Define contingency approaches to change, explaining how they differ from change management models. Describe the five main change approaches according to the Dunphy/Stace model of change. List and explain the 5 reasons why contingency approaches remain less prevalent (less popular) than the “one-best-way” change management approaches. State your personal point of view on whether contingency approaches or planned change management approaches make more sense and why.
The contingency approach is a management theory which says that the contingency theory depends on the context of situation and that the most rigid style of approach is inefficient in the long run. Contingency managers give attention to both the situation and their own styles of management and ensure that both of them interact appropriately. Contingency approach is important in organizations because of the learning experience from certain situations and using these experiences in managing future prospects of such situations. An advantage of contingency theory is that the managers adapt themselves to external changes and pressures and with time they become experiential leaders who are able to develop their skills in multiple areas (Businessballs.com, 2015).
In this assignment, contingency approach and its relation with change management models have been discussed. In this regard, this essay throws light on the dunphy/stace model of change and the reasons why contingency approach is less prevalent than change management approaches is also discussed.
Change management models vs. contingency approach to change:
In the book “leading change” by john kotter change management is defined as an approach o transitioning teams, organizations and individuals to a desired future state. There are various change management models such as ADKAR model, Kotter’s 8 steps model, Virginia stair change process model, Bridge’s transition model and the Switch Framework model. Contingency approach dominates research and theory in the management literature it challenges the classical models and processes designed by management theorists such as Fayol and Taylor. The contingency approach to change assumes that people, situations, organizations change and vary over time. The change management models are useful in the way that they simplify and describe a process so that the principles can be applied and understood. Kurt Lewin’s unfreeze-Transition-refreeze model is well known as it’s easy to understand and it focuses on processes. Similarly the Adkar model is used in many organizations (Education Portal, 2015). It is a practical model of change that makes sense, simple to learn and focuses on outcomes and actions required for change. Thus in simple words, Contingency approach to change, state that there is no single fundamental rule of change which can be applicable to organizations. Organizations are different and they face different situations and it require different ways of solving those variables while change management believes that organizational change is an inevitable approach and changes should be implemented in organizations to gain lasting success and long term benefits.
Dunphy/Stace model of change:
Dunphy/Stace model of contingency approach of change is the most popular contingency approach. According to these two theorists, the change depends upon two major factors
- The leadership styles in implementing the change
- The level of change and how big it is. They proposed five major change approaches.
They are: 1. Fine tuning, 2. Incremental adjustment, 3. Process reengineering, 4. Modular transformation and 5. Corporate transformation
1. Fine tuning: Most of the businesses are changing in all kinds of ways. Small changes can create extraordinary resistance and whilst implementing change in business may be easy care should be taken in deployment
2. Incremental adjustment: Incremental adjustment in an organization can involve changing business emphasis, correcting faulty processes, reallocating staff and further more.
3. Process reengineering: business process reengineering is a process where the principle is that where changes have limited effects, these implemented changes should be forgotten and change should be implied in a new way.
4. Modular transformation: the next stage is modular transformation i.e. to take an entire business section and re-build and re-think it.
5. Corporate transformation: Corporate transformations involve major changes of the entire company. In some cases, where the company has stagnated, the whole company needs to be transformed for the new markets and modern age (International & International, 2015).
Contingency approach is less prevalent than change management approaches: Contingency approaches have remained less prevalent than change management approaches. There are many reasons why contingency approaches are not dominant these days. Firstly, the managers need to decide which way to pursue for changing the situation. Secondly, contingency approach focuses more on specific leadership style rather than on a specific set of change steps of action. Next, the paths of change create problems as it arranges changes among different leadership styles, different behaviors and different times. Finally, sometimes an organization needs to change only a part of problem but rather it changes the whole parts (Referenceforbusiness.com, 2015). For all these reasons contingency approach is not dominant than change management approach.
Effectiveness of the Processes:
According to my opinion, change management process should be more applicable than contingency approach. As change is a necessary part of all organizations and it needs to change frequently rather than adapting to old ways we should look forward and welcome the changes that the future has to present to us (Scheer, 2003). Contingency approach is not dominant nowadays as it does not prepare the employees for change rather it tells to wait for the problems to happen and then tackle those problems which is not viable. Thus change management process is more prevalent in today’s world and is given the necessary recognition.
Contingency approach is important in organizations because of the learning experience from certain situations and using these experiences in managing future prospects of such situations (Small Business - Chron.com, 2015). The change management models are useful in the way that they simplify and describe a process so that the principles can be applied and understood. Contingency approach is not dominant nowadays and change management is more prevalent.
Businessballs.com,. (2015). change management principles, process, tips and change theory and models. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from https://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
Education Portal,. (2015). Contingency Approach of Management: Definition, Example & Quiz - Video & Lesson Transcript | Education Portal. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from https://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/contingency-approach-of-management-definition-example-quiz.html
International, K., & International, K. (2015). The 8-Step Process for Leading Change - Kotter International. Kotter International. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from https://www.kotterinternational.com/the-8-step-process-for-leading-change/
Referenceforbusiness.com,. (2015). Contingency Approach to Management - organization, levels, school, company, business, Contingency perspective and organization theory. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Comp-De/Contingency-Approach-to-Management.html
Scheer, A. (2003). Business process change management. Berlin: Springer.
Small Business - Chron.com,. (2015). Contingency Approach Use in Business. Retrieved 18 February 2015, from https://smallbusiness.chron.com/contingency-approach-use-business-33893.html