Disucss about the Conventions and Events for Tourism Sector.
In the tourism sector, large scale of convention and events are highly beneficial for a country as enhances the development and strength of the country to get competitive advantage in the international market. Moreover, in the words of Jin, Weber & Bauer (2012), it creates economic benefits and presents the new image of the site which would attract more tourists towards them. On the other hand, the conventions and events would help to increase the amount of earning in the tourism sector (Lee & Min, 2013). Thus, DMOs and CVBs have taken a great place in the tourism industry by emphasizing the target conventions and meetings in the market segment.
In this essay different factors which are important to determine the site for convention has been critically discussed. Apart from this, how the determinant factors change in respect to the different destination and site along with the country has been evaluated properly.
The incentives, meetings, exhibitions and conventions (MICE) industry have turned into an important sector in the business tourism. This sector follows a significant growth from the past decades. In the words of Whitfield, Dioko, Webber & Zhang (2014), thus sector becomes highly lucrative and it is recognized by the governments. On the other hand, according to Jin & Weber (2013), both the consumer and trade exhibitions such as conventions and meetings are considered to be the business events which potentially grow as an catalysts, attractions, animators, image makers and place makers of the destination. These potential factors can enhance the tourism industry of this destination.
According to Siu, Wan & Dong (2012), the determinant factors for site selection are the accessibility, local support, extra-conference opportunities, accommodation facilities, meeting facilities, information, site environment and other criteria. In the words of Tanford, Montgomery & Nelson (2012), accessibility factor includes cost, time, frequency, convenience and barriers. If the cost is less and distance of travelling is short along with availability of proper convenience without any barrier such as customs and visas, then, the site is chosen for tourism purpose. On the other hand, local support consists of local chapter, convention centre and subsidies elements which are essential for convention of site selection (Kim, Lee & Kim, 2012). As stated by Elston & Draper (2012), with the implementation of effective planning, promotional strategies and logistical system along with providing subsidies and rebates to defray costs, the convention site can be considered as an important destination in the country. Apart from this, in the extra-conference opportunities, entertainment, shopping, sightseeing, recreation and professional opportunities are involved through which the chosen destination can be compete in the international market (Masiero & Nicolau, 2012).
The well known and famous architecture, monuments, museums, historical sites, parks and local tours attract the tourists towards them. It would ensure to select the site among the many sites and destinations available for visit. In the words of Rittichainuwat & Mair (2012), the effective negotiation process, business deals, visiting local tourists and selling are considered to be an important element for generating profit from the tourism sector. Moreover, entertainment sites such as restaurants, theatres, bars and nightclubs along with shopping malls, department stores and low prices of the products can attract tourists towards them (Lee & Min, 2012). Apart from this, in the accommodation facilities of the country such as providing of efficient and quality service and security to the tourists, availability of rooms and hotels, suitable cost can capture the competitive market in the tourism industry.
In addition, according to Alexander, Kim & Groves (2012), the overall climate of the destination, its infrastructure, hospitality environment and attractiveness elements need to be effective and good for expanding the business in the tourism industry. In respect of information, the reputation of the destinations and sites need to be good. By considering the reputation factor and past experience of the tourists, the site can be considered as an important and profit generating destination in the tourism industry. Moreover, according to Masiero & Nicolau (2012), marketing aspect is an effective factor for expanding business in the concerned sites. On the other hand, in the words of Dragi?evi? et al., (2012), one of the important factor of convention site selection is the meeting facilities in which the determinants are capacity, layout, cost, ambience, service and security. In this perspective, the suitable layout of the floor plan and facility along with standard quality of service provider are the important determinants which provide the facilities of the meeting in the concerned destinations. Furthermore, secure and safe place need to be offer as a meeting place which would help to identify the site as a preferable location for convention (Jin & Weber, 2013).
