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Corruption: A Curse, A Menace

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CONTENTS

PART 1

Chapter 1: Corruption, Impact on Modern Era

               1.1-Types of Corruption

               1.2-Entrenched or Fit in Corruption

               1.3-Disguised Form of Corruption

               1.4-Constituents of Corruption

               1.5-Islamic Definition of Corruption

               1.6-Prohibition of Corruption

               1.7-Clarification About Corruption

               1.8-Ignorance in Give and Take

Chapter 2: Corruption, A Social Norm

              2.1-Misuse of Time

              2.2-Breach of Contract, Disloyalty, Treason

              2.3-Mischiefs of Bribery

              2.4-Story of Hazrat Saleh (RA)

              2.5-Characteristics of a Culprit

Chapter 3: Corruption, A National Menace

              3.1-Doors of Corruption

              3.2-Gravity of Corruption

              3.3-Repercussions of Corruption

                    3.3.1-Absence of Allah’s Blessing

                    3.3.2-The Wrath of Allah

                    3.3.3-Falsification of Prayers and Good Deeds        

                    3.3.4- Mental and Social Impacts       

              3.4-Aftermath of Corruption

                     3.4.1-Degeneration of Spiritual Values

                     3.4.2- Deprivation of Contentment and Tranquility

                     3.4.3-Mental Agony and Distress

                     3.4.4-Revolt by Near Ones

                     3.4.5-Lack of Auspiciousness

Chapter 4: Rizq Versus Bribery

              4.1-Haram Negates Allah’s Will

              4.2-Curse of Almighty Allah

              4.3-Effect on Human Life

              4.4-Loss of Intercession of Holy Prophet (PBUH)

PART 2

Chapter 5: Corruption and Different Stratagem

              5.1-Corruption A Severe Test

              5.2-Litums Test for establishing Corruption

                  5.2.1-Corruption and Gifts

                  5.2.2-The Ordinary Relationship of Love and Friendship

                  5.2.3-Gifts and Presents given to the Spouse and Children

                  5.2.4-Reward After Work Completion

                  5.2.5-Corruption and Donation

Chapter 6: Corruption, By Profession

              6.1-Governmental Functionaries and Corruption

              6.2-Public Functionaries and Corruption

              6.3-Lawyers and Corruption

              6.4-Education Department and Corruption

              6.5-Medical Department and Corruption

              6.6-Jounalist and Corruption

              6.7-Social Events and Corruption

              6.8-Real Estate and Corruption

PART 3

Chapter 7: Philosophies on Bribery and Characteristic Resemblance

             7.1-Logic of Low Salary and Wages

             7.2-Favouritism and Recommendation

             7.3-Culprit Versus Devil

             7.4-Culprit Versus Prostitute

             7.5-Culprit Versus Dog

             7.6-Implication of Corruption on Character

             7.7-A Brief Sermon

             7.8-A Social Study By Ashfaq Ahmed

             7.9-Story of Dignity and Grace

Chapter 8: Importance of Halal in Islam

              8.1-Auspiciousness in Halal Earning

              8.2-Self Effort to Resist Demon      

              8.3-Change of Mindset by Fear of God

              8.4-Training for Self Development

              8.5-Corruptionless Government

              8.6-Ability of A Ruler/Administrator

              8.7-Anti Corruption Strategy

              8.8- Anti Corruption Department

              8.9-Out of Box Solution

              8.10-A Moral Story

              8.11-Taqwa and It’s Impacts

PART 4

Chapter 9: Devine Guidance

             9.1-Muhammad (PBUH), A Leader

             9.2-Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (RA)

             9.3-Hazrat Umer Farooque (RA)

             9.4-Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA)

             9.5-Hazrat Ali Ibne Abi Talib (RA)

             9.6-Hazrat Umer Bin Abdul Aziz (RA)

             9.7-Salahuddin Ayubi

             9.8-Lucky and Blessed Ones

             9.9-Mir Jafar

             9.10-Mir Sadiq

Chapter 10: Blessing in Disguise

             10.1-A Personal Memoir

             10.2-A Dedicated Neighbor

             10.3-A True Professional

             10.4-Pakistan, A Miracle of Creation

CHAPTER 1: Corruption, Impact On Modern Era

Muslim Ummah is descending into chaos on a grate pace, like all evils, it is spreading like an epidemic within a short span of time; gaining momentum and becoming a permanent feature of our behavior. If there are illicit ways to instantly earn a livelihood, we do graciously adopt them without even thinking for a moment that there may be thousands of ways to earn it rightfully. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said,:

“A time is bound to come when people will not bother whether they have earned their livelihood

via a Halal or Haram way.”

There is a flourishing market for bribes around us and corruption is rationalized as a “Justified Right”. To console self-conscious, it is termed as a “Legal Fee”. Today corruption is synonymous with a return on wages or a return on salary. For a government servant corruption is his “National Right” and the revenue departments term it as “Official Zakat”. The purchasing officer calls it a “Commission on Purchase” and lower staff calls it a “Right on Service”. High officials call it “Allegiance to Their Work” and generously it is considered as “Alms”, or “Gifts”. There are many other names that you can coin, in order to justify corruption. Corruption is considered as an art, a thinking pattern as the mind of the people is distinctively changing. Corruption is a shameful and a derogatory acts both from the spiritual and as well as a materialistic point of view. The business of corruption now appears as a smart garb and attractive and several means are devised to camouflage this heinous act. A complete “Instructional Code” is required, to make us understand the meaning of this tenacious business. Divine instructions of Halal and Haram are two distinctive characteristics on which edifice of the whole universe is built, not only the earth.                               

People tend to exercise their rights immediately and the most important being the security of their life, dignity, honors and property and it must be ensured for the poor and the rich both. Haram and Halal ways are in fact a strong determinant of rights and wrongs in every society. Thus where corruption is controlled, law enforcement automatically comes into effect. For instance, a person going abroad from Pakistan only breaks the law at his own free will. Can he do so in Dubai? Not at all, he will be put behind bars for a serious crime or even get fined heftily on any traffic lapse. One’s right is another’s obligation and vice versa. Similarly, the instructions of Halal and Haram, in the comity of human beings, are very strongly connected with the rights and obligations. In fact by defining Halal and Haram, God has been benevolent for the well-being and service of mankind, had this been not there the earth would be a place of evil and perfidy.

The things for which Allah has forbidden men like earning his livelihood in a Haram way, or other prohibited act, is in fact sickening for the soul. Halal practices or earnings are a solace and strength for the soul, furthermore, certain restrictions are necessary to live in this world otherwise, there would be utter bedlam and uproar in the world. Restrictions and prohibitions in life build a consciousness in a man that further enhances the respect and dignity for others to live and enjoy equal human rights. The Holy Quran explains this in Surah Al-Mu’minun Ayat-71:

“If the truth had followed their desires, verily the heavens and the earth and who so ever is therein could

have been corrupted”.

Without going into its nitty-gritty and consequences; we intend to adopt corruption as a mode to rapidly become rich by acquiring property or cash and find several ways of enjoyment without being oblivious that one day we have to face accountability. Persistent indulgence in corruption makes a man disbeliever and a Munafiq. Corruption stales reformation from one’s conscious, as he may feel that he will become poor, and on the other hand he will be obstructed from doing good deeds and will be involved in committing worst acts which may turn him towards pathetic animalistic tendencies. He becomes extravagantly involved in luxuries and pompous living and paves the way for an artificial living. Persistent disobedience of God and His Holy Prophet (PBUH) makes a man rebellious to such an extent that he can become a traitor one day. For instance, Mir Sadiq was loyal to Tipu Sultan but then he breached the contract with the ruler and finally sold away everything to the British to acquire the throne of Srirangapattana (Karnataka – India), and as a result he became a traitor.

If a corrupt person’s behavior is analyzed it will be observed that he always behaves in a condescending and derogatory manner with those who are weaker or poorer than him. People involved in bribe will be ditched in hell and the various sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) make it irrefutable, hence, declaring the act of bribery a grave sin. The person who takes bribes not only infringes the powers vested in him by the state but also in the segment of the society. The system that is in operation to impart justice and fair play ceases, due to dishonest and deceitful practices of bribery. It also creates ripples and division amongst the Muslim Ummah in particular. When a person takes a bribe, he in fact commits a single sin but the entirety of his good deeds go to waste that includes his prayers, fasts, Zakat, Hajj and other good deeds and above all, his supplications are gone completely wasted. It is not incorrect to say that the act of corruption affects the privileges of an entire nation. Restlessness and suffering amongst people continues, heart burning leads to resentment and animosity eventually spreads in the society at large. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said:

“In a nation where bribe permeates in day to day life,

Different fears and apprehensions veil over them”.

The grave implications are even more sinister as it engulfs the entire Muslim Ummah. A collective system is therefore considered to be a success in its manifestation when its workers, employees and people at the top are responsible, honest and perform their duties by the book. The corrupt person acting dishonestly in discharging his duty is indirectly affecting the equilibrium of that particular system by causing impediment in the way of justice, fair play and good practices in a system. To believe that anyone can control or eradicate this disease is a simplistic version, a cosmetic dissection of this disease and not a proper cure. The need of the hour is to operate deep down and revive spiritual qualities in our society by making the spiritual foundation of piety and “Taqwa”. Lust for more wealth should give way to moral and ethical propagation. Honest and upright people should be recognized and respected so that prevention from the evil of corruption is manifested. One should make his/her life spiritually motivated by practical observance of Taqwa, reinforcement of ethics and character as value is attached to characteristics and attributes of uprightness and honesty so that this malice can be obliterated for good.

Al-Mighty Allah has pre-determinately distributed wealth and resources for all of mankind and made it obligatory and binding to distribute these resources to them, however, here we falter because he has left it to acquisition of adopting the way of right or wrong and left it on the discretion of the man. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) repeatedly said that, if there was a delay in getting sustenance one should not tempt anyone to get his part of Rizq or sustenance through an illegal or sinful way.

Disloyalty is a start for treason. Terms and conditions of employment restrict an employee to a certain sphere of activity. The terms and conditions of job description, functioning, and administrative procedures are all there but we are bent upon to use the office as a tool of repression and extracting bribes. The primary job of the government functionaries is to protect the dignity and interest of the government, leading to stability of the state as an employee is recruited as a servant of the people.

An organization, like a stable government, depends on the quality of its employees that should be professionally efficient, upright and honest, having good moral character with the conviction and desire to serve the country diligently and serve to the best of his ability. All these are a premiere of trait for good governance, where accountability, fear of God and service to the people is visible, as seen in honorable and dignified nations. Conversely bad governance shows disgrace and dishonor, in-efficiency, corruption, meritless recommendations with money. Political recruitments or selling jobs and posts cannot serve the purpose as through corruption they join and manifests design to make money. Evil and perfidy in the society rises from illegal and wrong recruitments, undue favoritism, recommendation and bribe. Corruption has changed the face of life as its value in the society has become materialistic. To become rich by illicit means destroy peace, tranquility and contentment and results in restlessness, mental anxiety and depression. Such life gives way to an extravagance and ostentatious living, a demonstration effect starts even at the lower junior level who are inclined to follow the footsteps of such a living. Man was sent to this earth to lead a peaceful and contended life and that was only possible by Halal way of earning livelihood.

Very few people are left to adhere and attribute value to honesty and uprightness. Everyone is earning from bribe, gambling, theft, hoarding, adulteration, illegal possession of land or any other form of unjustified way. Two types of people are usually seen in the world, one who are struggling to increase their meager earning honestly by adhering to the will of Allah, the others, who are in majority and are proactively pursuing Haram way, ultimately they are purchasing fire of hell. The life of both rich and poor is phasing away and ultimately everyone has to leave the world and wait for the day of accountability. The devil does not like integrity, honesty and uprightness in a Muslim. The Prophet (PBUH) said:

“I vow by Al-Mighty Allah in whose hand my life vest that it is better than anyone out of you, take a rope and climb the mountain, cut wood from the jungle, tie it with the rope around his back, toil laboriously and buy food in selling the wood in the market. Conversely it is better for anyone to have heap

of clay put it in his mouth than to resorts to begging from the people, Allah has forbidden for all”.

The mischief of corruption creates envy, animosity and jealousy. A chain of criminal behavior is seen in the society such as murder, prostitution, financial frauds, worsening of law and order situation. Law is fallible and blind because the humans that frame them are also imperfect. Therefore, to start with self-help is to be made by the person by building honesty in his own personality. Professional dishonesty is an act which puts a human being to sufferance, as a trait.

Modernity today has brought a metamorphosis in society that has initiated a materialistic race. Education today has become a full fledge industry where everything is being sold in an open market just like textile goods or construction industry. We have to believe in the Al-Mighty Allah and his Prophet (PBUH), though God, hell and heaven cannot be seen with eyes we have, but these are absolute realities of the next world where we have to go after death. Woes and miseries of the corrupt man is that, his worldly life is ruined in sins and if he dies without penitence, i.e. returning the usurped money, he loses everything. Time is more precious than any material and tangible commodity such as gold. It is strange paradox that we follow west in all characteristics accept time. We are habitual late comers, spend most of the time in “gup-shup” and always indulged in frivolous pursuits whereas people in the west feel that by losing five minutes in a day, the company is bound to suffer financial loss which cannot be recouped. No person takes bribes until he has lost his self-respect completely. The more bribes he takes, the more honor, dignity and pride he loses. This continues until he becomes habitual and eventually turns into an automaton. Previously when he was a dignified man, he had a very good reputation in the society, but since he started taking bribes he lost all his standings.

The choice before the Muslims is evident, that is, if they lead the life of dignity, grace and honor, they surely would be the most respectable Ummah, having the most honorable and respected Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) out of all the comity of prophets. It is said by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that corruption brings in inflation, draughts and scarcity in food. It inculcates a prejudices, hatreds and bigotry. Family relatives and dependent of corrupt people are always disobedient because that are fed from a Haram source. As Halal way has always remained difficult at all times, therefore, it is compared to Jihad for Allah against the infidels. If effort is made to control corruption, the government can attain a stable environment and good governance. Corruption by one way or the other has to be checked, resulting compliance of the law. We have to reform our self as aliens would not come to our rescue for which courage and conviction is required. Corruption is an enemy and the war against the enemy has to be fought in this battlefield, the earth.

We have to diagnose corruption correctly because it is a disease of rusting of soul. Wrong medication would not eradicate the disease. Drafting new laws would not be effective unless consistent dose and pills of honesty, righteousness and fair play is not injected. Corruption has become malignant in Pakistan because no effort seems to have been made by the government. It is seen that new ways and techniques are infested in the society where application of law become infected. Anti-corruption departments have become more corrupt; they were the watchdogs but now they are a model of corruption.

Today lust of accumulating money illegally is the biggest task. No care is taken to earn money even if it is either by selling wine, bet on horses, gambling, adulteration, misuse of power and accepting bribe. There is a turbulent storm of corruption in the offices, markets, factories which has led to chaos and moral degeneration of the society. A simple way of living has given way to luxuries, comfort, and artificial life. We are doing all this for our family and children even if we have to steal, gamble or take bribe. We have forgotten the lesson that a better qualitative living as narrated by Allah was through Halal way.

Islam is a complete code of life. It is not only a belief or congregation of rituals, such as prayer fasting and hajj, but it encompasses all aspects of human code and conduct. Halal Rizq generates urge to good deeds, builds a strong and moral character and tendency to pray to God, in result, a special “Noor” (a spiritual light) advents upon them. Haram earning brings in bad shameful acts of sin and devil prevents one to do good deeds. Moral and spiritual life, main fabric of Halal living, has almost given way to materialistic approach. Today more money is seen as a barometer of success, irrespective of the fact whether it is earned by arson, loot, fraud, cheating and by bribe. The personal characteristics of righteousness, trust, honesty, trustfulness, self-sacrifice and steadfastness are just kept in reserve for mental reasoning only. The extinction of these characteristics coupled with superfluous rising of standards of living has opened a very big door for corruption. Honest people are leading a very tough life as they are sliding on an edge of a precipice.

The Holy Quran has repeatedly said: “O believers! fear God”, because we as Muslims believe that all our deeds, good or bad, are being recorded by two angles, Kiraman and Katebeen, and will be presented to Allah Almighty on judgment day. The part of the body which was used for sinister act will be the witness against us on the judgment day. A book is tied around the neck, which is recording each and every detail of our verbal and physical actions. Every act, good or bad, is manifested on the earth would throw out the pamphlet on the day of reckoning as a witness against us. Above all this the Allah, who is omnipresent, knows all our deeds even the details which are in our hearts. We have to face all these witnesses on the Day of Judgment so it is better to renounce everything ourselves and offer our penitence. Today we are not sure of our good acts because we lack conviction and faith and our living is through unjustified means. The need of the hour is to change the mindset of the people. The simple remedy is to lead a life in accordance to the juncture of Islam and consciously from the company of wise people. Corruption is an act prohibited by the God not only in the Holy Book of Quran but in other heavenly books such as Toraat and Zaboor. The curse of corruption is not only on the giver and taker but also the intermediary. This is a transient world where we do not have to live permanently. The mission of life should be is to make a better life. In order to avoid accountability in the next world Hazrat Imam Abu Hanifa declined the post of chief justice “Qazi-ul-Quzah” in the caliphate of Caliph Mansur.

Today gifts and presents and donations are not given in lieu of love, friendship, intimacy or out of praise but when it is for a public functionary because of some pending work or a work in future in one’s favor. Islam attaches strong emphasis on the accountability of the rulers and the administrators. If we believe in Islam and tailor our self in Islamic living, we have to be content as we believe in Allah Al-Mighty and his Holy Prophet (PBUH) which is the ultimate success for better life both in this world and eternal abode.

Resorting to Halal means can bring financial adversity temporarily but by at large it would save our self from an agonizing punishment which is waiting for us in the next world. Let us be content with less and meager because for a true believer it is even written by Allah Al-Mighty in the book “Lohe-Mahfooz” which he has kept with him. Allama Ibn-e-Shami an Islamic scholar said:

“be aware of that time on the day of resurrection when every week will be powerful enough to demand his right which was forfeited in the world by powerful people”.

