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Discuss about the Correlational Research for Importance and Health Research.

Methodology

The topic of interest is Medical Experiments and Health Research. The topic is important in my field of study and my future practice since medical trials are important for the improvement of public health and dental surgery. Health research uses animals and human beings as trial subjects to investigate a health condition and come up with the best interventions to eradicate or manage the condition (Grove, Burns & Gray, 2012). These researches and trials expand knowledge in the medical field and promote innovations and inventions. There are various issues that should be taken into consideration before undertaking a medical research or trial such as funding, regulations and guidelines, research ethics, flaws and vulnerabilities (Pocock, 2013). This is a literature review of Medical Experiments and Health Research. Although the article will include global scope, in some instances details will be given on Australian Medical research. This article will include research methodology, a literature review which will include a review of major themes in health research, areas of controversy and literature gaps and a brief conclusion that summarizes main points from the literature review.

This is a systemic literature review on Medical Experiments and Health Research in public health and dental surgery. Data will be sought from various credible websites and databases that will include; the Google Scholar, Science Direct, Proquest, Social Services Abstracts, Web of Science and Cinahl. Key terms to be searched will include; “Human Trials”, “Health Research”, “Controversy in Health Research”, “Importance of Medical Research”, “Research Regulations” and “Research Ethics”. This review will involve the reading of 15 articles and cite 10 of those scholarly sources which will include journals, books, and peer-reviewed conference paper collection and credible websites. This literature review will be conducted in a systematic way so that themes and important topics are thoroughly exploited from the sources used.

Medical research is a systematic evaluation and investigation that involve the development or initiation of a research, testing and finally evaluating results so as to increase knowledge in the healthcare sector (Piantadosi, 2017). Medical research includes research on health services, epidemiological studies, biomedical research and studies done on the social determinants of health. The most common health researches are the clinical trials whereby patients volunteer to be subjected to test safety and efficacy in new health interventions. However, a large portion of research involves the analysis of existing data to come up to new conclusions. Secondary use of information is common in the public health field, health services and dental surgery to analyze occurrence patterns, health determinants and evaluation of interventions (Piantadosi, 2017).

Importance of Medical Research

Health researches and medical experiments are important to the society since they provide information on the trends of diseases, risk factors for diseases, interventions, care systems and the cost of healthcare. Clinical trials provide crucial information on the efficacy as well as the side effects of health interventions. For instance, FDA approves a drug if it passes the set standards based on controlled clinical trials. Health researches lead to many important discoveries such as new therapies and improvements in public health and dental surgery among other fields. Researches help in increasing life expectancy hence results in more productivity of the population. Information-based research like sourcing for information from health databases is fast and less expensive and is used to compare data from various sources to come to a more suitable conclusion. Medical researches facilitate movement towards personalized medical interventions to increase efficiency and safety of medical therapies (Dye, Reeder & Terry, 2013).

Studies show that the Australian population has a positive view of medical research and believe that it has benefits to the society (Glick, Doshi, Sonnad & Polsky, 2014). Evaluation of the experience of subjects when participating in medical research reveals that most of the individuals who have participated in research have positive experiences. Surveys done on the public opinion show that most of the Australians are willing to be subjects in clinical researches (Jamieson et al. 2012). Persons with adequate information and knowledge on how medical researches are carried out are more willing to participate. Factors that affect willingness to participate in medical researches include privacy, race, ethnicity and confidentiality.

Regulations and guidelines to be followed during medical research such as the international codes and national regulatory procedures have been formulated due to the past abuses seen in the biomedical experiments. The most common examples are the Nazi experiments on prisoners in concentration camps during the second world war and Tuskegee syphilis study where African Americans were denied treatment long after the cure for syphilis was found. The regulatory principles and standards protect subjects from physical and mental damage that can be an outcome of biomedical experiments. In Australia, examination principles and guidelines are stated in the National Declaration On the Ethical Conduct in Human Research of the year 2007 and Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research both of which advocate for safety, confidentiality, privacy and security of subjects (Australian Government Medical Research Council, 2015).

