighting the different scenes in different location.
In the present times, the French movies have started reaching to the Oscar. The innovation of ideas and creativity of the filmmakers have introduced the use of several technologies and ideas to be applied in the movies encouraging the attraction of audiences from the competitive market. As compared to the ancient era of movies, present era movies also contain adult scenes to carry out the scenes of romance successfully (Halle, 2006). The audiences’ expectation begins with the name of the movie itself rendering an idea about the segment of people and the characters involved in the movie while preparing the movie review for the audiences.
As during the time of 1980 to 1990s, the budget of the movie was quite low failing to meet the expectations of the audiences. The audiences wanted to watch different concept apart from the concept of the society affairs. In addition, the perception of the audience may highlight the actions and emotions to be induced in the movies (Hayward, 2008). In later 1990s, French New Wave have induced the critics for romance, actions and suspense which have supported the film industry to rise huge amount of revenue from the market bringing about a changes in the era. Nevertheless, in the current era, the producer spent a lot in the making of the movies to meet the expectations of the audiences and highlighting the key scenes s well (Luzi, 2010). The criteria for promoting the movies as also become advanced in the present time to bring in more audiences in the theater.
At this time, the research was conducted before making up the movie and use of action with the implication of latest technologies have promoted the concept of movie to a different level of standard. The expectations of the audiences were fulfilled at this stage and has enhance the working the new wave in the film industry. New wave highlighted the introduction of new concepts into the movies and introduced uses of technologies while introducing action into the movies during the period of 1958 to 1960s (Powrie, 2003). The romantic scene has also been highlighted in the movies made in late 2000s’ where different scenes were shot to enhance the background of the scene. Introduction of the genre of comedy have also encouraged the film industry to be highlighted by the audiences and has enhanced the profit of the film entertaining the audiences to its ultimate.
Therefore, as a whole the expectations of the audiences have been met as per the making of the movies by combining certain stories and including more than one genre in the movie. Some of the movie includes the comedy, romance, suspense and action. Therefore, these type of movies are high budgeted but earns a good amount of revenue from the market as well.
The context chosen here is French New Wave that states the introduction of making up the movie based upon the novel. Therefore, it denotes the movie of “A bout de soufflé”, which means “out of breath”. With the charismatic name, it attracts the audiences towards the motion of explaining the concept of crime, action and romance that the audiences during 1960 have ever imagined. Therefore, the movies highlighted the circumstances of showing explicit scenes with a pinch of romance mixed with it.
The movie has used many creative media products highlighting the segment of editing the movies as per the scenes shot in different locations with numerous character playing several roles in the movie (Turner, 1983). It has also used developed advanced cameras for shooting the scenes with a unique view and angle. As the movie’s concept derived from the novel it has fulfilled the expectations of the audiences with the introduction of new wave in the movie highlighting each and every scene shot with creative ideas and innovation (Beattie, 2002).
The script of the movie highlighted the genre- crime, romance and suspense thriller. However, the movie failed to translate the literacy of French properly as per the requirement of the scene highlighting the original French literacy, which exactly convey the meaning to be breathless instead of out of breath. The introduction of new wave highlighted the use of European art cinema in the movie showing the uses of equipment in the style of presenting the movie according to the scene (Ranieri and Bruni, 2013). The working of the movie was engaged with the political and social elements that emphasized upon the style of visual, editing of the scenes, etc. The movie was presented in documentary style along with the conservative philosophy used in the scenes of the movie (Hardwick, 2008).
In 1960s, it has enabled the moviemakers to keep the expectations of the audiences in consideration in order to maintain the sustainability of the movie to gain revenue along with the investment. There were seven directors associated for the making of the movie to be put up in the theaters of French (Lynch, 1974). The movie as to meet with the expectation of the audiences as a whole but it has average review from the side of the audiences bringing along the idea of “Nouvelle Vague.”
The storyboard of the movie highlighted the story of a criminal who has stolen a car. In order to escape from this crime, the actor (Jean-Paul Belmondo) kills a police officer. After the scene, the actor tries to flee away from the city by collecting the sufficient amount of money required to be settle in some other contr. The actor convinces is Paris Girlfriend to come with him, but being a Paris Intellectual she declines to go with him (Retraction, 2014). O sooner when the actor gathers sufficient amount of money to leave the country, his girlfriend betrayed him and hands him over to the police. The actor being in the criminal record tries to escape from the situation is shot. The plotting of the movie was quite simple and narrated conventional style of movie. The story of the movie was developed with coherent fashion included in most of the scenes. It used the reference of American aspects in the cinema and brought about the use of new wave in the movie (Cope, 2007).