Conscience of a corrupt person always pricks him so he may rationalize his acts, but if he has faith in his Rizq or sustenance, he has been blessed with, then it leaves no room for any other ill doing. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said:

“An insatiable man’s belly can only be filled

by fire of hell.”

Therefore less salary is not the reason but the lust and greed for more is the predominant factor for renouncing corruption. The devil injects a fear in the minds of the corrupt and they feel that they will lag behind in the struggle of life. Desires are identical in all human beings, but their manifestations are different. It is the truth bribe does not fulfill the prime desire for peace and tranquilly and at many times due to problematic situation individuals are involved in long litigation cases due to disputes and a fear of unknown is always over-shadowing. It is now crystal clear that different forms of illusory interpretations of corruption do not alter the position of bribe, even if different names are given to it. The intermediary is also recriminated as he doles out the money on behalf of someone else which is nothing but bribe. It is commonly seen that government functionaries, bureaucrats and servants are more prone to bribes. Other people are also equally involved in this gruesome activity. They can be doctors, lawyers, teachers, head of trusts and organization created for charity. The Holy Quran give specific importance to the matters of bribe for government functionaries because it ultimately effects the whole nation whereas the impact of private persons are very normal; i.e. extending to their family a near one.

One should try to understand that relaxation in bribes for the giver is contingent to two conditions. Firstly it is necessary to comprehend that the amount of money that is being given should not jeopardize other people’s rights and it is to safeguard his personal interest or to avoid oppression faced by him. Conversely, no defense of compulsion is acceptable. Secondly, if it is established that the person is committing a sin with all forfeiture of rights and the giver of bribe exhaust all possible remedies available to him in order to abstain from the act. In the end he should think the act as a sin with a firm belief that God may excuse him on the Day of Judgment. The acquired bribe can be forgiven if there is repentance, a person should genuinely feel a deep sense of grief and remorse in his heart with a strong commitment to not to repeat it again. The unlawfully infringed assets and property should be made a provision of repayment or compensation to the effected in the past. Whatever was taken in the form of bribes should be returned back to the same person by making a flair estimate of the amount that was taken. However, if the owner cannot be traced, the amount can be distributed as alms on behalf of the owner with a belief that no reward occurs to him in giving alms as charity as he is merely giving it back on behalf of the owner. A gigantic effort is needed for fighting corruption, and various means are required. Nobody has paid attention to the real cause of failure to eradicate this evil. The germs of dishonesty are sprawling at an alarming rate. Instead of diagnosing the ill and treating it with right medicine we are making cosmetic arrangement to appease people only. Current laws look at things from external view on life whereas a man’s inner self is not examined at all. All these laws are ineffective because they lack implementation and the implementers are also infected with the same disease i.e. corruption. If the circumstances are created to favor the law   this would give the desired results. The reformatory framework starts with reforming of the one’s own soul, these days laws and rules deals with him from the outside only.

The conduct of man needs analysis, particularly the government servant. Special training in reforming spirit and conscience is the need of the hour. Laws are needed to be redrafted in order to bring about a qualitative change which ensures the soundness of a man from inside. Recruitment for job should be made according to moral and spiritual values; a candidate should possess high quality of moral and ethical values. For public servants more value should be accorded to religious inclination particularly the integrity. Detaining promotion, suspension and dismissal are other methods which could also be tried. The people who score high marks consistently for a period of three to five years should be awarded a bonus in pay. The pay and salaries should commensurate with the present day workable conditions. . The feeling of fear, doomsday and the end of life is an effective tool to train people but its impact is transitory and short lived. There are people in every section of the population who can present these measures before the highest echelon of the government.

Corruption and white collar crime are result of weak governance, lethargic administration, ineffective professionalism, public ignorance and biased media. The white collar crime is said to be committed when a holder of a public office or any other person is said to have committed the offence of corruption and corrupt practices.

White collar crime is in fact taking different shapes as the devilish tendencies in our society are thought to be bad; hence they are by and large being accepted just like corruption in developing states particularly in Pakistan. White collar crime is a crime committed by a person of responsibility and high social status in the course of his or her occupation. A wide variety of crimes are now classified as white collar crimes; for instance, income tax evasion, stock manipulation, consumer fraud, bribery, and extraction of kickbacks, embezzlement, and misrepresentation of corporate information. A newer type of white collar crime in this era is cybercrime. The use of such high technology allows one to carry out embezzlement or electronic fraud without leaving a trace, or to gain access to a company’s inventory without leaving one’s home. White collar offenders are more likely to be very leniently treated than any other class of criminals. Corruption is not only an organized crime, as sometimes white collar crime, becomes victimless crime, if there is no complainant. However, the worst form is that of the institutional corruption where the departments and organizations are involved in corrupt practices. The difficulty here is that rules of business are framed in such a way that the trickle-down effects are always mocked about.

Finally in Pakistan, the Supreme Court has once again taken steps to aid the helpless people by announcing a pro-public and a historic decision about the worst corruption problem of this beleaguered nation i.e. energy crisis. By declaring all Rental Power Projects (RPPs) illegal, the apex court on ordered their immediate shut down, besides directing for initiation of legal action. The order said that rules and regulations were violated in these projects due to which the national exchequer witnessed losses of billions. Prior to the introduction of RPPs, the electricity generation system had sufficient potential to produce more electricity, but instead of taking curative steps, billions of rupees were spent on Bhikki and Sharaqpur RPPs which proved as a complete failure.

In a second scandal, Supreme Court had taken notice of the appointment of an NRO beneficiary Adnan Khwaja” and the case turned into a mega scandal after disclosure of the details. The then Principal Secretary had admitted that Prime Minister had passed verbal orders regarding appointment this individual. However, implementation of the case against the act by NAB shall hangs in the balance.

To sum up, whatever efforts are being made are just eye wash, more trained and modernized a man is becoming, the more he is doing wrong by indulging in corruption and corrupt practices. It is the inner soul more importantly, which needs the reformation. Allah’s fearfulness and instruction of Quran and the teaching of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is the only way forward in this world. Envy anything for personal gain; a man will get worse than before.

Types Of Corruption

Corruption can generally be categorized in three forms:

  1. Personal Corruption: in which a person or a group of people offer money to any individual or post to Expedite his work to obtain any non-deserving benefit; because of, discretionary power vested in him or his post.
  1. Organizational Corruption: when a Trade body or an Industrial organization get acquainted with various government functionaries; so as, to form a favorable opinion that can be enchased. Here corruption is garbed and disguised in intention to gain benefit by these organization in future.
  2. Political corruption: when money is distributed in public by the political leaders in power out of the public fund. Usually, this money is dispersed to workers of the ruling party to use it as a tool to remain in power, and raise favorable illicit public opinion for winning the general election. This money can be given to media through secret funds; taking generalist on foreign trips, and allotment of properties etc. It may take many forms on changing circumstances.

Entrenched or Fit in Corruption

Presently, corruption has become the order of the day. I almost every governmental department some percentage is taken from the employees on all payments; even if, it is a salary cheque. In fact, it is collected and distributed according to prevalent formulas in all departments. Due to fast paced income generation through illicit means, these posts are tendered at a very high price.

Some of other examples of ingrained corruption can take the following shapes:

  1. In agricultural sector, farmers and the landlords usually give a certain percentage of their agricultural produce to escape tyranny of the Revenue Officer. To gain self-benefit, they involve the irrigation officer, the Superintendent of police of that area to design favorable water distribution. Similarly, there are matters of Harees courts cases; in which, iron fist of the Police is required; sometimes, even late in the night.
  2. In industrial sector, the trade bodies and industrial organizations usually give their products to the law officers in form of gifts as; their main purpose is to get acquainted with them to get favorable verdicts in future. Commissions, kickbacks, and donations are all sort of corrupt practices which are commonly seen in the practice. Prime objective, of all of these ill doings, is to gain sympathies of the law enforcement officers; so that, they do not interfere in monopolized practice to eliminate small investors and businessman.
  3. In pharmaceutical industry, the companies sent their representatives s to all doctors. Or sometimes they ask their representatives to mingle with their juniors and private secretaries to get to know more about the doctor. Based on their likings or disliking, lunch and dinner parties are arranged and they are also invited on social gathering to enjoy the eventualities. Gifts and presents are non-intermittently exchanged; so that, a personal relationship, in which is en-cashable in future, would be built. As social practice, lust is also involved in most of times, as female escorts add attraction and make the officials an addict of debauchery; for them, money and other materialistic gain are less important than primitive past time.
  4. In certain types of businesses; such as, cinemas, production houses and factories; where goods move in and out on daily basis, there are more sophisticated practices. To run the system smoothly; monthly payments are fixed for each cadre of government functionaries; so that, pilferage and untaxed goods are transferred to the market for earning illegal profits. Cinemas houses are bound by censorships; whereas, the cinema gores wants vulgarity and pornography; all that are prohibited in cinema act. However, the cinemas may get approval for any unsocial and unethical viewing from sensor board on paying a handsome amount to the relevant officials to increase their business; hence, ignoring their social and moral obligations.
  5. The habit of taking bribes has become so entrenched that the senior officials; especially in government sector, demand monthly income from their junior peers. Therefore, compelling the juniors to adopt illicit ways to generate this extra sum as their salary would not be enough to entertain the hierarchy’s demands. Even then, there is no social delivery; hence, discontentment amongst the people can be seen as they are running from pillar to post: seed of bad governance is thus sown by actions of officers.
  6. The contractors and suppliers do not hesitate to set apart a portion of the contract money even prior to a contract; paving way for the disbursing officer to demand a percentage on every expenditure.
  7. There are fixed commissions on sanctions of permits, budgets, purchases and any mode of sale and purchase in government and semi government departments; the share is not asked but it has set away even before the work starts. If this is not followed; the contractor may lose his work and even unable to get any pending bill.

These are various other types of illustrations   of corruption which are in practice these days. The associations are constituted; trusts are found under law having a team of lawyer, accountants and employers. All these entities are, ironically, backed by stamp papers, annual reports to make all illegal norms as a legal practice. In contrast, these fraudulent and malignant entities are also involved in some various religious activities; a cosmetic dressing to cover up and gain people’s trust.

There are various laws to check corruption at all levels of the society; however, they need a complainant, to report corruption to a department or a formal police F.I.R has to be lodged. This makes it practically impossible as this action needs bravery, valor, time and money.   This could have been done if only this was the requirement; but in fact, corruption has joined hand with the authorities at all level and has formed a sense of mafia culture: people who are involved are actually protecting each other’s. Loss of life is imminent; therefore, the complainant takes a recall by just keeping quiet. Corruption is so endemic in our society that hilariously it can be depicted in a story. Once a corrupt person was punished, he was asked to sit by the sea and count the waves. Few days later, he levied a tax upon the sight-seers and collected big money thus wherever you send a corrupt person he will devise a mechanism to get something out of everybody.

There are various ways that are devised by the culprits over the passage of time. A simple give and take of corruption has changed many forms. The giver of bribe tries to save his time and money and sometimes he utilizes junior peer to get to know the interest and liking of the senior officer where his actually wants to hammer. There are many types of officials; who have different interests, hates and inclinations:

  1. An officer can be habitual prototype of infatuation. He may have the same character; as famously born by “Emperor Jahangir”, and the best way to purchase him is to introduce a character of “Noor Jehan”. The aim and objectives can both be accomplished by this practice, because an entrenched habit is de-habitual zed on death.
  2. If an officer is fond of going to club, a new chapter of friendship can be started by arranging the membership of the club. If he is involved in gambling, a source of friendship is thus ensured through gambling. Some money can be lost to him deliberately paving way to get a high priced work in return. The way is economical both in time and money as this activity is carried out in leisure time.
  3. Debauch officials can be trapped through low paid maids or female secretaries. These officers are fond of primitive past times as they are characterless people and their upbringing is mainly concentrated in fond of wine, gambling and sex.
  4. For officials having taste of dance, music parties, and cultural shows can be entrapped by arranging such events to get their delightful attention which would be en-cashable at a later time.
  5. Some officer likes fixed assets more than money; for them, shares can be purchased at a discounted price; the difference can be paid by the planner. This action will give a signal to the official that he had purchased the share at low price himself; hence, not a bribe, but the intention will be concealed for getting an un-rightful work accomplished through him.
  6. If an official aspire his own house to live in, finances can be arranged for him in form of bank loan. The catch in this scenario it that, it will not be on his name at all; instead, the finances will be released on his close relative, who on completion of construction, will gift the property to the official. Hence, this property will be a “Be-Naami” (anonymous) and will not be tracked back to the culprit. The initiator of this deal will actually be the main beneficiary, who in time will use this deal for his own benefit which will be bigger than what he actually paid for.
  7. If the giver gets to know that an official like to consume alcohol, best brews will be arranged for him to get his attention. The giver’s philosophies on an axiom, the best friendship, will be manifested in joint sitting while drinking.

Though there are several laws to deal with corruption; but still, there are other in-genuine ways where the collusion between giver and the taker makes the law in operative, as these forms of corruption are garbed in camouflaged law. Intention here is to hoodwink and rationalize the act of corruption, because we do not want to forgo the disease.

Illegal gratification is, a transfer of money between the two parties, in order to accomplish, smooth and effective completion of a job. Some of the examples are detailed here as under:

  1. Clearance of official bills and cheques, including refund vouchers, are filed and tagged with a certain percentage of the amount called as speed money. It is prevalent in all departments and now called as “service fee”; new corruption tactics.
  2. It is seen that for judicial investigation, unnecessary remands are exercised unnecessarily to intimidate innocent people to get a settlement in return of money.
  3. False allegations are levied on the people who are employed in various trades and industrial organizations to get benefit of illegally obtained money, which they can muster.
  4. A rightful owner is sometimes deprived of his own belongings and given to someone else. Right full owner is challenged and accused of illegal possession as false owner give bribes to the judicial and investigating officials to get the decision in his favor..
  5. Amassing money always multiplies lust and greed; the officials always jump on the fat prey to fill their desires. In winning contract agreements, officials call for bids for some services; and a bid is received from several bidders. The favorite party will be informed of the lowest bid so he may adjust his own bid backed by good incentive for the deciding authority. Finally, the bid is granted to the already decided bidder, and as proceedings are non-transparent; therefore all the bidders are returned with their money with the promise to accommodate them in future. Basically, teaching them an important lesson how to proceed for their bid next time.

Various practices in government offices, which are also illegal, are going unnoticed even by the knowledgeable people. Disguised forms of corrupt practices are commonly seen, not only, in government offices, but also, in private offices.

Disguised Forms of Corruption

There are various forms of corruption existent in today’s society. It is, therefore, difficult to address them all in detail. . However, the forms of bribes that are seen sparingly can be covered and discussed. If we take a closer look, Insha’Allah we will understand that each form of existing corruption can be adjusted in the frame work mentioned below. There are few types of corruption that can fall outside the purview of the described mode of corruption. However; it is necessary that before we wind up the topic, these common types of bribes are discussed in detail. Any doubt or confusion, in the mind of the reader, in comprehending them must be resolved; the following are some examples of these types of corruption:

To utilize official things for personal use, whilst working in an official capacity. These things could be stationery, machinery, furniture or crockery. It can constitute corruption, if these things are utilized for personal benefit of the user in private parties.
1. To utilize transport, residence or food on official trips, is also a form of corruption.
2. Accepting hospitality from private people, who may ask for undeserving benefit; despite of the fact that the officer travelled on government expense, is also a form of corruption.
3. To use government staff in one’s privately, for example using them as farmer for agricultural produce on vacant land, employing them as domestic servants, guards or peons in houses, is also a form of corruption.
4. Furthermore; to use the post for advantage and intimidation of the subordinates, in order to extract work from them which does not constitute their duties, is also a form of corruption.

These are few instances, which are given as illustrations, but a wide variety of corruption, in other forms also exists today. It is important to comprehend various types of corruption, which are commonly in usage and are not considered as corruption in our society.

Some officials are fond of social intermixing of families, wives and children, with the sole reason of getting acquaintances and sympathies of each other to en-cash the connection at a later day. Throwing parties, sending invitations for wedding ceremonies all are nexus to exchange gifts and presents, are all forms of corruption.

Constituents of Corruption

Discussing the problems with regards to corruption does not finish the tale. Still, few individuals will be considering how to get rid of this abhorrent exercise once and for all. These few individuals, will be considering to renounce bribe, but still a few will actually be effective in their attempt at the end of the day. The failed individuals are not fault deserving because corruption is a disease, an illness, which has its origins established strong in the system and spirit of a man. To believe that an individual can get a control the disease himself is a utopian believe. Until today, all initiatives to treat the wicked of corruption have essentially failed, as these are mainly focused on ethical verbatim to sermons, whereas a complete surgery is needed to end this disease. Halfhearted attempts are just an aesthetic diagnosis of the condition and not an appropriate cure. The need of the time is to function strong into the nucleus of the condition and de-root the indication from the beginning. In brief, an operation should be performed to allow the wicked is nipped in the bud, this would be a probably the only way to progress in avoiding the disease to propagate further for once and for all.

Islamic Definition of Corruption

In the light of the above sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), corruption is defined as “The benefit, which is received in return of work over and above, what had actually been agreed between the parties”. It may even be received on lawful work; otherwise, it can be accrued before or after the completion of work, and there is no likelihood of getting any return before or after the accomplishment of work, but occurs incidentally in or all of these forms. The conditions of corruption are present in these types of situations; therefore, it is corruption in varied forms with different conditionality’s.

In order to safeguard individuals who are following the right path, ought to acquaint them with various impediments they can encounter, in the course of resisting this disease. Various Hadiths do refer to such illusions which are camouflaged as corruption. A deeper meaning of different shapes and types of corruption requires a cautious analysis.