Regulations and Guidelines That Govern Medical Research

The issue of ethics in research is an area of controversy and debate since some believe that human beings should not be used in clinical trials and the code of conduct in conducting researches that have brought varied opinions. Ethical guidelines in Medical research have been outlined in the Nuremberg Code that emphasizes on voluntary consent, the Declaration of Helsinki that emphasizes on the distinction between medical care and research, and Belmont Report that aims at protecting participants through the values of justice, beneficence and respect for people (UCI Office Of Research, 2015).

Health research is a multidisciplinary field that has experienced great changes and growth during the recent past. The literature review above consist of almost all the important information regarding the topic of experiments and health research. However, there is an area that the literature has not adequately addressed and due to their significance, they need to be addressed as they leave a huge gap in the information about health research. The literature does not indicate that there is a change in the data environment. In the past years, data has exclusively been generated by the researchers via surveys, audits as well as the use of other methods but now data production is beyond the control of researchers. Some of the research information is currently being generated as a by-product of care delivery in healthcare organizations. Although these data are being put into use, they have not been tested or validated hence might be not of great use (Curtis, Comiskey & Dempsey, 2015).

  1.    There needs to be a stakeholder advisory committee that establishes the standards as well as requirements for making certain data public.
  2.    Global standard rules and regulations should be formulated to ensure the privacy, safety and the interests of research participants are put into consideration.
  3.    There should be clear guidelines to distinguish between health research which might not have direct advantages for the participants and practice which is aimed at improving the health of the patient.

Conclusion

Health research and experiments are important in the health sector especially in public health and dental surgery which is a newer field since it increases knowledge and leads to inventions hence improving healthcare interventions. The literature review conducted show that there are several key issues that are addressed in medical research which include funding, regulations and guidelines, research ethics, flaws and vulnerabilities (Graham, Powell, Taylor, Anderson & Fitzgerald, 2013). Funding of research is both public and private. Regulations and guidelines ensure safety and security while the ethical guidelines emphasize on justice, human rights, consent, beneficence and respect for persons The general population has welcomed medical research so that they can better service delivery. The literature provided has gaps and there are areas that need to be addressed such as the evolvement of data handling.

References

Australian Government Medical Research Council, (2015). Australian Clinical Trials. Research Principles and Guidelines. Available Online At: https://www.australianclinicaltrials.gov.au/researchers/research-principles-and-guidelines/ Retrieved On 14 August 2018

Curtis, E., Comiskey, C., & Dempsey, O. (2015). Correlational research: Importance and use in nursing and health research. Nurse researcher, 6, 20-25.

Dye, C., Reeder, J. C., & Terry, R. F. (2013). Research for universal health coverage.

Glick, H. A., Doshi, J. A., Sonnad, S. S., & Polsky, D. (2014). Economic evaluation in clinical trials. OUP Oxford.

Graham, A., Powell, M., Taylor, N., Anderson, D., & Fitzgerald, R. (2013). Ethical research involving children. Florence: UNICEF Office of Research–Innocenti.

Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2012). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Jamieson, L. M., Paradies, Y. C., Eades, S., Chong, A., Maple-Brown, L. J., Morris, P. S., ... & Brown, A. (2012). Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations. Medical Journal of Australia, 197(1), 16-18.

Piantadosi, S. (2017). Clinical trials: A methodologic perspective. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons 1-11

Pocock, S. J. (2013). Clinical Trials: A Practical Approach. John Wiley & Sons. Pp23-60

UCI Office Of Research, (2015). Ethical Guidelines. Available Online At: https://research.uci.edu/compliance/human-research-protections/researchers/ethical-guidelines-fed-regs-and-state-statutes.html/  Retrieved On 14 August 2018

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