The use of new wave highlighted the use of European art cinema in the movie showing the uses of equipment in the style of presenting the movie according to the scene. The working of the movie was engaged with the political and social elements that emphasized upon the style of visual, editing of the scenes, etc. The movie was presented in documentary style along with the conservative philosophy used in the scenes of the movie (Marie, 2003). The creative materials used in the pre production process were the shots relating to the segment of cameras and miscellaneous instruments for recording of the sounds and adding effect in the movie.
There were many shots highlighting the reference form the other movies showing the scene of expressions and tracking shot as well like the traffic jam, people walking round the scene adding affect in the situation of the scene shot (Scollen, 2012). The use of the new wave in most of the movies highlighted les budget and emphasized upon the cutting down of the cost by bringing in friends and relative as crew members. At this point of time, the directors of the movie were forced to use standard instruments in the shooting of the movie (Gavin et al., 2012). Using shopping cart in place of plastic bag for shopping for shooting tracking scene in the movie improving the standard of the movie as well is one of the examples plotted here for explanation of the reader.
The scenes in the movie highlighted the combination of American movie style referring to the use of New wave in the making of the movie introducing the French society with classic romance with crime and suspense thriller.
Austin, G. (2006). Body comedy and French cinema: notes on Les Visiteurs. Studies in French Cinema, 6(1), pp.43-52.
Baily, J. (2009). The Art of the ‘Fieldwork Movie’: 35 Years of Making Ethnomusicological Films.Ethnomusicology Forum, 18(1), pp.55-64.
Beattie, R. (2002). Digital movie making. New York: Dorling Kindersley.
Callenbach, E. (1988). : Thinking in Pictures: The Making of the Movie "Matewan" . John Sayles. Film Quarterly, 42(1), pp.61-62.
Cope, P. (2007). Digital home movie making. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill.
Dornfeld, B. (1992). Representation and Authority in Ethnographic Film/Video: Reception.Ethnomusicology, 36(1), p.95.
Frenz, H. and Boyd, A. (1950). The Interchange of Plays between London and New York, 1910-1939: A Study in Relative Audience Response. American Literature, 22(1), p.89.
Gavin, M., Morse, D., Partridge, A., Levy, B. and Loscalzo, J. (2012). Breathless. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(1), pp.75-81.
Guse, D. and Zobitz, P. (2010). Validation of the audience response system. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(6), pp.985-991.
Halle, R. (2006). German film, European film: transnational production, distribution and reception.Screen, 47(2), pp.251-259.
Hardwick, J. (2008). The vague nouvelle and the Nouvelle Vague: The Critical Construction of le jeune cinéma français. Modern & Contemporary France, 16(1), pp.51-65.
Hayward, S. (2008). Reviewing quality cinema: French costume drama of the 1950s. Studies in French Cinema, 8(3), pp.229-244.
Humphreys, L., Von Pape, T. and Karnowski, V. (2013). Evolving Mobile Media: Uses and Conceptualizations of the Mobile Internet. J Comput-Mediat Comm, 18(4), pp.491-507.
Kim, S. (2014). Interactive Movie Making to Use Appropriation of Gaming Elements. techart, 1(4), p.1.
Luzi, E. (2010). The French New Wave: A Cinematic Revolution. [online] The Black and Blue. Available at: https://www.theblackandblue.com/2010/03/29/the-french-new-wave-a-cinematic-revolution/ [Accessed 2 Jun. 2015].
Lynch, F. (1974). Clozentropy: A new technique for analyzing audience response to film. Speech Monographs, 41(3), pp.245-252.
Marie, M. (2003). A Nouvelle Vague. Significação: Revista de Cultura Audiovisual, 30(19), p.165.
Newwavefilm.com, (2015). FRENCH NEW WAVE HISTORY. [online] Available at: https://www.newwavefilm.com/about/history-of-french-new-wave.shtml [Accessed 2 Jun. 2015].
Powrie, P. (2003). Thirty years of doctoral theses on French cinema. Studies in French Cinema, 3(3), pp.199-203.
Ranieri, M. and Bruni, I. (2013). Empowering Creativity in Young People Through Mobile Learning:.International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 5(3), pp.17-33.
Retraction. (2014). Studies in French Cinema, 14(2), pp.156-156.
Scollen, R. (2012). “Olivia Has Lost Her Voice!”: An Audience Reception Study of Children's Response to New Australian Play Spirits in Bare Feet. Youth Theatre Journal, 26(2), pp.158-172.
Teillaud, J. (2000). Anticorps monoclonaux: la nouvelle vague. Biofutur, 2000(197), p.10.
Theculturetrip.com, (2015). The French New Wave: Revolutionising Cinema. [online] Available at: https://theculturetrip.com/europe/france/articles/the-french-new-wave-revolutionising-cinema/ [Accessed 2 Jun. 2015].
Turner, D. (1983). Breathless: Mirror Stage of the Nouvelle Vague. SubStance, 12(4), p.50.
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