Corruption is compared as tying a rope around a pitcher and throwing it in the well to get water out. To keep away from toil in going to well and get oneself drowned. Bribe act as a rope, water is the work which is manifested through giving money. The focal emphasis of corruption is on the bribe taker but "Rasshi" is used first in the Hadith which means the bribe giver. The bribe taker "Murtishi" comes after it. Lots of books and studies primarily deal and stress more on bribe taker, as the Qur’an and the Hadith lay more importance on government functionaries; however, the Qur’an and Hadith have reprimanded the giver and the intermediary also. Both have a pathetic life here and punishable in hell in the next world. The giver commits a sin of immorality by giving money in addition to infringement of legal and Shariah law.

Prohibition of Corruption

Corruption is an act prohibited by Allah not only in the Holy Book of Qur’an but in other books i.e. Toraat and Zaboor. The Holy Qur’an refers this in Surah Al Baqra Ayat-1 and Surah Al Nissa Ayat-1. The prohibition is not necessarily in eatables but all other useable articles. Therefore we can say that somebody unjustifiably and forcibly took the money or anything for his own use, thus usurping the right of a legal owner. A person who is a usurper may even be confronted with the same situation; a chain reaction is therefore sets in. It is often phrased that if anyone mix fat in the ghee and earn profit, they receives milk which is mixed in water. The excess earning through Haram way is therefore neutralized; in short anyone getting a thing through Haram mean opens the door for others to get the same back. That is why Holy Qur’an says that do not eat each-others money through a wrong “Batil” way. The illegal mean can include money earned out of theft, robbery, interest, betting, corruption, fraud, interest on loans & advances. Even if they work hard earn money & expend dirty money on the above mentioned pursuits, everything will still be Haram.

In order to insure justice, fair play and protect rights of the people, it is necessary also to spend funds on right ways in lieu of giving donations to doubtful organizations and trusts. People use methods to arrange social parties and functions in order to get attentions of the public functionaries and political figures. Gifts and presents are exchanged between them. These are all techniques to get favor and delight of the individuals who are on Job. Similarly fraudulent practices and false witnesses are bribed, making judicial technique disorderly. The seed of improbity is sown in the judicial system which culminates in to murders and bloodshed. It is therefore necessary for the judicial system to have people of integrity in order to eliminate false claims and tempered court papers There must be legislations against false witnesses with exemplary punishment and steps must be taken to combat corruption in the offices of magistrates and judges The Islamic lifestyle can eliminate this wicked from the society as it did come in operation, the moment the Holy Prophet (PBUH) declared corruption Haram, and forward that the habit of corruption takes away the blessing of Allah from the perpetuator.

Clarification About Corruption            

The second phase in bribe is that, it is simpler for the receiver to refrain from bribe, as it is within his purview and power if he decides to forgo it by the help of Allah. The receiver of bribe can, exercise his own power and nobody can prevent him for not doing so. However, In the event that they need to refrain from taking bribes the matter differs slightly. It is usually seen people are forced to pay bribe, as their work might stuck, without the slight greasing of the palm. Let’s discuss, what is the treatment in Shariah Law regarding who is forced to pay bribes.

We have to review why someone’s work that is forced to pay bribe is not done in the first place and that why the person is being deprived of his right. If there is no way out of the deadlock and to get the work done, except by giving bribe, the first step in such a situation is to wait and have patience and seek Allah will, as He can surely carve a way for accomplishing of the task in a right way and provide relief from the injustice caused. If however, due to passage of time, there is no possibility for the work to be accomplished, and if a person is being forced to part way with bribe money, in such situations; although, the bribe taker would be committing a sin; however, the giver will not be absolutely discharged from the Islamic obligation. He may be committing a sin, but under duress and compulsion; it is not likely that God would not interrogate him on that matter and would not forgive in view of his helplessness either.

The readers ought to try to understand that relaxation in parting of bribes for the giver is contingent to conditions. First in this type of a situation, it is necessary to understand that the amount of money that is being offered ought to not jeopardize other people’s rights and satisfy fully that the amount being offered is to safeguard his personal interest or to keep away from oppression, he would face as he was a public functionary. If the bribe that is offered affects any body’s right, no defense of compulsion will be acceptable, and it will be established that the person is committing a sin and is equally responsible as a taker of bribe. The second precondition is that, the giver of bribe ought to have exhausted all feasible, cures available to him, in order to get out of the trapped situation, but had failed. The giver may give bribe in the above mentioned situations, where both these condition are fulfilled, but he should not forget that the act in itself is a sin; he has to firmly think that God may excuse and exonerate him for the matter of bribe on the day of Judgment, if he exhausted all cures available to him and whole heartedly tried an hard work to save himself from the fury of Allah.

In context to the above discussion, it is worthwhile to share of a story of a businessman from subcontinent region , In contrast to the evil effect of corruption, whose honesty and upright stance in his daily business routine, earned him well deserving status in this materialist world and Insha-Allah he will be rewarded on the day of judgment. It is not some enchanted tale, but an example of how Allah blesses someone who follow the path communicated to us by Holly Prophet (PBUH).

This story has been extracted from the memoir of Mr. Bashiruddin who had a personal rapport with Prof. Bashir Ahmed and Ziauddin Ahmed (VC; Aligarh Muslim University). In 1935, there were handfuls of business tycoons in Calcutta, called as Asian London at that time. The most famous of them were Jamshed Tata, Ganghram Das, Moulvi Muhammad Amin and J. B Feroze. Amongst them J. B Feroze was a business man excelled both in qualities of head and heart. He was a true philanthropist of very high standards who gave his alms so quietly that nobody knew the extent of his spending in magnanimity in the way of Allah. Many universities, schools, orphanages and madrasas were the beneficiaries of his donations.

On an occasion, Mr. Bahiruddin along with Prof Bashir and Ziaudding went to pay a visit to J. B Feroze. Without wasting a time, J. B Feroze presented a cheque of Thirty Thousand Rupees to VC, considering the expenditure of Aligarh University. Seeing his generosity and eagerness to help, Bashiruddin also told J. B Feroze that some funds would be required to build hostel for Govt. Islamia College and, on hearing that. J. B Feroze gave his cheque book to Bashiruddin giving him equivocal right to fill the amount he required; therefore, Bashiruddin wrote a cheque for One Thousand for the purpose and asked for J.B Feroze’s signature. Bashiruddin was awed when J.B Feroze enhanced it to ten thousand, adding a zero in front of one thousand.

Bashiruddin, on seeing his extravagance in Allah’s way, decided to explore more about his personality, as he thought to mention his valor in the annual report of Islamia College Trust. In his strive; Bashiruddin quotes another occasion when One day J.B Feroze was talking to Moulvi Abdul Razzak, about the structure of a Mosque that was being built by the Muslim living in Japan. The cost to build this mosque was estimated around Fifty Thousand Rupees and the Muslim community in Japan had started a campaign to collect donation from Indian businessmen who were trading with Japan. . Considering this, J.B Feroze donated Sixty Thousand rupees instead, mentioning that fifty thousand were meant to be for the construction of the Mosque and remaining Ten Thousand were furnishing of the Mosque.

Bashiruddin explored that, J. B Feroze’s God fearfulness and upright integrity is unparalleled to anyone compared in India and it was also illustrated by Bashiruddin in a cover story of that time. Another incident that glorifies J. B Feroze’s personality is when, a ship carrying his luggage of garments got wet in a storm at deep sea. The purchaser sent it back because the goods were defected in quality. His consultants advised him to sell the goods at a substantial discounted rate in the market of India, instead, J.B Feroze said that he would not sell sub-standard goods in the market to tarnish his image and become target of wrath of Allah. Whatever the loss he would suffer, he said, would be sustained by him. He managed leased markets of Calcutta and arranged stalls in Calcutta’s leased market and kept this merchandise there free of cost, only meant for the poor.

Bashiruddin also gathered some knowledge about his early like and came to know that J.B Feroze spent his childhood in dire poverty. He was residing in Karachi but went to Calcutta to look for job. He started his job as a menial laborer, by this job he managed to save some money and purchased some socks to sell on a road side. One night he fell down the ground, while selling his socks. A gentleman helped and picked him in an injured state and took him to his house. That person, whose name J. B Feroze never disclosed, decided to allow J. B Feroze to stay with him. J.B Feroze had a high moral character, integrity was above board and his religions path was set from the childhood. The person who sheltered him, decided to finance him to start a small trading house; by which, in a brief spam of time, he became a successful business. . J.B Feroze always said that right from day one, he was always on the lookout to help needy and down trodden people. He said that he had a firm faith that the more anyone give in the way of Allah, the more they will get from him. Furthermore, he said Taqwa is a way, a key of success in earning Halal and was a solution for a better life.

J.B Feroze spent a very Simple life and was very meticulous in his business, deadly honest and because of his austere character, he was known throughout India. He had a very big export trading business with Japan and many shipping companies were vying to get consignee business from his company. He never dealt with any cheater, defaulter or anyone adopting unfair mean (Haram); if found, he discontinued his business with them. It is said that a trader increased the price of his commodity without informing him, he discontinued his business and sent a note to him that black marketers are dishonest businessmen and, he had no intention in carrying business with them; lest, he would become dishonest himself. He did not care if he has lost a bulk of his business as a result of his steadfastness. He had a separate department where his donations were being managed throughout India. He used to help honest and upright business man and many times, due to recurrent loses to them; he provided them loans without interest, taking the loan back out of the profit earned by them. One of his friends lost a house in the flood in Delhi, he called him in Calcutta and asked him and his family to stay with him until his house was built again in Delhi, which was also funded by Feroze. J.B. Feroze was a hospitable person; he had a guest house which was always engaged in entertaining guest who come to visit him.

 

The above story is a true example of how Allah rewards the people who are upright and choose the righteous path to lead their life. What is going to happen in judgment day is only and only know by Allah the Almighty; however, he shows the signs in this materialistic world, that how he will reward his true believers; not only, in this world but also on the judgment day.

Ignorance in Give and Take

Having understood the few of the aspects of corruption and its consequences, still there are few issues that require further clarifications. There is a notion that, corruption is actually a give and take of the bribe, whereas in actuality there are generally three entities which are involved in this particular act. The first entity is the one who is bribed; the other one is the giver of the bribe and the third entity is the person who acts as an intermediary in finalizing the work. As discussed, the fate of all three is such that, they are destined to go to Hell; however, in certain cases there can be a fourth entity.

In order to understand the fourth entity or person’s perspective it is important to know that there can be two possible occurrences in such a situation. Answer to the above question lies in investigation. The fourth entity is privy to the information, that certain people, who are in subordinate positions, can be involved in bribery. If a person definitely knows that his subordinates are involved, then he is included as a part of the corrupt practice, irrespective of the fact whether he takes bribe or not. Those who want to exonerate themselves in such situations, usually, explain that, they do not take bribe, but, their subordinates do. On the contrary, if a person does not know who took the bribe and he himself was not involved in the act, he will not be held responsible for any act of corruption. Ayat-188 Surah Al-Baqarah conveys the meaning; i.e. if a person has the knowledge that bribe is being taken by others, he is an accomplice even when he does not take bribe himself. He is a culprit, as he knows what is going on around him, yet he does not take action against them, therefore he is not exonerated from the charges of being corrupt. These instructions will also be applied to a situation, where a person gives a decision based on fraud committed by others. The decision maker might not be privy to the whole situation, and may not know the whole truth about the subordinates. The information may be distorted and true facts may be concealed, thereby causing misinterpretation in law unknowingly, which leads to incorrect decisions. Therefore, the person giving the decision would not be held responsible nor can he be termed as a culprit because he does not know the true facts, therefore the condition of “Wa Antum Taalamoon” the translation of this Arabic context of Qur’an is (you are aware) was not infringed.

CHAPTER 2: CORRUPTION, A SOCIAL NORM

In Ayayah-7, Al-Surah Baqra

“Allah has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing, andover their vision is a veil. And for them is a great punishment”.

The above Ayat from Holy Qur’an references, to the people who perform their services with bad intentions which are Haram in Islam, that they are punishable as Allah almighty has sealed their fate due to their acts. However, there is an exemption for people who unintentionally become a part of any wrong doings as Allah knows what is unknown to others. For instance; if someone’s case is falsely fabricated with false proofs against him, and even it the verdict is against such person in court of law, still he will be innocent in the eyes for Allah Almighty, as this matters most.

In context, Hazrat Ummah Salma narrates an incident at the time of Holy Prophet (PBUH), once, there were two brothers brought a dispute against each other before the Holy Prophet (PBUH), which was related to their inheritance. Neither of them had a sound proof for acquiring heritance, then, Holy Prophet (PBUH) told them to be careful because ,as a human being, he may grant the verdict in favor of the person who will provide better proof. , and there is a chance that the claimant may not be the rightful owner. He said, that such an asset would be tied to him on the Day of Judgment, and a person who falsifies, will be punished severely by Allah. On hearing this both the individuals started weeping and renounce themselves from each other’s property. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) asked them to decide the dispute among themselves and give the asset to the right full owners, which will be the Halal way for them.

On the basis of above mentioned scenario, following principles are laid down by the Islamic jurists.

1. The ruler (Judge or decision authority) should try his best with an earnest bent of mind, to distinctly inquire what is right in any given situation.

2. The lawyers today can succeed in false cases, against the rightful opponent, but their success would in fact be a failure as per teachings of Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Misuse of Time

Time is more precious than any other valuable commodity in this world; hence, It is metaphorically said that a lost diamond can be found; where, as a passed time cannot be recouped. Allah the creator of this universe has set a time table for every instance, e.g. appearance of seasons, solar and lunar activities, and weather etc., so accurately the no one can question about their routine even for a fraction of a second. In short, the whole of the universe is therefore tied in a perfect time frame.

It is a strange phenomenon that we follow Western culture in all aspects of life except time as people in West are very meticulous in observance of time. Just by observing punctuality in life they have become law abiding citizen and by, abiding the law they have achieved enormous satisfaction in their personal life. On the contrary in our society, people are habitual late comers and spend most of the time in “gup-shup” and frivolous pursuits. In West, people have understood that, by being late just for five minutes, their employer would incur a financial loss and might as well go into   disrepute.

 

Conforming to punctuality is the need of the hour for the Muslim Ummah in present era. Islam accord all importance to time, it is an integral part of the life of a Muslim believer. A Muslim has to set a performance indicator by complying with his duties in time, avoiding this is also not permitted in Islam. For instance, Unnecessary wasting of time in Pakistan has become an order. If a research is carried out to quantify the time lost by the number of employees in Pakistan, it would be observed that billions of Rupees are being wasted from the government exchequer just by not complying with time management. Red tapism in office procedures adds further woes and miseries in the day to day affairs of the public. It is also said by the intellectuals that embezzlement is not only in money matters but is also applicable to time loss. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that dishonest people will have a place in the hell and he said had he communicated this message to all of the mankind.

Breach of Contract, Disloyalty, Treason

Treason takes its toll from Disloyalty. According to terms and conditions of employment the employees are restricted to a certain sphere of activity. These terms specify job description, and also, how to perform administrative procedures which are required for effective performance of the job. Better Results are achieved if the breach of contract is nonexistence otherwise bad governance will be the resultant of this breach.

In view of these conditions, the employees are under obligation to abide by the rules and conditions set for them. The primary purpose here is to protect the interest of the government for a stable state. An employee is, in fact, a servant of the people as whatever privileges he receives, actually, are from the public money. Moral ethics and laws necessitate that an employee remain loyal and trustworthy to the people.

A Muslim is under more compulsion as Shariah entails that breaking a promises is a sin which affect the collective life of the state. Disloyalty breeds an unchecked behavior which incites helping enemies, disclosing secrecy of the state to others; hence, it ends in treason and treachery. Enemy agents are always trying to bulge in foreign money in the country to support dissension and terrorism. It is so sad that the matter starts from a breach and ends on treason. Traitors, like “Mir Jafar” and “Mir Sadiq”, are a perfect reflection of this kind of dishonesty.

There is colossal loss of revenue of government because losing control and administration is a result of bad governance which also gives rise to injustice, foul play and corruption. The tax revenues slips and leakages enormous to such an extent that it runs in billions of rupees. New tax frauds and manipulations are seen in tax revenue to an extent that Transparency International has reported 500 billion Rupees loss due to corruption. However, the fact remained predominant that corruption is a sea where everything is doomed. A series of collusion between lower ranked officials in a chain going to department heads, has wrenched havoc.

Mischiefs of Bribery

To carry the debate further, and to sum up the previous issue, it can be said that the corrupt person forfeits the rights of three types of people other than himself. The gravity of corruption is greater and its implications are far worse than anything else. It is, therefore, correctly be said that the act of corruption affects the rights of an entire nation. The more deprivation there is, the more likely there will be restlessness and suffering amongst people. Continuous heartburn leads to resentment, animosity and enmity which eventually spread in the society at large. It is heart wrenching to see skirmishes and fights that are predominantly seen in the society. This has led to grave injustice, which causes people to take law in their own hands and, thus, plunder and loot at their own free will.

Therefore, just imagine, a single act of corruption can engulf the whole nation and can put it through trials and tribulations. A nation when trapped by the act of corruption will lose its status, self-respect and dignity amongst the comity of other nations. This state of affairs is described by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in one of his sayings:

"In a nation where bribe permeates in day to day life, Different fears and apprehensions are veiled over them"

(Musnad Imam Ahmed).

Just imagine what the consequences the corruption can bring to an entire nation. Why then do we take all these things lightly? Can any act be graver than this situation; why a whole nation has been put at peril, due to a single person?

Story of Hazrat Saleh (RA)

Hazrat Saleh's Ummah was doomed due to dishonesty. His people not only were engaged in idolatry, but were also trenchantly changing the measures and haggle. They used to give less and take more and were involved in adulteration and forcible possession of things by evicting people. Much like today, those people were used to indulge in luxuries and high living, bent to acquire properties and agricultural lands out of all ill-gotten money. They therefore, were indulged in immoral nefarious and bad acts.