However, the other factors such as risks, profitability, novelty and association promotion are the responsible determinants for convention site selection of the country. As stated by Whitfield, Dioko, Webber & Zhang (2014), the natural disasters, strikes, boycotts and any other adverse events can severely affect the tourism industry of the chosen destination. As a result, the site would generate negative profit or loss for convention which is not desirable (Kim, Lee & Kim, 2012). In this perspective, whether the destination is effective or not in terms of adding credibility to the concerned association along with build membership is considered as an important measure. Apart from this, if the destination fulfills the above-stated criteria, then, the next convention of the Association is held on that place as it considered as a novel location (Tanford, Montgomery & Nelson, 2012). Thus, these above factors determine how the site is chosen for convention purpose among the various sites and destinations available.
In the words of Jin & Weber (2013), the procedure of convention site selection involves the five important steps along with influence of above-stated site selection determinants. In the first stage, preplanning has been done before the alternative host destinations are critically identified and evaluated. In this stage, setting of objectives, formulating budget, establishing dates for convention have been analyzed. After that, in the step two, site inspection, bids with the competing host destinations, liaison with the CVBs and local chapters, collection of the relevant information of the chosen sites such as meeting facilities, accommodation range, attractiveness and air access have been critically analyzed. According to Siu, Wan & Dong (2012), after the process of step two, the meetings manager of association or the committee or the planner recommend to investigate the alternative destination. On the other hand, at the very next stage, final decision is taken on the basis of above analysis and recommendation. In this perspective, the executive or board of the convention association are the responsible people who take the final decision instead of site committee or meeting planner.
However, in the words of Dragi?evi? et al., (2012), the recommendation or first preference of the procedure of convention site selection would influence by the political factor. The political factor plays an important role in this context which can change the decision of the board. Now, after the above stated process, convention is properly held either in implicit way or in explicit way. Thereafter, post convention process starts along with the evaluation of what lessons are gained from the preplanning.
In this perspective, there exist various types of intervening factors which also considered as determinant factors including the above concerned factors. As commented by Alexander, Kim & Groves (2012), the factors include the antecedent conditions of member, association and executive natures. Moreover, the past experience of the convention, policies namely geographical rotation of the sites, the objectives of the convention and conditions of the environment are considered in this context. In the words of Lee & Min, (2013), the expected outcome and economic climate, income and acts of the terrorism are also important factors during the time of choosing convention site. Apart from this, the actions and roles of the competing sites and the attractive profile of the alternative host destinations in terms of the key destination selection attributes plays an important role in this context.
On the other hand, in the words of Jin, Weber & Bauer (2012), it is proved from the statistical evidence that although the accommodation factors and convention facility are critical, the chosen destination needs to offer extra features and attributes to compete with the other host destinations effectively. In this perspective, the example of Mainland China is appropriate as there exists potential future growth of the exhibition industry along with positive economic vision.
In this perspective, as per the view of Elston & Draper (2012), there is a positive link between the affective, cognitive and overall image of the five cities of United States by the association of meeting planners and their intention in the site selection process. Moreover, the importance and identification of the extent of influence in the perspective of destination attributes for overall destination image in the cities of seven conventions in United States has been assessed. It is found that the attractiveness of these cities, location and physical attributes are considered to be the determining factor of success (Rittichainuwat & Mair, 2012). Apart from this, the first tier of the destinations is beneficial for the smaller convention sites in United States.
However, according to Masiero & Nicolau (2012), lack of clear site image and direct access of air are considered to be the barrier of the procedure of development of the smaller cities as potential convention destinations. In this context, the developed cities like China and Australia are in good position for convention site selection as the above stated determinant factors are in profitable condition. In this perspective, China is the growing and emerging country in global education sector. The destination safety and the university ranking are the primary decision factors for the Chinese students. Moreover, Australia is one of the destinations of higher education country in which the policy is employed in such a way that visa systems of students are potential and easily accessible. In addition, government also cuts its planned budget for improvement of the quality of higher education.
From the above analysis, it can be deduced that the convention of site selection is highly beneficial for the development of the tourism sector of the country. The determinant factors of convention site selection are important elements as these factors are responsible for the foster growth of the country. Among the various determinant factors of convention site selection, it can be stated that high or low multidimensional value of convention site selection varies from country to country. As per the above view, the destination safety and university ranking are considered to be the key factors for decision making of Chinese students. Furthermore, the policy implications of Australia add the benefits of potential visa systems of the students by cutting the government expenditures for improving reputation and educational quality.
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