Prophet Saleh used to ask them to abstain from these act of disobedience of Allah. He forewarned his people that many Ummah were completely annihilated in the past like people of Noah, Loot, etc. Finally, the people of Hazrat Saleh were annihilated by earth quakes and fire balls from the sky which fell on them; they were turned in to ashes.

Characteristics of a Culprit

Dishonesty is the mother of all evils; even the corruption has its root in this characteristic of dishonesty.

  1. Let's discuss how a seed of dishonesty is sown at the grooming and bringing up of a child. For instance, when a father asks his son to apologize to someone on the phone and inform him that his father is not at home, while he is there, the seed of dishonesty is sown in the child. Similarly speaking false by the husband to his wife and vice versa is also a start of dishonorable life. That is why a corrupt person is also termed as a Munafiq. In the Surah Al-Munafiqoon, the characteristic of these types of people are vividly described. However, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) says that four characteristics of a Munafiq are distinct, which makes him observable from other people.
  2. When he makes a promise, he breaks it.
  3. When he speaks, he speaks false and lies.
  4. When he is given something in trust, he breaches the trust.
  5. When he is caught in an entanglement, he abuses rudely.

Once a person approached the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and asked him that he is not only a die-hard drunkard, but also habitual of other sins and, furthermore, he cannot renounce drinking. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) took an oath from him to always speak truth and never lie, and then, he may continue with his habits. He left drinking because of blessing of Allah Almighty and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) because if truth is there, how could he speak false before the Prophet (PBUH). He was sure the Prophet would know every wrong act he commits. That person just by keeping his promise to the Holly Prophet (PBUH) left drinking and other vices because he agreed before the Prophet (PBUH) to speak truth in the future.

Haram way is bad for the body as well as for the soul; whereas, Halal way is the remedy of all cures in the world as depicted in our daily lives. Any place where adulteration, robbery, gambling, prostitution and corruption are seen, it has a worst impact on the social fabrics of the society. Justice system is impaired, law and order situation become precarious. Haram makes a society sick, whereas, Halal purifies soul, which in turn is a leading factor when these vices and sins are thrown out by the society. Purification of a soul is an essential perquisite for a welfare state. The medicine of the purification is the Holy Qur’an and the teaching of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). It can be seen factually that Holy Prophet's tireless effort was entirely concentrated on the heart and soul. The people who were involved in fights for centuries became an embodiment of sacrifice. They were prepared to lay down their lives instead of taking lives of other. A chain of obedience to The Allah starts a peaceful and contended life, which is proven in history when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) worked hard on his companions.

The grave implications rising due to corruption do not end here. The end is even more sinister; corruption is a contagious disease which can engulf the entire Muslim Ummah. How degenerating the Muslim Ummah is seen can be inferred from the statistics which has been collected from an article written by Dr. Shahid Hassan Siddiqui "Pasti Ka Koi Had Se Guzarna Dekhe" published in Daily Jang.

Muslim world consist of 57 countries, comprising 23% of the world population and also a territory of 23% cumulatively. During 2011, foreign debts of the Muslim Countries were $1683 Billion whereas much more amount is lying in foreign banks of the western countries. There is about $32000 Billion stuffed in offshore companies in western countries belonging to the Muslim world. It is also said that the IMF and the World Bank advance loan to under developed Muslim countries out of this amount kept in the banks to keep these countries under debt. It is also said that rich sheikhs of Middle East have $ 3500 Billion assets in western countries. In March 2012, Pakistan's foreign debts were of $ 68.28 Billion and black money stuffed in foreign banks belongings to Pakistanis were $ 400 Billion.

Some of other statistics depicting degeneration of Muslim countries are, as below,

  1. Muslim countries have oil and natural resources of more than 50% of the total resources of the world. GDP of 57 Muslim countries just reaches 8.1% of the world, whereas, GDP of Japan is even more than the 8.1% which shows a pathetic state of affair.
  2. Corruption is at a highest in the Muslim countries as compared to the rest of the world. Transparency International in its report of 2011 states that out of 22 most transparent countries, there is not a single Muslim country. On the contrary, out of the most corrupt 22 corrupt countries, 11 Muslim countries are on the top.
  3. Out of 10 most transparent Muslim countries, majority has less population and is rich in oil.
  4. Out of Islamic countries, among Five top most populated Muslim countries, Nigeria is the most corrupt country, whereas Pakistan is ranked 134th, Bangladesh is ranked 120th, Egypt is ranked 112th and Indonesia is ranked 100th. The total population of these five countries out of 57 Muslim countries constitutes 52% of the total population. These five countries are also ranked lowest on human rights index.
  5. The two Muslim countries, Qatar and U.A.E having a population of Just 7.2 million, are the less corrupt country then Israel.
  6. 55 Muslim countries out of 57, including Saudi Arabia, are more corrupt than Israel.
  7. Pakistan is more corrupt than India.
The people in these Islamic countries are more prone to materialism and everybody is looking out for mass money through corruption, the bigwigs and the law enforcing agencies are keeping their eyes shut. The Sovereignty of Pakistan is compromised and its economy has been paralyzed, in the war of terrorism, America since from 2004 until today has conducted 321 drone attacks on Pakistan's territory out of which 312 were under taken during this and the previous military government. It is, therefore, evident that more we are prone to these sinister evils like corruption the more we are being trapped into a losing situation.

The time is running out and the people of Pakistan and other Muslim countries have to change and adjust themselves asking penitence from Allah. In fact, corruption is making the Muslim Ummah a non-entity itself. Any collective system, which consists of a small or a big organization or institution, is prevalent in the shape of present and future governments. The collective discipline is necessarily should be based on justice, fair play and the practices that entail right steps in the right direction. The Holy Qur’an describes this principle on different occasions in several verses; some of these are given as illustration below.

“O, ye who believe! Be steadfast witnesses for Allah in equity and let not hatred of any people Seduce you that you deal not justly. Deal justly, that is nearer to your duty. Observe your Duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is Aware of what you do”.

(Surah Al-Maidah: Ayat-8)

And also,

“O, ye who believe! Be ye staunch in justice, witnesses for Allah, even though it is against yourself or (your) parents or (your) kindred, whether (the case be of) a rich man or a poor man, for Allah is nearer to both (than you are). So follow not passion lest you lapse (from truth), and if you lapse or fall away, then Lo! Allah is ever informed of what you do.”

(Surah Al-Nisa: Ayat-135)

The above sayings of the Holy Qur’an are; therefore, absolutely clear. A particular collective system operates with its workers, employees and people who are responsible and empowered in governance. A collective system is thought to be a success in its manifestation when its workers, employees and people at the top are empowered, responsible, honest, and perform their duties by adhering to the framework. Therefore, if any person in a system is dishonest and does not perform his duty accordingly; he can be instrumental in putting the collective system in disarray. He can be compared to a cog in a machine, which can lead to a dysfunction of the state at a later stage.

The corrupt person is a constituent part of the collective system. When he acts dishonestly in performing his, he is indirectly affecting the equilibrium of that particular system. He is an impediment in the way of justice, fair play and good practices in a system. This above reason is further strengthened by the Qur’anic Injunctions and sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) which were impressed upon the Muslim Ummah, and taught them their basic objective. The aim of the Muslim Ummah is to guide humanity from the darkness of tyranny towards light and to provide them with justice. The corrupt person therefore, does not only create an obstacle in the way of justice, but by acting dishonestly, he also, distributes the collective system of the country at large. Not only does he disrupts the observance of natural justice, but also, negates his national identity. Corruption is such a heinous crime that it negates the unity of Muslim Ummah as a whole. The readers can now see that unchecked corruption reaches to heights by creating disruption in the collective system, i.e. the Muslim Ummah.

CHAPTER 3: Corruption, A National Menace

A nation is an emblem of different people jointly working for a common cause. An organization is constituted by employees of different professional and administrative cadres fulfilling the objectives and mission statement of the organization. More stable is the government where quality of the employees are professionally up to the mark, upright and honest, having good moral character with the conviction and desire to serve the country diligently and to the best of ability.

Doors of Corruption

Accountability is a hallmark of good governance. Those states have honor and dignity in comity of nation where accountability, fear of god and service to the prevalent. Disgrace and dishonor is a result of bad governance where employees and state functionaries are inefficiently corrupt, recruited without merit or on recommendations; hence, the result is problematic which today Pakistan is focusing as well. Posts and jobs are intangible realities, trust is the hallmark reposed by Allah. Only honest and god fearing people are the real and rightful deserving candidates. Political recruitment or selling jobs will not serve the purpose; because, through corruption they will would manifest more corruption during the tenancy of their service. Good governance can only be achieved if the employees are accountable to people and fear Al-Mighty Allah. In order to save ourselves from suffering, disgrace and dishonor, the need of the hour is to recruit employees on merit coupled with qualification.

Just think how people are recruited in Pakistan, either they are political referent send by top people, or alternatively the Jobs and posts are sold by the agent of the bureaucracy and the political elite, what a pity? Can a recruit show due diligence and honesty? If you put water instead of milk and desire cheese out of water, is that possible? Not at all. The Holy Qur’an has emphasized this aspect very clearly:

"Oh you believe! Do not be dishonest to Al-Mighty Allah or his Holy Prophet, when you know this, would you indulge in dishonesty in trust reposed to you."

Greed and lust starts a dishonest life, which is reform-able if we adopt a simple life of "Taqwa", meaning Allah fearfulness. The devil will always instigate anyone accumulate money by dishonesty. Hazrat Ali used to recruit government functionaries on the basis of judging the personal life of the candidate for past. Not only did a candidate's life, but also traits of dependents were put to trial and test to their religiosity. The second condition for the candidate was his efficiency, performance and education. Hazrat Ali used to say that dishonesty starts with a selection of an inefficient person. He said, if this trend did not end that can create a series and bunch of nincompoop. In this regard Imam Ibn-e-Jamiaya said:

"If merit and efficiency of a rightful candidate is ignored because of kinship, friendship, religion or bribe, the dishonesty is not only a sin for the society, but a sin against Al-Mighty Allah and his Holy Prophet (PBUH)”.

Evil and perfidy in the society starts from illegal and wrong recruitment, undue favoritism, recommendation and bribe. There are various cases of bad administration as seen to-day. Bickering and heart aches starts, when merit is ignored. Illegal accumulation of money in the hands of corrupt people raises artificial standard of living in the society, strengthening material life from a simple moral and ethical way of living.

Before, the corruption was not a serious problem as it is today. Spiritual, a pious life with Taqwa was seen in the society. There were many examples of piety and righteousness in present day living. A bad act was snubbed by the people of all walks of life. Characteristics of dignity, honesty, honor, integrity and was propagated everywhere. Today as we have distanced ourselves from Islam, which is a complete code of life. So many evil and sins have entrenched in the society. Corrupts is one of the greatest drawback of western life has been that it has given way to a material world where solutions to problems are non-existent. The poor soul, which is the creation of eternity, is now fragile and weak. The medicine it needs is only through Qur’an and Sunnah. We don't have time to think over these matters. To add fuel to the fire there is hardly any Islamic education in the school curriculum.

Why have I said that lives of the companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) are unparalleled, un-comparable with anyone to all time to come. I would like to narrate a personal sketch of my life demonstrating a firm belief that Islamic teaching affects character, when; a sound spiritual foundation is laid in childhood. I studied in a missionary school St: Anthony, Lahore. I was really impressed by my Islamic studies teacher who proved to be my mentor. His honesty, simplicity and god fearing approach was unparalleled. The lessons he taught us about Holly Qur’an and Hadith of Holy Prophet (PBUH) had left a deep imprint on me as he was a true disciple of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). I distinctly remember that during elaborating the life of Holy Prophet (PBUH), he narrated a story about Hazrat Owais Qarni. This story portrayed that, perfect faith of a believer is attained when his life, honor and property becomes subservient to the life, honor and property of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Corruption has changed the faucet of value orientation in the society. Today if any-body is rich having ample money and capital, is respected in the society. Nobody bothers how did he possess or become the owner of that money? It is usually seen that people have amassed wealth either through corruption, theft, adulteration or fraud. If we give a little thinking on the matter, it is possible that we can abstain from earning money through illicit way. The desire to earn through Halal and justifiable means are not forbidden in Islam, but earning money by bribe and other illegal way is gravely Haram. Being rich through illicit means takes away of peace tranquility and contentment; hence, causing discontentment, restlessness, mental anxiety and break down. Depression is a natural corollary to all these symptoms. People usually argue that they resort to corruption due to meager salaries they draw, but we have to identify people who are drawing lesser salary, and living an honest life by the grace of Al-Mighty Allah. There are many people who are drawing hefty salaries, but are habitual bribe taker. It is an attitude towards perception of life, which is a predominant factor in these circumstances. Greed and lust for bungalows, cars, plots and big bank balance are a few factors which disturb the status quo and put a person to earn bribe. Simple life has given way to an extravagance and ostentatious style. People would demonstrate high status people even the lower junior post officials are inclined to follow the footsteps of ostentatious living like the rich. Social inequality is not due to corruption, however, interdependence between people as a crux of better life.

For instance, an officer needs a junior staff and a peon to carry the file. Had this inequality not been there, the things would come to stand still in the world. Peace and contentment in life is purely a product of living a life on the pattern given by Al-Mighty Allah. We see gloom, despondency and depression even in rich country like Japan and America when they commit suicide. Peace and tranquility is, therefore, found in Islam, a very simple way to get to it is to submit to the will of the Al-Mighty Allah and his commandments sent through the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Gravity of Corruption

The purpose of the Al-Mighty Allah to inhabit man on the earth was that he should spend a peaceful and contended life. Halal ways of earning livelihood, only guarantees a peaceful and a satisfied life not only in this world, but also hereafter. Haram way, on the contrary, disinfect the soul and the body and starts a preposterous life full of vice, tyranny and against the race. In this position of things forbidden way is, therefore, an obstacle towards what Allah wants a Muslim should lead in this world. Corruption is a forbidden act, a Haram in Islam; therefore, peace and tranquility are foregone conclusions. It does affect, as the man creates a stir in the society, ultimately engulfing the whole nation. In light of the above discussion, Al-Mighty Allah guides the mankind through his Holy Book and has defined the boundaries of Halal and Haram (discussed later in this book).

Why Al-Mighty Allah has ordered mankind to abstain from Haram, because it will contaminate the world with evil. Boundaries distinct bribe from honest earning. Transgressing from these boundaries surely will invite Allah's wrath. The wrath of Allah can take the shape of disobedience of wife, children and dependents, spreading ultimately to the whole Ummah. Today Muslim Ummah has degenerated to such an extent that they are losing their identity as firm believer of Islam.

There is a stress in Islam a conscious and continuing effort to earn Halal Way of earning income. Very few people to-day are left who adhere and attribute weight to honesty and uprightness. The majority of the people believe that money is only the way to live better whether it is earned through bribe, gambling, theft, hoarding, adulteration, illegal possession of land or any other form of Haram way. Two types of people will be co-existent in the world. One that is struggling to increase their meager honestly earned income and obeying Allah the other relatively in majority, more particularly, this day’s pro-actively pursuing haram way such as corruption and other means. These are the people from whom fire of the hell is awaiting them.

Money collected through tyranny, theft, street crime, gambling, income on music and cinemas, bribe, income arising out of recording wrong evidence, preparation of forged documents, and receiving gifts and presents through parties, bungling and fraud, mistrust and many other ways that are observed these days are all manifest of Haram ways.

Evil of corruption have be identified, its demerits and false nature has been proved through the verses of the Holy Qur’an and sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). It is; therefore, an incumbent part of the Iman (belief). The bane of Corruption has been inscribed in the Holy Qur’an and authenticated by sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) in Hadith. What has been said about corruption is the final verdict of God and there is absolutely no need for any further argument. We as Muslims are lagging behind in the practices and beliefs of Islam as Ummah. It is; therefore, necessary to shed some more light and bring about some more clarity on the subject.

"A giver and taker of bribe will be ditched in Hell".

This saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is irrefutable; it makes the act of bribery a grave sin. There can be a possibility or suspicion in someone's minds or, he may question as to why the act of bribery is such a heinous sin. To explain that, it is important to review the similarity between a corrupt person and a devil. Furthermore, the avidity and insatiability in a dog also can be compared to that of a corrupt man. A Corrupt person is considered as a part of the queue of disbelievers, infidels, Jews and traitors. On the top of that, there is likelihood that a corrupt one may lose the intercession of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) on the Day of Judgment as mentioned. These thoughts are not enough for people to renounce corruption, as the devil or the self “Nafse-Ammara” would try to prevail. It would tap the conscience and make anyone fall sleep, metaphorically speaking. Some people might think that this book might be blowing everything out of proportion, in identifying issues related to corruption whereas others might assume that intensity of corruption is not as severe as it is projected here.

Let us further deliberate on certain issues from an angle of logic and reasoning and provide answers to certain queries. These deliberations will be focused to impress upon the readers that, the act of bribe is even graver then what already has been discussed.

Repercussions of Corruption

It is seen that family, relatives and dependents of corrupt people are always disobedient to him as he is providing them all the luxuries with haram source. Those who are being fed from a haram source are also committing a sin. The Islamic jurists have enunciated a principle which can be used for evaluating Haram from Halal. If the bribe money exceeds the salary income of a public servant, all which is consumed in day to day expenses, investments and any other venture are termed as "Mukrooh". If all the income is from bribe, it is haram and the punishment would be in accordance to the sin. This principle is applicable to senior officers as well as the subordinates if the principle is weighed accordingly.

Haram earning inclines to bad and shameful acts and, on the contrary, pure way of earning prevents these acts. Although the devil instigates a pure earner also; Allah comes to his safety as he is striving very hard to earn his earnings. A corrupt man is prevented by the devil to commit good act, which is substituted for immoral and sinful behavior he encounters in attainment of bliss of Allah. He is also worried about auspiciousness and involved in collecting ample money that is why; these people always complain that they don't have enough money. The prayer of a corrupt man is not accepted for 40 days. The Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) once said that if anyone performed Hajj from Haram money and said: "Labaik", the angel from the heaven give a reply saying that your "Labaik" is not heard because performance of Hajj was arranged through Haram money.

Absence of Allah’s Blessing

Halal source of earning is a blessing of Allah on earth because it incites a person to practice for good deeds,

“Who Are Active in Deeds of Charity”.

Halal ways are not obligatory for Prophets only but for all Muslim as it initiates a way of life of thanksgiving to Allah.

“You killed them not, but Allah killed them.  And you threw not when you did throw, but Allah threw, that He might test the believers by a fair trial from Him. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.”

Halal ways of earning strengthen the belief that all sustenance a Rizq is provided by Allah. We have to sustain and forebear our Rizq even if it is meager

On the importance of Halal Rizq which inculcates thanksgiving and lay a correct foundation of procrastination before the Al-Mighty Allah. Earning Halal has always remained difficult in all times; therefore it is a Jihad fighting in the way of Allah against the infidels.

The Wrath Of Allah

A Hadith referenced in "Kanzul Ummal" says:

"For the flesh that is reared on Suht (the unlawful), the fire is the most appropriate, place."

When it was asked, from the Holy Prophet "what is Suht?" It was replied, "Bribe". Suht means money earned from a Haram source, which is derived out of theft, robbery, or income earned from sale or purchase of wine and money obtained as a result of interest or usury or any other illegal money that is derived out of these pursuits. This Hadith explains the meaning of Suht singularly, by calling it bribery. It is considered shameful for a corrupt person to attain money through bribes termed as Suht”, which is the dirtiest of the Haram sources that can be earned. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) referred to “Suht” as the most abhorrent form of earning.

The Holy Qur’an in Surah Al-Maidah says that those people who earn money through "Suht" have certain characteristics. This verse enlightens provocative intensity, and also draws the reader's attention towards this evil. After identifying these people, it will be that, why the Holy Prophet (PBUH) used this word "Suht" as bribe. God and His Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), in reference to these people defined corrupt people and therefore they should be judged accordingly. A corrupt person is deprived of Allah’s blessing. He is not only a loser in this world, but there is an awful doom waiting for him hereafter as well. Thus, one can invoke the wrath of Allah Almighty when one takes bribes. The corrupt ones, as explained in the Holly Qur’an, will stand on the same footing as rebellious people who are against the teaching of God and His Prophet (PBUH).

Falsification of Prayers and Good Deeds

The above reason that takes the act of corruption to a highest level of sin has been discussed. The fourth element relates to the life hereafter. The reader will understand that a corrupt person in pursuance of his acts falsifies his prayers and good deeds. On the Day of Judgment he would be devoid of good deeds. Some Hadiths of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) shed light in this regard and are illustrated hereunder:

"He who takes one loaf of Haram food, his prayers would not be accepted for forty nights."

In another saying, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that:

"Any person who purchases cloth for 10 Dirham, out of which one Dirham is from a Haram source, God will not

accept his prayers and supplication until he

weans the cloth off his body."

(Musnad Ahmad).

These sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) signify that the act of bribe, not only wastes a man's prayers, but also all the actions which are connected to the body. In another saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) which is related to soul. Holly Prophet also said that the act of bribe wastes alms and money given in the way of charity, if it is from a Haram source. Moreover, he said that any earning from an ill-legal source, if distributed as Alms and Sadqat to relative or given to others as charity in the name of Allah, the amount so spent, together with the people who gave it will be ditched in hell.

Some people believe in a wrong notion that they are free to amass wealth from a Haram source of income. They believe that the money they have earned through illicit ways can later be spent in Allah's way, which would be deemed as a good deed and, thus, eventually balance the sin committed through bribe. The following Hadith clarifies any such misgivings. Any Alms and Sadqat given in charity out of ill-gotten means does not increase the account of good deeds, on the contrary, it increases the account of sins of the giver.

Corruption falsifies prayers, along with all the supplications, the money given in alms and charity out of this source; all these so-called "good deeds" are not accepted by Allah. This is explained in the following saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

"Anybody who eats one loaf of bread out of ill-gotten money, his good deeds is not accepted for forty days."

The use of forbidden money creates hurdles in acceptance of prayers and the accounts of good deeds before Allah. The matter becomes worse when his supplications are also not accepted. There is another famous saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH),

"There are abundant reasons in acceptance of the supplication of a person before Allah, when he is imploring to Him, and the money he has earned out of illegal sources prevents, the prayers and supplications reaching the Almighty Allah."

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) in this Hadith further reiterated:

"The condition of a person is such that his eating and drinking is from a forbidden source; his clothes and provision of other goods is also Haram, in presence of these acts, how can the prayers of a person be accepted?"

Alas! This is quite disturbing, as there is no chance of acceptance of a man's prayer who is involved in corruption. On the Day of Judgment the plight of a corrupt person would be such that his prayers are wasted, good deeds are not accounted for and his supplications are turned down; therefore, it is right to say that the corrupt person's plight is “precariously alarming".

Mental and Social Impacts

To resolve mental dissension that can arise in the minds of people, a logical explanation is being given for these issues. At the onset, the issue of corruption is not as superfluous, as it may be appearing on its face value. One should therefore analyze its nature and discuss its repercussions. It is a very simple act, where one person gives the other a return for the work done for him. The person gets a return as a benefit, which does not form part of his salary. The act is; therefore, very simple and straightforward. However, if the nature of bribe taking is analyzed, its ramifications and the impact are fourfold. The readers can understand that these characteristics are existent in every form of bribe. We will logically try to explain and clarify these issues one by one.

The person who takes bribes not only infringes his right, but also, of a cross section of the society. Allah has said that he will forgo his own rights, but will not pardon anybody who forfeits rights of man. A corrupt person can therefore put whole nation into jeopardy due to his actions. Thirdly, a corrupt person creates a dis-balance in the social and legal set-up of the country and finally entire world at large. The system that is in operation to impart justice and fair play ceases, due to dishonest and deceitful practices of bribery. It also creates ripples and disunity amongst the Muslim Ummah in particular. When a person will be brought before the Almighty Allah, he will not have a positive account of good deeds that he has accumulated, as that one act of bribe will be enough to overshadow all of his good deeds. The four reasons stated above, reiterate the fact that the giving or taking of bribes is a very grave sin.

The Aftermath of Corruption

Degeneration of spiritual values

There are innumerable reasons that breed corruption, one of main factors, that stands out, is a continuous spiritual degeneration in the society at large. In the past times, people were more predisposed to values that had a sound spiritual foundation of piety and “Taqwa”. A person was well-respected for his predominantly conscientious, ethical values, which were an example of honest and upright living. The influx of the western civilization has changed man from being a spiritual entity into a materialistic being. People are well-respected in a society, if they have capital and money, irrespective of the fact that they may be suffering from moral and ethical ineptitude.

Honest and upright people are categorized among idiots and are considered inefficient. The outcome of this kind of attitude is that everyone wants to amass wealth and be rich; having a brand new motor car and a big palatial house, from whatever source (more often Haram than Halal) they can get is the ideal scenario. On failure to acquire these luxuries, some people turn to Haram means of earning, of which taking bribes is the foremost and easiest one. For the prevention of the evil of corruption, one can try to make his/her life spiritually motivated, by making practical observance of Taqwa, reinforcement of ethics and character etc. Furthermore, if stress and importance is placed on characteristics and attributes of uprightness and honesty, this malice can be obliterated for good.

The spiritual values in short, have to be professed and propagated. Insha Allah, by the grace of God if one is successful in highlighting these virtues, a big door of corruption can finally be closed and this evil can be eradicated from our society for good.

Deprivation of Contentment and Tranquility

The truth about bribe is that, it does not fulfill the prime desire for peace and tranquilly. It may inflate bank accounts; one may be able to buy new cars and palatial bungalows, we may even be able to hold big posts, but it is impossible to obtain peace and tranquility with bribe money. It is highly improbable that, the increase in bribes may bring any kind of happiness for the people who are corrupt. Things therefore, get clearer with the view which affirms that corruption has destroyed peace of the heart, tranquility and contentment in life.

Mental Agony and Distress

It is seen that people who are corrupt are usually involved in various problematic situations. They are either ill, or are a part of litigation procedures due to disputes, because of the ill effect of bribes in the lives. There are two other attributes which are distinctive of a corrupt person. These two features form the part and parcel of his life.

In the first place a corrupt person feels belittled and ridiculed in his own eyes, if not before other people. His conscience is always pricking him for these sinful acts; he is constantly reprimanded before his own eyes. The agony and torture he faces cannot be healed. The second feature of his life is fear of unknown; it is always an over-shadowing influence on him. His heart aches and his mind is boggled by the possibility that, the law of land may catch up on him any time and that he may get into trouble. This unknown fear does not allow him to enjoy life from various resources he owns, and is available to anyone in Halal form. In spite of the abundant resources and wealth, he leads an empty life.

Revolt by Near Ones

Another issue which is in fact greater in magnitude than the other two discussed above is, that the corrupt man’s family, his spouse, children and other relatives are always disobedient towards him. The Holy Qur’an has given a verdict in this regard:

“Eat of the good things wherewith we have provided you and transgress not.”

(Surah Al-Ta’Ha, Ayat-81).

Here revolts specifically relates to Haram earning, which is the main cause of disobedience. A person who is fed out of ill-begotten money can stir revolt, disobedience towards Allah and to the elders as well. The Haram source of earning starts the circle of disobedience towards Allah firstly and then the near relatives are next in line, because they were being fed out of a Haram source. The summary of this Hadith entails that, a person who has provided his family through a forbidden source, is in fact living with disobedient people. He is in actuality living a life as if he resides in a Hell! Alas!

Lack of Auspiciousness

On an honest review of the life of a corrupt man, three distinct factors can indefinitely be observed. Firstly, he is ridiculed by his conscience; secondly he is confronted perpetually with the unknown fear, and thirdly his spouse, children and subordinates are all disobedient towards him. To add another factor which is a conspicuous part of a corrupt person’s life is that the money that is earned out of corruption, does not have the blessing of God. It is seen that bank balance of a corrupt person increases by leaps and bounds; it may also be possible that he may own cars and palatial houses.

He may also dish out cash to obtain high positions, yet the pace at which he earns such money; he would lose it as well. A corrupt person, who owns cars, houses and other luxuries, can be compared to a person who is sick in health. The manifestation of the disease is such that he is sick from within although he may appear healthy to others outwardly. He may look well-built as compared to other people, but deep down he is unwell and sick. This sick man is comparable to a corrupt man, who has money and spends it on his artificial life filled with pomp, glory and pleasure. However, when he runs out of money, his life is an embodiment of bad luck. It is generally seen that substantial part of the money earned in corruption is extravagantly spent on debauchery, and other vices and sins. The ways of life and the spending of a corrupt person is therefore a source of disgrace to him in this world and also hereafter. The fact is very well explained in the saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH),

“Whosoever earns money through an illegal source and spends it in a forbidden way,God will put him in the house of mortification.”

May God shield us from entering the house of mortification, Ameen!

CHAPTER 4: Rizq Versus Bribery

Al-Mighty Allah has quantified sustenance or Rizq of every being on this earth. It is Allah’s prerogative to give plenty to one and meager to others. Allah says that everything about Rizq is written in the book of fortune lying with him in the heavens. The earner of money from a Haram or a Halal way should not worry as the delay due to hindrance can result but he has to get what is written, even the time is fixed.

A corrupt man does not understand it, and finally, get trapped by his greed and temptation, which is difficult to forgo for future. A rightful, a Halal earner should not loose heart and consider his meager rightful earning as what Allah kept for him with thanksgiving. The person is required not to trespass unlawful boundary to acquire the wealth from all Haram ways including bribe.

Amassing wealth after trespassing boundaries of Allah is prohibited, by doing so and transgressing boundaries of Allah will not only forfeit the right of Allah, but the people at large, including family and other kith and kin. The best way to overcome financial stringency is to pray to God and make a conscious attempt to lower artificial standard of living adjusting expenditure with the graving income. We completely forget that attainment of the Rizq is left to the will of the man, he can either endure or receive it by Halal way or he unleashes his whims and capriciousness and earn it through Haram way including bribe. No one is to blame because the boundaries “Hudood” is explicitly defined by Allah and explained explicitly by his Prophet (PBUH).

Hazrat Ali once asked a person to take care of his horse for a few moments as he entered the mosque to offer his prayers. Seeking this opportunity, the person fled away taking the saddle of Hazrat Ali’s horse. On his way back, Hazrat Ali saw his saddle in a shop and after a little inquiry he purchased the same saddle for 2 dirham, this saddle was sold to the shop-keeper for the same amount by that person. Hazrat Ali said that he had already decided to give the poor person 2 dirham for his services before entering into the mosque, but he adopted a Haram way to earn it. He earned the money by his own choice; he trespass the boundaries of Allah and in committing theft he forfeited the right of the caliph also. The disgrace and humiliation will be encountered in this world by adhering to bribe followed by the woes and miseries on the Day of Judgment.

The devil here is the culprit, because he infuses and does not like integrity, honesty and uprightness in a Muslim. Illicit money does not alter what anyone had to get in this world but it eliminates Allah's blessing for him. One more observation is that, the bribe money is spent very fast as well on uncontrollable incidents such as he may encounter unexpected court cases and physical ailments etc. The Allah, the Creator is responsible for distribution of RIZQ to every being that inhabits the earth.

"And there is not a beast in the earth, but the sustenance thereof depends on Allah. He knows its habitation and its repository. All is in a clear record."

There is nothing assured in the kingdom of Allah, except distribution of the Rizq. All forms of benevolence to the earth's inhabitants are due to the will of Allah. As far as the quota of wealth and other things are concerned, Allah has re-assured every-being that they would get their rightful share as it has been fixed by Him in their life. One verse in Qur’an quotes:

"Lo! Allah fails not to keep the trust."

Whatever has been determined and assured for men, Allah does not go against his promise. He has assured the "Rizq", even the place and time is also definite. It will reach the individual in any given situation that is going to arise. Thus, it is reiterated that a human's sustenance as portrayed in the previous verse has been determined by God. His commands conferring the rights of individuals are mentioned in Ayat-6 of Surah Al-Hud that everyone will get his due share and it is also written in book kept in the heavens “Loh-e-Mahfouz”.

On the basis of instructions to whatever Allah has quantified, Rizq will reach making without any change. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) explained further that, nobody would die until he had utilized what was ordained and fixed for him, as Holly Prophet's (PBUH) hadith quotes:

"No one can die until he completes his life and the sustenance Allah has fixed for him."

Everyone has to complete the tenure of his life, and before he dies would have utilized the quota of Rizq fixed for him; nothing is left more or less in the world that has already been decided.

As identified by Allah Almighty and the Hadith, anyone who thinks that in pursuit of his livelihood, he could change his share of sustenance, he is actually deluding himself along with forsaking his faith. If before accepting bribes, the corrupt person could realize that, then perhaps he would never dare to take it in the first place.

Haram Negates Allah’s Will

People are so mentally deranged that they do not want to renounce Bribe. It is true that a tree leaf cannot move without the consent of Allah but it is irrefutable reality that he has left the matter of earning entirely on the man himself. By adopting Haram way for earning, the person gets his share, but there is no blessing of Allah in it. Allah is pure himself whereas rationalizing impurity towards him is only our brain child. This is beautifully explained in Holly Qur’an as:

“Serve none but Allah. Lo! I am unto you from Him a warner and a bringer of good tidings”.       

(Surah Al-Ankaboot Ayat-1)

Not only that even good deed such as Alms given from bribed money is not liked by Allah. It is also possible that a person may present millions of arguments in favor of bribe to justify himself in front of other people, but it is difficult to convince his own conscious. For instance, a corrupt person will always try to rationalize his act, saying that Allah could have given them the right path, but this is incorrect version, as no wrong or impure deed is attributed to Allah.

Neither can anybody act nonchalantly as the way corrupt people act today. They probably forget that Allah left in acquiring of Rizq to the exercise of the man. The defense of corrupt people pricks their conscience. A corrupt man is said to be living in his own world. Firstly, the matter of sustenance is accurate; a firm part of the belief leaves no room for any other reason. A point that can arise is: Do we actually know what Allah has decided of sustenance for us? The answer is very simple that we do not know the exact provisions of sustenance Allah has provided for everyone.

Rationally speaking Allah can, therefore, ask a man whether he knew about his sustenance or Rizq if he had manifested a Halal way that would have pleased Allah than why would one go for a Haram way of earning that livelihood. Therefore,. the question to be asked is that, do we actually need to take bribe and adopt a Haram course to earn a livelihood? Alas! A Haram source makes man a culprit and disobedient towards the orders of Allah. He sacrifices his end, for the worldly gains that are available through Halal way, thus making his fate worse than it would actually be. It makes absolutely no sense that a person gets something through the wrong means, which he takes it because he believes that it was destined that he would get it through illegal mean. This is an illusion, not a reality.

Another important issue is that, we must not mingle Allah’s will with His bliss. It is possible that at times there can be Allah’s will in certain cases, whereas His bliss is not present. This has been explained in Verse-5 Surah Al-Ankabut, “Who so looks forward to the meeting with Allah (let him know that) Allah’s reckoning is surely high and He is the Hearer the Knower”. This verse explains that anyone who desires anything from Allah, he will get that, but what is important is that he should try to acquire it through Allah’s will.

If anyone tries to obtain something via a Haram way, they should go ahead but the point to understand here is what way that would affect him. Similarly, if anyone opts for the Halal way, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah says:

“I am as My slave thinks of Me.”

(Hadith Qudsiyah Darul Ishaat Page#49).

God is very close to man. If a person desires from God, it is manifested via his supplication. This is true for a thief as well, when he leaves home, he desires to get his sustenance out of burgled booty; Allah has already created a deterrent for him, he should know that the right way of getting his share is the divine way of earning. The issue to understand that Allah has left it unto man to decide what is best for him. Similarly a laborer who prays for success for his hard work and earning the right way, his efforts are accepted and his right work is made easier, of course the will of Allah and His bliss and pleasure is with this laborer and not with the thief as narrated in the above example.

In the light of this discourse, whatever the corrupt one earns is not so, because God willed it that way, but the, actual matter is that the corrupt person demanded and desired it through a Haram source, which is why he got it at his own choice. Allah did not interfere with the corrupt person’s choice as nothing is ordained without the will of Allah; certainly Allah’s Raza (bliss and pleasure) was not there in the act because the person resorted to bribe, he knew that bribe is a Haram way of earning livelihood; he acted against the boundaries of Allah.

Curse of Almighty Allah

A corrupt one is therefore comparable to a rebellious person. He is the one who does not follow the commandments of God and His Prophet (PBUH). A corrupt person, although (Muslim) by birth, possesses attributes similar to those of infidels and Jews. Thus, it is correct to say that the curse of Allah and His Prophet (PBUH) befalls on them.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) is a source of blessing “Rehmat” for the world and the heavens. He is a source of kindness and mercy not only for the Muslim, but also for the non-believers. Despite pressure from his followers, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not curse the non-believers, instead even forgave those who had persecuted him and made him leave his house. Even those who murdered and ate the liver of his uncle Hazrat Hamzah in revenge and who killed his beloved daughter Zainab were pardoned. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) did not feel ill-will against them, but forgave them all. The only point to note is that he despised corrupt people virulently, cursed them not once but several times, and on various occasions.

According to Ibn Majah, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said:

“those who give and take bribe, God’s

curse would befall them”.

Allah’s curse is on those who give and take bribe (Kanzul Ummal). Furthermore, the giver of bribe is also condemned and cursed.

“In case of a dispute of curse of God befalls on both the giver and taker of bribe.”

(Tirmizhi Musnad Ahmed).

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has not only cursed the giver and taker of bribe, but has also cursed the intermediary in such situations. (Ahya-ul Uloom, verse-6 page 65). The broker who finalizes the deal is also considered to be an accomplice, and is therefore cursed along with the others. (Mustadrah Haakim).

The curse of Allah is absence of the blessing of the Lord. It is perturbing to note that the blessing of Allah is on all entities present in this universe, Alas! Only a corrupt person is outside the purview of the blessing of Allah. The severity of this atrocity is evident in Hadith:

"Curse is upon a person who accepts bribe in a dispute. This bribe will act as a veil between the corrupt one and the heaven."

This Hadith made it clear that a person because of his good deeds and conduct would definitely enter the heaven on the Day of Judgment, but if he takes bribe, he will not be able to achieve that goal. Bribe will act as a veil between him and the heaven, thus making him unsuccessful. The gravity of this Hadith cannot be weighed at present as it looks like an ordinary statement. It is beyond comprehension what this statement would entail on the Day of Judgment. One cannot fathom what the day would be like! The Sun, is said to be at an arm’s length, whereas the earth would be red-hot and everyone would be able to feel the excruciating heat. There will be a pandemonium everywhere and people will be waiting to hear the verdict, i.e. heaven or hell. Just imagine a man who is otherwise good and is a most probable candidate for heavens will be stopped by a veil or a hurdle to enter heaven due to bribe taking in the world. The feeling cannot be described in words here, and neither can a sketch be drawn as to show the severity of punishment that is going to be inflicted on such a person. However, the Holy Qur’an has portrayed a scene:

"On the day when the wrong doer gnawed his hands he will say: Ah, would that I hadchosen a way together with the messenger (of Allah)!"

(Surah Al-Furqan, Ayat-27).

People, who have not followed the path of Allah and His Messenger (PBUH), will encounter such an experience on the Day of Judgment. Alas! If we only make a conscious effort in the right direction in order to protect ourselves, from a difficult situation that Allah forbid would be faced by anyone in the end. By the grace of God, we can make a concerted effort to act righteously, so that, we do not end up in that predicament. Therefore, we may try to restrain ourselves, so that God can help us not to take bribe in the future.

Effect on Human Life

The devil did not get the chance, however, a man has a chance to renounce disobedience and offer penitence. The study of the social scientist felt about the impact of the moment the giver of the bribe leave an office, a chain of abuses on the taker starts immediately. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) also said that the curse of Allah can even be carried down in the line of descendant for seven successive generations. This is horrendous, we did not spare out children who have to come in this world.

“Those who spend (in good) and those who pray and beg Allah's pardon in the last hours of the night.”

Life is tuned miserable so much so that various physical and mental disorders are seen in the people e.g. depression and anxiety is common. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that corruption bring in inflation, draughts and scarcity in food. It inculcates prejudices hatreds and parochialism. Consistent habit in corruption sometimes leads to doubt and suspicion in the Qur’an and Hadith the most valuable asset for a Muslim. It is seen that corrupt people are involved in many long court cases. They fail to understand that due to their corruption the system of justice and fair play was disturbed. They caught in tyranny themselves by their own act. Hypocrisy, the corrupt people learnt by repeatedly speaking false. Bureaucrats and politicians decide matters of public on the basis of their whims and capricious therefore social delivery for people is almost negligible. The religious life of a corrupt man is confided to just rituals only. His prayers are empty not accepted his supplications are turned down. Alms and sadqaats are not accepted; he will be deprived to go in heavens and ditched in hell. However, for the reader we can summarize the gist of impact of corruption on human life.

Loss of Intercession of Holy Prophet (PBUH)

The wrath of Allah entails that a corrupt man can lose a chance of mediation by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) on the Day of Judgment. Many Muslims can think that this statement is exaggerated, which is not true, as it reinforces the curse to the act of corruption. A Muslim, we pray, should not lose his last chance of salvation, through the mediation of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). A number of Hadiths state that bribes will create a wedge between the person and the heaven; therefore, it may put us in a situation as portrayed below. The picture that will appear on the Day of Judgment cannot be visualized now. A person qualifying for heavens would be prevented from entering it because of the act of Bribery that was so abhorrent. The sentiments of dismay cannot be expressed now, but the Holy Qur’an has eloquently portrayed such a scene in Surah Al-Furqan.

A Corrupt one might be entitled to heavens on account of other good deeds, but will be prevented from entering the heaven because of a veil or a hurdle due to habitual bribe taking. The situation cannot be described in words, it cannot be explained what would actually happen on the Day of Judgment. There would be a wave of selfishness all around, the Sun would be red-hot and nobody will be able to judge whether anyone is entitled for the heavens or hell. One cannot visualize the helplessness of a corrupt man at that time. The Holy Qur’an has depicted a dismayed and apt portrayed feeling of such a person as:

“That day the cruel would eat its hands in agony and would utter Alas! I should have sided with the Holy Prophet (PBUH), “verily so those who do not follow the path of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) would repent on that day”.

(Surah Al-Furqan, Ayat-27)

Corruption makes the life miserable. The pomp and glory is artificial because it creates an envious situation with others leading to animosity and feeling of jealousy throughout the society. A beautiful Hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) narrated by Imam Ahmad explains what the Holly Prophet (PBUH) told the Ummah:

“I vow by Al-Mighty Allah in whose hand my life vest that it is better than anyone out of you, take a rope and climb the mountain, cut wood from the Jungle, tie it with the rope around his back, toil laboriously and buy food from selling of the wood in the market. Conversely it is better for anyone to have heap of clay and put it in the mouth than to resorts to begging from the people, Allah has forbidden for all”.

Chapter 5: Corruption and Different Stratagem

There is natural tendency in the humans that they try to invent various modes and methods to bring a better order in their lives. The Jews were suffering from this melancholia. The Holy Qur’an says that Jews were prohibited to eat fat. Their intention was to defy Allah. They devised way and means, melted fat which changed the shape to oil and declared that the oil was Halal. The Christian also made oils from pork on the same stratagem as the Jews used to do.

This wrong notion has virused Muslim also because there are majority of people who think that taking things and articles in kind is not corruption as taking cash is Haram only. This over simplification can be compared to the Jews ways of thinking. Other stratagem are also seen in the society as wife, children and dependents of officers are socially introduced to get gifts and presents, donations which are also a rationalistic manifestation of certain type of corruption. Taqwa negates a thinking pattern which makes Haram a permissible act.

Corruption a Severe Test

A high position, effluence in wealth, pomp and glory is not a parameter of success for the next world. These worldly things are a test for the holder of posts

"He is Who created you, but one of you is a disbeliever and one of you is a believer, and Allah knows every you know"

The power and influence are the tests to judge people; that how do they obey Allah by conforming to the boundaries derived by Allah Almighty. Following the wishes and desires lead a person to an artificial life. The post or a job is a trust, endowment of Allah to a person meant for the benefit of humanity and not as a mean of attaining personal benefit. As Allah forewarns people very beautifully in Holly Qur’an:

"Anyone who commits such acts of aggression and injustice will soon be thrown into hellfire, and this is very easy for Allah to do".

                                                                                                                (Surah Taha Ayat-4)

In the first place wealth and family is a test for a person, but if he is following through bribe or other illegal means the condition would be very gloomy for him on the Day of Judgment. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that no one would be able to keep his feet intact on the Day of Judgment until he answered four questions which Allah will put to everyone:

          1. How did he spend his life?
          2. How did he spend his youth?
          3. How did he earn the living and how did he spend it?

 

It is possible that people get a lesser punishment for their wrong acts in this world; however, no one will be discharged for his accountability before Allah on the Day of Judgment. This is practically a very difficult matter as a strict justification to the Day of Judgment has always to be reviewed by the Muslim.

Corruption is also termed as a worst form of mischief. Mischief is itself an evil, sometimes more heinous than murder "Those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying it and (who) make mischief in the earth: Those are they who are the losers" Mischief is despised in Islam because it infuses hatred result out to bloodshed and various other disorders in the society. The attitude of disbelief and disunity can affect the faith of a Muslim. The mischief of corruption can therefore take the following shapes:

  1. It can deter truth, righteousness and fair play, equality in the society.
  2. It makes a person slave of money and power
  3. It inculcates obstinate and shameless behavior spread a very dangerous virus of cowardice.

The mischief of corruption creates envy, animosity and jealousy. Therefore, a chain of criminal behavior sets in the society; such as murder, prostitution, financial frauds, worsening of law and order situation are a few that is mentioned. Mischief of corruption makes way to bad governance that peace and tranquility in personal life almost vanishes. The devil has succeeded in injecting in the society, people have succumbed to devils dictates, mainly due to the mischief of corruption.

Litmus Test for establishing Corruption

In order to test the veracity of corruption, there is a litmus test that can be performed, so that the reader can differentiate between right and wrong. Whenever anyone wants to know if any form of give and take is corruption or not, one can put the matter to test and judge its results, Insha-Allah there will be no ambiguity in comprehending the act of corruption even if it is vivid. In a simple case of transfer of money from one person to another, following four conditions are necessary to be fulfilled under the Shariah Law for an act to be a rightful. Anything falling outside these conditions can easily be termed as a form of corruption:-

  1. Any money or a valuable article that is transferred by way of Hiba or Donation, on account of love and affection, if it is duly executed and agreed between the two parties under a blood relationship is not corruption.
  2. Secondly, money or a valuable article, which is transferred through mutual consent by way of sale and purchase of goods and articles on a set price from one person to another, is also not considered as corruption.
  3. Transfer of rights in lieu of mutual agreement for rendering of the service is also considered justified.
  4. Transfer of money or valuable articles as a result of inheritance from one person to another, is also acceptable and does not constitute corruption.

 

 

The transfer of ownership under the Shariah law can be affected through these four modes. Any other transfer, in any form or mode which is legally not permissible in Shariah law is termed as bribe. As far as the second and fourth condition is concerned, it cannot be taken as a form of bribe, because bribe cannot be construed as a business of sale and purchase; there is no possibility to stretch bribe in order to equate it to inheritance. Corruption can only be disguised in the first and the third condition.

 

For Hiba and Donation, the thing that is to be verified is if the officials who received Hiba or Donation are present on the job when it was given. In this case, it would be considered as a form of corruption because he received it while he was working and atomically it is not love and affection but other intentions were involved. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) remarks should be kept in view, when he sent a receiver to collect zakat from a clan called “Azd”. The receiver received gifts from different people, which he separated from the money he received as zakat and sadaqaat for the state. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) remarked angrily,

“If it is true that the people gave gifts themselves, then why did the receiver not receive these gifts,

while he was in his parents’ home instead of he received them on duty”

This Hadith has been quoted in Sahih-Bukhari Hadith-2597, Sahih-Muslim Hadith-26.1832 and Sahih-Abu-Dawood Hadith-2946, Musnad Ahmad Hadith-5-423.

Corruption and Gifts

A modern trend has emerged of giving and receiving gifts and presents. Not to be considered as a bribe, logic is drawn that, presents are given in lieu of love and affection. However, the conditions have to be examined the intention of the giver. In case the gifts are given for a certain work in return in the future, it does not remain gift or present, on the contrary, it becomes corruption. These gifts and presents are given to public functionaries and political leaders by ordinary people. We can also Judge things from the power a post carries as these gifts and presents are given to the post rather than a person. Another litmus test is to see whether the person posted on the job did get these gifts and presents before he joined the office or otherwise. This can also be verified when he leaves the office or his job and remains unconnected socially with the giver.

A famous Islamic jurist Hafiz Sheikh Abu Hasar says that the gifts and presents should not be too expensive in any case, but according to Imam Ghazali, the gifts and presents are Halal if the person continues to get them even after he had retired from position. However, the philosophy behind this illusion is worth to consider.

The desires and needs of people are different from one another. Some want to become rich; others want more children, some desire high posts, etc. Apparently, these desires are diametrically different, but in reality they have a single nucleus. Everyone has a single desire and that is the manifestation of peace and tranquility. The above desire is in fact at the back burner behind different emotions. Some people believe that, by attaining wealth they would obtain peace and tranquility, whereas others might need children, arguing that they would be a source of joy and happiness.

 

There are some who aspire for higher posts, believing that these posts will bring prosperity and stability. Desires are, therefore, identical in all human beings, but their manifestations are different. That is the reason one tends to curse money, if it does not bring contentment and peace. Furthermore, we seek the help of Allah if our children are worthless.

We ridicule high posts and positions if they disturb one's contentment and peace. It is, therefore, a universal principle that, everyone has a desire for peace and happiness at the back of his or her mind.

The Ordinary Relationship of Love and Friendship

The devil will again and again try to wrap the dirt of corruption in a clean and presentable way. He will ask the taker not to demand anything at the time of work or at the end of the day, but instead would instigate him to develop a relationship of friendship and love with the person, by which it would enable him to get gifts and presents at a later stage. This would also give him the way to be invited to various parties, enjoying the benefit in lieu of love and relationship, and this act will not be considered Corruption. Sending gifts and presents on different occasions, invitation of parties is not considered a form of bribe according to the wrong doers. One may even perhaps feel and understand that, these actions were really an outcome of love and friendship, but in fact it is done with a specific purpose, i.e. to contact and give bribe. One can under a misguided debt and obligation in view of the relationship of love and in the need of the hour, one is compelled to do the work for the so-called established love, but the devil has injected a wrong notion.

The gifts and presents are given to a person with power, in return of some work in the present or future; the love and affection in this context is just rhetoric and not real at all, in view of the prevailing paradise.

It may not be considered a bribe if the gifts and presents were being given after a person retired from a position of power. It is the power (post) that invites giving of presents and gifts. Therefore, the relevant question to be asked is whether people who do not occupy particular posts receive such benefits? In the same way this test can also be applied to when someone has returned form the position. The intimation of the giver of gift was to obtain the delight and attention of the officer for a pending works. The devil's game of gifts and present is in fact a bribe.

 

There is a famous anecdote, where a person used to send a gift of a camel's leg, each year, to Hazrat Umer. Coincidentally, one day his case came before the Caliph for judgment. The man remarked sarcastically, to remind the caliph of his past relationship with him, saying, "O Amirul Mumineen, decide this case in a manner that separates camel's leg from the camel." Hazrat Umer understood the remarks of the person. These types of referrals were nothing else, but bribe, and the Caliph wrote a letter to all his governors to be on guard and to understand the different types of strategies adopted by people in the field.

Gifts and Presents given to the Spouse and Children

            Another misconception is to send gifts and presents to family members of an official on the assumption that love and intimacy to the family is not connected with his office. The Corrupt thinks that giving presents to children do not create a right of the officer. Therefore, gifts can be sent to spouse or children for getting closer to them and their recommendation would lead to the accomplishment of work that was pending in his office. The devil has been successful to highlight that the beneficiaries are spouse, children and near relatives, not him which are evidently the ones receiving the benefit. This reason can also be seen in history about the story of Bani Isreal, (Jews) who were prohibited to catch fish on Saturday. They dug up wells and ponds with small outlets, to indirectly catch fish on Saturday. The catch fell in these wells and ponds on Saturday and later on Sunday, they collected the catch. This was done to dislodge and disobey Allah. That invited Allah's wrath; result, they became monkeys,

 

"So when they took pride in that which they had been forbidden, we said to them, Be you apes, despised and loathed."

 

              (Surah Al-Araaf, Ayat-166)

One can take it as a rule that deriving benefits from a person, who has worked on the job with any other directly or indirectly, is a form of corruption according to the sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The act is not permissible, even if it is routed through spouse or his children. Therefore, the relatives and family who receive gifts are compared with the people of Bani Israel, who had dug up ditches to collect fish next day, the day it was forbidden to catch. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has said:

"Do not perpetrate what the Jews did because they made what Allah had forbidden permissible through deception and alteration."

Reward After Work Completion

In another identical situation, if a person performs his duty according to the requirement of his job, and completes his work responsibly under the law and does not favor or decide against any person due to his honesty and hard work and as a gesture of goodwill, he is rewards by the person who was the rightful owner.

A question that can arise is whether this act is termed as corruption or not? The answer yet again is yea, as the devil again has deceived him and this act fulfills the condition of corruption. As public functionary and employed for doing rightful work he receives salary. Anything received in addition to salary, cannot be termed rightful, as the contractor agreement clearly defines the principle where he is not, entitled to receive an award.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has termed this act as bribe, which is strictly prohibited and forbidden. The sin is less sinister as compared to performing an act wrongly against somebody and taking bribe. If something is given in return for a rightful act, as a result of bliss or gratitude, the question arises that can be Halal? An example of a prostitute although show some similarity, but it is a way to explain a matter properly.

The question is that can she hand her chastity happily to a person in return for money? Can this action be taken as Halal as she merely did wrong for the bliss and gratitude of the buyer and not for the money? Can adultery be construed Halal? If bliss and happiness is the predominant factor, which is not at all then judging a wrong from a right, due to bliss and happiness can make corruption a Halal act. If the will, bliss and happiness of the giver are justified as a reasonable fact or for giving bribe, then the giver is not liable to be ditched in Hell, the taker would be the only sufferer.

 

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has categorically stated that the giver and the taker of bribe will also be put in hell. Not only this, the intermediary is also recriminated as he doles out the money on behalf of someone else, connecting people on Haram, he will also be put in hell.

            The Hadith of Holy Prophet (PBUH) related by Abu Humayd Saidi (RA) should also be noted. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:

“A Government functionary who received gifts was in fact acting dishonestly.”

Corruption and Donation

Traditionally posts and job not only attracts gifts and presents, in addition, there are other modes of transferring money or article through donations. The only difference is that donation carries a cause of public nobility. The misuse of donation is, therefore, entirely on the intention of the receiver. Worldly benefits and garbing nobility and religiosity acting contrary to the mission statement of the trust is all unjustified mean of earning even if you call it a donation.

Donation to the religious and educational trust given openly is only, permissible if it is intended to encourage and train the people to adhere to alms and sadqaats. The credentials of the trust have to be verified before the donations are given to them publicly. Publicity meant for promotions of business and other worldly gains are not permissible and are corrupt practices to extract money for personal gains. Budgets of big industries and businesses, multinational organizations have a hidden agenda to get publicity of their products with a design to get benefited from the government functionaries. Banking companies give loan to these trusts to attract businesses because the trust holds their own money and various donors are also focal interest of the banks. Trusts having the agendas of profit making are in fact a sophisticated form of corruption.

This is a test that determines bribe in different from here Hiba or Donation is nothing else, but corruption. A person may receive gifts and donations on rendering services, but it is to be seen that on the return in lieu of the service performed dues that form a part of the agreement he was employed for. If it is so, it is not thing return on service, but garbed a form of corruption. All officials receive salaries and allowances, as a part of employment, service or duty. Anything received in excess of that salary and allowance, will be:-

  1. Dishonesty on account of public money, which is committed by a public functionary in the office. If the public funds are available at his disposal and usually spent on his personal needs and requirement, it is a form of corruption.
  2. If there is an illegal return on service and it does not form a part of the terms and conditions of his employment or contract is also a form of corruption.
  3. The source of money received under an illegal service contract, or anyone receives salary as return is also a form of corruption.  

The real test to judge an act, which is Haram or Halal, is like segregating milk from water. You can put this test to any kind of earning. All doubts and misunderstandings will be removed, and one would be able to judge that whatever anyone is earning is through bribe or does that constitute his pure earnings.

 

Chapter 6:Corruption, By Profession

Departmental and Govermental Corruption

The judicial laws are applied by person or an agency. It does not come in force until there is a plaintiff, a complainant. On initiation of the case some circumstantial evidence is also required for acceptance of the case. When the case is filed in the court lawyers are hired by corrupt people to get themselves acquitted.

There are many obstacles for the complainant to pursue his case because he is confronted with situations that he is exhausted in running from pillar to post wasting his money and time, having no support from the public. Anti-corruption department are meant to check corruption, but usually they device new techniques to make way for new doors of corruption.

This department catches low post officials such as LDC's and UDC's. The will of the government is virtually non-existent. If we are lucky, one is caught with circumstantial evidence, the complainant gets pressurize to withdraw the case. The legal aid of lawyers makes truth a false and in the end the guilty one is free. In the end nothing is left with us due to faulty law, accountability of God on the Day of Judgment is the only solace for a sufferance. If justice and fair play in the world is deliberately avoided the wrath of Allah can follow, it is better to mend own ways in this life.

In the Mishkat Shareef, the Book of Al-Adab in the chapter Al-Zulm, Hazrat Ayesha narrates a saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH):

”On the day of judgment, the record of deeds will be of three kinds (a) one that pertains to Shirk for which God will not forgive; (b) secondly the obligation towards fellow beings - He will not have redemption, unless
those who have been wronged, forgive him; (c) thirdly those
obligatory rights of Allah, which were not professed by Him, yet he would decide best as either to punish or forgive them.”

The question that arises in purview of the above Hadith is, as to where would bribery be included in all of these acts. According to the above Hadith, it will be included in the second category of the deeds. A person who takes bribes tramples upon the rights of his fellow human beings. The bribe taker or a corrupt person is involved in infringing rights by threefold. Firstly, he deprives the right of a person from whom he took the bribes, the other against whom he decided the matter and the third one, where he was employed to perform his duty against his pay.

The right of the giver of the bribe was trampled in return of money he got in return for his work. In this regard the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that on the Day of Judgment, the person who accepted money in bribe would be carrying it around him as baggage. The fact that he demanded the money from a man meant that he forfeited his rights. In another Hadith the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:

 

"Any person who occupies a piece of land forcibly and unjustifiably, Allah on the Day of Judgment would put seven (7) times more land around his neck".

In accepting bribes a corrupt person usurped the right of the other party. Moreover, a corrupt officer, working on behalf of the government, tramples the rights of all those people on whose behalf he was engaged or was employed. He was responsible to carry out his duties and exercise his power correctly, in accepting bribe he broke the terms and conditions of his job, committed an offence. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:

"When two person carry on a business honestly, and do not commit dishonesty, God is present between them, but when either of them becomes dishonest, (Allah) parts away from them".

(Sunan Abu Dawood: referred to Hazrat Abu Hurarira)

Thus, it is rightfully said that a corrupt person commits three sins, i.e. repression of someone rights, in-justice to the people and dishonesty to the state.

Governmental Functionaries and Corruption

Public servants are pillars of the government. Their duties are defined and their pay and allowance are determined through a contract or an agreement. These agreements are universally identical as it requires a public servant to perform his duties honestly and diligently to safeguard the rights of the people, just like a shepherd protects a flock of sheep.

A public servant in Islam is a vice-regent “Ameen” of God on earth. He is entrusted with duties to safeguard the interest of the public. Once Prophet (PBUH) remarked to one of his companions Hazrat Abuzar Ghaffari that governance is a scared trust if anyone has accepted it, he should perform his duties on the principle of provision of rights to the deserving people. Public functionaries are, therefore, required to work with honesty so that the government is stable, otherwise the government will end sooner or later. The Qur’an quotes:

 

"And who are shepherds of their pledge and their covenant".

(Surah Al-Momin Ayat-8)

Hazrat Ali was used to send instructional code to his officials. The focal characteristic for a public functionary in his caliphate was to recruit the best candidate in character because a good person can impart justice to the people. He could settle disputes without being influenced by anyone. A person of good character would review his mistakes and would be in a better position to provide rights to the deserved people. The role of the caliphate was only to give them high pay, dignity and self-respect so that private gains in any shape of bribe was not possible.

Public Functionaries and Corruption

The Holy Qur’an has referred these details of public functionaries very elaborately. History is a witness that civilizations who indulged in corruption, their tyranny and suppression were evident. The system of justice is the most pivotal organ of the state. In light of this fact power vested in government functionaries and judges are the real target of reprisal. The Holly Qur’an quotes:

"But whoso craveth beyond that, such are transgressors".

This Ayat references those rulers who are tyrants and are misusing their power, by directly affecting rights of the people. The main responsibility of a ruler is the provision of justice and fair play. As mentioned in Holly Qur’an:

"They say: Our Lord! Hasten on for us our fate before the Day of Reckoning")

(Surah Al-Saad Ayat-11)

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) through a Hadith narrated by Hazrat Abdullah-bin-Abbas said:

"Any person chosen as an Ameer on even 10 people. He will be brought with a tied hand before Allah. His fate would be decided on the Day of Judgment, on the basis of allowance of Justice. If he imparted justice without accepting bribe or was not involved in committing any form of tyranny, his knots would be released. On the contrary, if he had given the decision against the injunction of Allah or has taken bribe or delayed justice, his left hand will be tied with his right hand and thrown into hell, and he will take 500 years to reach the depth of the hell"

(Mustanad Hakeem)

It is commonly seen that government functionaries, bureaucrats and public servants are more prone to bribes than a private citizen. A doctor can indulge in bribery, when he does not see patients in the hospital properly. He examines the patient in detail when he visits privately for a checkup at his clinic and also charges an exorbitant fee. He may also not admit those patients in the hospital, if they are rich and can afford to be treated by him privately in his clinic. The doctor is more inclined to visit patients in private wards because they get an extra fee because the patients are rich and can afford to pay the doctors more, as compared to poorer patients.

Similarly, a teacher or a lecturer in a college would pay more attention to students who opt to take tuition from them privately. This act once again is a form of corruption. The students who cannot afford this private tuition are belittled; they are given lesser marks than others and are also not considered good enough. Furthermore, they are put through difficult situations at school as well. A lawyer may also be seen as taking bribes, when he drags client's cases unnecessarily and demands money from his clients to and fro. A journalist may also be seen as one who indulges in bribes, as he can allocate space for pictures and news to people whom he has a specified interest in or those who pay him to be featured.

It is abundantly clear from the examples above that not only government servants and officials are involved in corruption, but also different people from various walks of life may also be corrupt in their respective fields.

However, the Holy Qur’an gives specific importance to the matters related to government functionaries. They are reviewed by the Qur’an, and a great emphasis is placed on them more than anybody else. This is reinstated in Holly Qur’an as:

"And eat not up your property among yourselves in vanity, nor seek by it to gain the hearing of the judges that you may knowingly devour a portion of the property of others wrongfully").

(Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat-188)

This verse of Qur’an is very significant, as it emphasize on government servants more than any other private servants. The main reason for this is that, the government functionaries have a wider convex of people and taking bribes, can take a toll on the whole nation as a consequence, whereas an ordinary person from private life taking bribe affects him, his family or his relatives at the most. Public functionaries are pillars of the state if they work properly, the matter is heart soothing however, and they can be responsible for the deteriorating conditions of the country, if they indulge in bribery. Where the government functionaries are honest, upright and perform their duties diligently, it is seen that those states are stable, as compared to those with states where people are dishonest and corrupt, there the governments are usually unstable and changes shortly.

The trends of the government servants, like their involvement in bribes, amassing ill money and wealth through bribe are all in the context of how corruption finally leads to bad governance. The involvement of these people in government has infested the private sector, as briefly dilated below.

Lawyers and Corruption

Lawyers are part and parcel of a Justice system in a country. The profession of the lawyers is nobler than seen to-day as it provides assistance to the court for assuring a fair and judicious decision. The task is to ensure that no injustice is committed to the plaintiff or the defendant.

Lawyers can professionally be classified as:-

  1. Providing legal aid to a true and a right-full plaintiff.
  2. Providing legal assistance to any one whether he is on right or wrong, and gaining monetary benefit.

The broader types distinctly classify lawyers on the basis of moral ethics and humanity. If the practice is to take money, enhances reputation, provision of legal advice in such a way that it put pressure on judges and taking decision favorably, are all form of falsehood.

 

When, issues are built on falsehood, a chain of bad acts is seen throughout the society. Wining a case is more important to some lawyers for their reputation instead of strengthening the institution. There are other instances where lawyers take up weak cases even by knowing that they will certainly loose. They advise the clients wrongly for a fee and making false hopes to them by prolonging the case to earn money. This behavior is non-ethical and certainly a form of corruption.

Professional dishonesty is an act where a poor soul is put to sufferings. It is my firm belief that lawyer’s advice should always be correct even sometimes he may lose the case. Advice is a trust that should be given for the sake of Allah because he is omnipresent.

Education Department and Corruption

Man is a superior being from other living beings in this world. Allah procreated Hazrat Adam (AS) as his caliph on this earth. Inhabiting mankind in the world was an intention of Allah, to get him learned and teach others. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has stressed a lot of emphases on education. It is a sacred duty of all human beings to play a part in development of human civilization. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that he has been sent by Allah as his messenger in the world, but primarily as a teacher. Hazrat Ali, who is known as a gateway of knowledge of Islam, says:

“Knowledge is better than wealth because you have to guard wealth, however, due to the knowledge is better as it guards you. Wealth diminishes as you spent whereas, knowledge increases the more you spent”

Scholars in the past were really charismatic. They were respected more than the rulers. Students also liked them very much because the teachers considered them as their children.

Today modernity has brought in a metamorphic change in the society. There is a material race seen everywhere, which has changed to despondency and misplaced priorities. The switch over of education from Mudrassas to schools and colleges has not kept pace in the transition.

Education today has become an industry where everything is being sold like any other commodity. Government sponsored education is either no existent or very negligible giving rise to very expensive education in the private sector. The real knowledge is seen nowhere because exorbitant flow of money has not only affected the education standards, but also, the quality of both teachers and students. Student today are more found of getting certificates and degrees instead of knowledge and its pursuits. The teachers are now reaping abnormal profits instead of salaries because they themselves have made education as an industry

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said there are two types of tutor, first, who are God fearing and attended to the knowledge and transferred it to the people without any pecuniary benefit. For them, Holly Prophet (PBUH) stated that, all animals on the earth, birds in the sky, fish in sea and Angles in heaven will pray for them. Second, the tutors who earned money for worldly gain, their knowledge will be brought before the lord on whom bridle of fire will be put around their mouth.

 

These days, new tuition centers are coming into force. These tuition centers guarantee candidates absolute success. They have unnecessary means available to them as they have hired professors and teachers who set papers in examinations. They are charging heavy tuition fees. The education today is now a spoiled system. The students pay and get certificates and degrees.

There is hardly any positivity in the tuition center because there is no education as such except few tips against money which makes students incapacitated.   As quality of education has vanished, it has opened a new door for corruption in education system. The noble cause of education has given way to superfluous trainings. The mental training of the students is invisible in the society because we see moral degeneration at its highest ebb.

Medical Department and Corruption

The most respected service in human civilization today is medical profession. These days medical profession has also been a prey of exorbitant commercialization. Doctor today is money minting machine. The profession is still noble, but the pangs seem in them for ailing humanity is absent. Both rich and poor patient treated alike on the same footing. The perseverance and caressing of the doctors in the past used to be a source for early recovery of the patient.

The medical profession is an industry now just likes education. Today poor patients have to face many financial difficulties, they have to undergo, consultation of specialist and many other problems which are seen in the society. The majority of the doctor visits government hospitals to get private patients referred to them which they examine separately. Professional honesty is rarely seen, as materialist tendencies have over shadowed the humanistic fervor that used to be in people sometime back.

 

General wards in government hospitals are reserved to patients who are on role to the doctors in private clinic. Private patient are given priority over regular patients. Hospital makes rules to attract doctors instead of seeing the well beings patient over charging is seen in every nook and corner in this profession today.

Fee structures of the surgeons are exorbitantly high. Doctors have their own hospitals, and testing laboratories and they charge high for better profits. Pharmaceutical companies spent lavishly in promoting their medicines.

The medical representative of every pharmaceutical company can be seen in the clinics of big doctors because they want the promotion of medicine at any cost Government doctors are less paid, therefore, they are indulged in dishonesty. Nobody is interested to go in rural area and serve the ailing humanity. Some doctors of the Government hospitals leave the country because they see the scope the profession more on attaining money through Haram way.

 

Jounalist and Corruption

Media today has attained the status of 4th pillar of the state after executive, legislative and judiciary. The media is an effective medium to educated people, but the focus today is mainly on entertainment dramas and motion pictures. The famous proverb “Do good and put it in the well” has changed with the rise of media. The proverb now is “Do good and put in the newspaper”. Media has become a source of self-projection for the politicians, a medium for advertisement, business marketing, interviews of celebrities and talk shows where skirmishes is seen more than any agreed solutions to the problem.

The success of newspapers is more on advertisement and pictured portrayal. Publicity of crimes and corruption has inculcated a sense of dejection in the people. Yellow journalism has opened door of corruption and blackmail is seen in the society. Some media platforms constantly propagate a party where others criticize them; there is hardly any occasion where rights of viewers are protected. This is an example of media inducing corruption in politics.

Social Events and Corruption

Today arranging functions ceremonies and parties have a different connotation but in the time of Holy Prophet (PBUH), he used to go to inaugurate new mosques. Today in Pakistan functions are held for a design to attract high profile politicians and officers to keep them as a resort for accomplishment of them work. The officers and politicians also require a public exposure therefore they readily accept these kinds of invitations. These officers or public representatives gets rewards and gifts the basic purpose in these function is that sometimes government financed donation wants a blessing of these are received by them.

 

Some of these functions are in fact a publicity campaign eliciting public in favor of the public holder of the office and the trustees to run these organizations in profits. The donations, gifts and presents are bribe in a religious clout. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said that the intention arise prior to the deed or action. If these acts are for any worldly gain the person would get that even if it is a hand for marriage. The accounts of both intention and act would finally be presented and settled on the Day of Judgment. After this brief resume, we have to identify the inner behavior of a corrupt man, what are his intentions and who do he actualize his behavior in action.

Real Estate and Corruption

From the Holy Qur’an and Hadith, it is now an established and a known fact that all assets acquired through corruption never becomes the ownership of the taker of bribe. If the taker of bribe has usurped the money or asset through his power, but the asset belonged to someone else. Such money earned through interest, theft, gambling, and fraud or from a forcible acquisition of property is all form of usurpation, a smaller form of corruption. The Islamic jurists argue that the money accumulated like this has to be returned to the real owner because it was taken forcibly through tyranny. The right, therefore, did not devolve on the usurper and penitence (Touba) would not be enough to wash the sin unless the money is given back to the rightful owner.

Penitence is a source of forgiveness as prescribed by all mighty Allah for all humanity. The sinner should feel a deep remorse in his heart; he should always adhere to of penitence before the Al-Mighty Allah.

As the sinner has usurped the pecuniary and other right through bribe then the equivalent amount has to be returned to the person from where the money was forcibly taken. There can be two situations arising in this scenario, the person from whom money was taken might not be traceable and the amount is not quantifiable as it is always unwritten. The effort should be made to trace the person and make a fair estimate of the money acquired through bribe. The next step is to give it as alms and “sadqat” from the side of the actual owner. This is the way to save accountability by the usurper or the taker on the Day of Judgment.

This principle is extended and applicable to the legal heirs, if the person dies without implementing the Islamic legacy of penitence; after ascertaining the extent of dirty money, the legal heir has also to return the money back on the principle that has been eradicated above

Chapter 7: Philosophies on Bribery and Characteristic Resemblance

The primary work of the devil is to derail people from the right path set by Allah; he creates illusions in the mind of a person on which he attempts to attack. On being successful, the devil proposes people to lead immoral and sensuous life, and he instigates that the amount of expenses is available through bribe. The devil asks his prey that his image of righteousness and chivalry would not be tarnished in the society because nobody will know about the act. The devil starts a campaign against that person in the public; before he asks him to go for bribe as corruption never go unnoticed.

There are two parties in the deal, the giver and the taker and in some cases the intermediary is also involved. How can the matter remain hidden? There are various philosophies on giver, taker and the intermediary. The taker of bribe wants the act not known to anybody, but on the other hand, the giver vents out his sentiment in public, the moment his work is done as he was compelled to do so. The intermediary is a dealer and he is more concerned to flourish his business by narrating his success story to everybody, so that others also engage him. This advertisement is a necessity in marketing his business. Hence, all entities that played part in this transaction are known to the public and this in fact is the devils plan to advertise this deal as a success story, but only who are at righteous path may understand this devil's trap.

Different names are given to illicit activities as service charges, the fact remains, and it is bribe. Anything a public servant is receiving other than his salary is a bribe whatever the name given to it. Agreement or contract of employment not only defines the duties, but also the pay and privileges and an employee is bound to get during the tenancy of his service.

Logic of Low Salary and Wages

Why don't we think and pray that we should live better in the next world as we want a better life here, an excuse of less salary as a cause of corruption is not tenable. Some people vehemently argue and make excuses about less salary and wages, as one of the main causes of corruption. It is voiced that, if salaries are low, people resort to corruption forcibly as they cannot make both ends meet.

This logic is misleading. If less salary is used as an excuse, then people, who earn huge salaries, would never resort to bribe at all. Similarly, it is reasoned that the people who draw small salary take less bribe and those who draw big salaries take large bribes. It is seen that the bigger salaried class are more corrupt than ordinary people. The matter does not tag corruption to a small or a large salary; it is the greed that matters more.

Corruption is increasing day by day, and I believe that the main cause behind this is the lust and greed for bribe money. The more lust there is, the more the desire for money. A corrupt person can be compared to a patient whose disease is of a type that has no cure from ailment, it is increasing rapidly. The more bribes a corrupt person takes, the more his lust for money increases, as lust is always insatiable. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said:

An insatiable man’s belly can only be filled by fire of hell.”

The real cause of corruption, therefore, is not inadequacy of salaries, but an insatiable desire for money and love for wealth. The love of wealth is such a disease that it follows a man to his grave. The Holy Qur’an says:

“Rivalry in worldly increases, distracts you until you come to the graves”.

(Surah Al-Takathur Ayat-1,)

The corrupt person should induce thinking pattern that he is encircled by a death trap. Love for money brings his downfall. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said:

“Any man who earns wealth from forbidden source, Allah deprives him of his blessing (barakat). If he gives that money in alms or in the way of Allah, it will not be accepted. If he leaves it behind, it will be considered as money spent for the fare of travelling to hell.”

(Musnad Ahmad).

Favouritism and Recommendation

Today favoritism or merit-less recommendation with money is due to failure to differentiate right from wrong, Halal from Haram, sins from good deeds. Today it has become a practice, a fashion and a custom to recommend all lock, stock and barrel. Qualifying candidates are never entertained. Holly Qur’an quotes:

"And when kinsfolk and orphans and the needy are present at the division (of the heritage), bestow on them therefrom and speak kindly unto them".

(Surah Ali-Nisa Ayat- 8)

The above Ayat lay down a condition that rightful recommendation will be rewarded, whereas, the unlawful act will face wrath of Allah. The person who made recommendation will also be judged. The credential of a person who is being recommended should be verified to escape eternal punishment.

Any gift or a present given to gain illicit benefit is not permissible in Islam as it is a form of corruption as taught by Holly Prophet (PBUH). The person who made the recommendation will be judged with the footing and deeds of the recruit if it opens the doors of sins coupled with corruption and both will be treated as indulging in usury (interest) on the Day of the Judgment.

Hazrat Ayesha once asked the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for a favor for someone and that person sent a maid as the return to this recommendation. The Prophet (PBUH) was perturbed at this action once he came to know about this and returned the maid back immediately. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said to Hazrat Ayesha, that had he known that the person's intention, he would not had favored that person.

In light of this Hadith it can be established that, any recommendation for anyone will not escape the accountability in the next world. On recommending a right favor, if any service fees is received will also not go unpunished. For recommendation it must be made sure that recommended person is a man of integrity and honesty and, moreover, he is a God fearing person.

Therefore, rights and obligations of people are tied very strongly with the protecting rights and boundaries of Allah. Rights can be classified into two types:-

  1. Rights that are related to public interest, right of life and property ensuring law and order of the state.
  2. Rights, that are related to the Government for enforcement, for example the provision of system of justice and punishment to the criminals. The enforcement of such rights by the government is equal for poor and rich.

Recommendation in the right of Allah, false cases to deprive anybody’s genuine right and making cases on false allegation are all forbidden and Haram in Islam.

Once a woman named Fatima from Banu Mahzoom tribe committed a theft. Osama Bin Zaid was approached to ask the Holy Prophet (PBUH) for favor and pardon her and suspend chopping off her hand. The Holly Prophet (PBUH) delivered a landmark sermon, which highlight the importance of justice and discourage illegal recommendation, He said:

“Oh Osama, you have asked me for a favor in the right of Allah. You know that Banu Isreal was punished because they suspended the application of law on rich people and applied it on the poor and weak people only. Osama! I sever by Allah who is the master of this life, Had Fatima the daughter of Mohammad (PBUH) committed theft instead of Fatima of Banu Mahzoom tribe, I would have accorded the punishment of chopping off her hand as the prophet had no access to the hudood made by Allah”

Today we recommend every Tom, Dick and Harry because we are afraid to say no and intrude Allah’s right and defy and transgress His hudood. The rights in the hudood of the Allah are defined in the Holy Qur’an that is unchangeable.

Culprit Versus Devil

The devils Job in the world is to instigate people to disobey Allah. Hazrat Adam had to evacuate heaven on persistent persuasion of the devil. The devil had vowed before Allah that he will derail all humanity from the right path of Allah, therefore, he had constituted various teams in the world to trap human beings and his ultimate aim is to involve them in sinful lives. He will tell the truth to the people that Allah is the most merciful and beneficent, but hold back the other half that he will forgive them if they offer penitence (Touba) and adopt right path.

A corrupt man is the best companion of the devil. He ensures that the bribe taker would make himself a slave of vices and sins:

"Then we gave you once again your turn against them, and we aided you with wealth and children and made you more in soldiery".

Devil is on the lookout to work hard on people who are employed with the government. His aim is to strength their behavior so that big cases of embezzlement and corruption are manifested and reported in foreign press, tarnishing the image of Pakistan. Public organizations are constituted to investigate and keep a watch, but they are in-efficient in this regard. We come to know of cases from transparency international, a foreign NGO or from foreign newspapers, which further reveal a state of bad governance. A breakdown in the administrative machinery is imminent giving rise to worst law and order situation as is seen in Karachi these days. Target killing, murder for ransom and all sorts of crime, is rampant in the city.

To some corrupt officer, who wants to change, he will instigate that if they renounce bribe they will lose power, money and enjoyment of life, they will become poorer denying Allah’s warning:

“O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who hath created you and those before you, so that ye may ward off (evil)”.

It is usually said that bribe money is speed money, the moment it is acquired; it changes hands with the same pace. It is spent in the pursuits of activities which are also Haram. Devil is an enemy of believers of Islam, on the same analogy a corrupt person is an enemy of anyone who has to do anything with him. A corrupt one, being habitual, demands money from everyone, hence being, an enemy of the country in which he lives. Public trust to him means nothing. His only interest is to actualize his personal design and agenda. It is seen that the avidity of a corrupt man wreck vengeance of public posture and results in tarnishing the image of Pakistan.

As already discussed, Life time sustenance is fixed by Al-Mighty Allah for all living beings. The main object of the creator was that a man should concentrate on procreation of Allah according to the way described by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Devil will try to convince a man that he will become poorer by not using his power; he will lose everything in life. Qur’an has warned the Muslim as:

“O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who hath created you and those before you, so that you may ward off (evil)”.

On the contrary, a true believer will not bow before the devil as he is bent to obey Allah, in whatever situation he is passing through. In order to know whether a corrupt person and the devil are synonymous, we have to analyze the characteristics of a habitually of a corrupt person. Psycho-analysis brings out three distinctive features of a corrupt person, which are a predominant part of his personality. Firstly, because of the fear of the law, whenever a corrupt tries to forgo corrupt practices he feels that obstacles may arise in the way of his reformation. He feels that by forsaking bribery and other forms of corruption, various hurdles may arise in his life, which would hamper his development. He might also become poorer and might even starve due to hunger.

Another characteristic of a corrupt person is that, the more he earns from an illegal source, the more he is obstructed from good deeds, which is why he is on the lookout for sinful acts. Consequently, this leads to a desire to do bad things and ultimately lead a corrupt man towards animalistic behavior.

The third characteristic of a corrupt person is more distinct than the other two. He leads an extravagant way of life; he likes to spend where it is not required at all. Furthermore, he would also spend in ways and in places exorbitantly. He would find shops which would charge high rates just so that he could show that he is a rich, affluent and wealthy person among other people. He would also like to be labeled as a rich man, when he chooses to shop in a rich man's shopping paradise.

These three characteristics inherit the personality of a corrupt man as well. Attention is, therefore, needed towards the fact that certain traits of a corrupt person are similar to that of devil. The first characteristic found in a corrupt man is, that, he fears that he will become poor if he does not take bribe. The Holy Qur’an describes the same characteristic present within the devil:

"The Devil promises you destitution and enjoins upon your lewdness”.

(Surah Al-Baqara Ayat-268)

Secondly, it is seen that the corrupt one is a habitual adherer of bad deeds and immoral acts. The Holy Qur’an describes an identical trait of devil as:

"He enjoins upon you, only the evil and the foul".

(Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat-169)

The third characteristic of a corrupt person is that, he is found to be an extravagant spender, the same characteristic for the devil as mentioned in Holly Qur’an:

"Lo! The squanderers were ever brothers of the devils".

(Surah Al-Isra Ayat-27)

Thus, the corrupt person and the devil have a similarity in characteristics and traits that have been explained through the Holy Qur'an. The reader can now comprehend whether the characteristics of the devil and that of a corrupt man are similar in nature or not? The answer is in the affirmative. There is no observable difference in the characteristics and behavioral pattern of a devil and a corrupt person.

Culprit Versus Prostitute

For corrupt man and prostitute Qur'an uses a word "Suht ". The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that "shut" is the dirtiest of all money arising through Haram means. It is pain to know that the money earned through bribery is compared to money earned by a prostitute. There are similarities in both earnings as the two are staking their honor for this dirty money. The corrupt one is earning through misuse of power whereas the prostitute sells her chastity in return of this dirty money, i.e. "Suht".

Therefore, in light of the Hadith it is to know that a corrupt man and a prostitute have identical behavioral pattern. The prostitute sells her body and indulges in adultery to earn livelihood. It is easily discerned that she stands on the same footings to a corrupt person. In ascertaining this comparison between the two, an extract from Holly Prophet's (PBUH) saying in Kanzul Ummal quotes:

"Highly forbidden way of earning, is from two sources. One is the earning by the corrupt; the second is the return for surrendering of chastity."

(Kanzul Ummal Volume-3 page-177)

The question that arises is that, how can an unethical and immoral way of earning of a prostitute be compared to that of the earning of a corrupt person. The corrupt man earns his money with a self-imposed dignity, it does not abhor or extremity of illegality is seen in an underhand deal. It is seen that though actions of both are different, but state of mind of each party is on the same wavelength.

For a prostitute, money is all that matters to her. She does not care for her life, dignity or honor. Although she earns a substantial amount of money, yet her living is miserable as she does not care for her life; chastity and dignity, she sacrifices her fame by earning the money in a contemptuous and despicable manner. Furthermore, she does not feel that she was instrumental in propagating a horrendous sin in the society, which would disgrace, and dishonor everyone.

Various crimes are off shoots of this vice, such as gambling, drinking, riots and murder. A reader can now realize that a situation may incur an irreparable loss not only to a community, but to the nation by large. For a corrupt person the prime consideration is money. Give it to him and he will decide the case in your favor. He would not even care about his life or self-esteem for the sake of money. Neither would he be bothered to think that in taking bribe he has put his life at stake, or lost his respect and also tarnished his image a consequence in the society. He is, therefore, considered an instigator of the sin, as he too has incurred an irreparable loss to the nation. It is commonly said the money earned through corruption is most often spent on various vices including prostitution.

This reiterates the thesis that a corrupt person and a prostitute share a similar mindset, and therefore appear to be on same wavelength.

Culprit Versus Dog

The habits of a corrupt person can also be compared to that of a dog. This reference is not out of any context, an apt comparison is drawn by other writers as well. This is because when a dog possesses certain skills that may be good, for example his faithfulness and loyalty, etc. yet negative attributes prevail over the good characteristics, which appear more distinct. One of a foremost attributes of a dog is that it is an insatiable animal. If it is seen walking around, it would always smell the ground.

This is because it has visible desires to swallow each and everything that it encounters. Its desires seem to get better for itself and it needs to feed on anything present. According to the medical point of view the dog is a greedy creature. Insatiability and lust are its predominant features. It cannot differentiate what it swallows, be it a sweet or excrement. Similarly insatiability is a trait that man possesses. The Holy Qur'an explained and compared the extent of avidity, greed and insatiability of man to a dog in Holly Qur'an as:

"But he clung to the earth and followed his own lust; therefore, his likeness to a dog if you attack him, he pants with his tongue out, and if you leave him, he pants with his tongue out."

(Surah Al-A'raf Ayat-176)

This analogy is apt for a man who is greedy. Proverbially speaking, he is secreting saliva the same way a dog does when it is hungry. It is observed that the behavior of a corrupt person is dominated by his greed and lust for money. He would find ways and means to attain bribes for the work he is entrusted with. If it is a menial task or routine job, which carries no price, the corrupt person will ignore it and move towards greener pastures. Furthermore, he would avoid meeting people for routine work. This characteristic of greed and lust is, therefore, reinforced and it is categorically stated that he is very similar to that of a dog or an animal.

If a corrupt person's behavior is observed it is seen that he would behave in a condescending and derogatory manner with those who are weak or poor. He would not only show distaste towards them, but would talk rudely and would also not do their work. However, if he is offered something in return, he would immediately get composed. His rage would change into flattery, distastefulness into diplomacy and so on and so forth. This fickleness can be observed in a dog as well. On seeing a poor man who is wearing ragged clothes the dog would continue to bark or growl at him, whereas the moment a person throws some food before it, it would stop immediately and wag its tail in gratitude. Similarly a corrupt person's behavior is sycophantic in nature and would change at the drop of hat.

Thus, it is correctly stated that a corrupt person is similar to a dog of this world. Certain issues of corruption which have been discussed in the beginning are not merely baseless, but instead irrefutable realities. Summing up, a corrupt person can rightfully be compared to a devil, a prostitute and a dog. This discussion is backed by some verses of the Holy Qur'an and various Hadiths are also cited.

Too much greed and lust is a negative characteristic; both of these traits are human and animal frailties. It is seen that high powered jobs make officers slaves of their desires; they become so enamored of the lure of money that they are lost in oblivion, until they eventually land in their graves. It is commonly said that greed makes a man the dog of the earth!

A Brief Sermon

People who are not involved in bribe and other sins have a small or meager earnings of Halal are not always the losers in this world and hereafter. It is also said that anyone undergoing a trial in this world is washing his sins because any trial in the next world is unbearable, a horrific fire of hell is incomparable to any trial in this world. Success parameters are not usually hidden in amassing abundant wealth; acquire big posts because these means are a trial, a test because psycho-fancy of people traps the holder of post to bribe, extravagant liking to drink, gambling and primitive pastime.

This world is not a mean in manifestation of all the rightful desires, which is seen in corrupt people. The faith of a true Muslim is to believe in Al-Mighty Allah and his Prophet (PBUH). Heaven and hell can be believed as they are guest houses for both types of people, heaven for believer and Hell for sinner.

 

The basis of this stark reality is absolutely true and bribes lead, certainly, to hell. The misery of a corrupt man is seen when he attends wine parties, indulges in adultery and gambling. He starts a day with a curse of God. Corrupt people who are miser have a psyche of inflating bank accounts and acquiring properties, which is transferred to others, close kith and kin, relatives who are on the lookout to take their chunk, the day he dies. The devil throws all his cards when the miser man is dying and thinking how to save money and property, being a Muslim is it should be the time of penitence, remorse for his past life and forgiveness for the next world. The Kalimah, which is the last hope of even a week Muslim, is forgotten and the devil is successful because he had vowed before Allah to bring majority of Muslim to hell along with him.

Woes and miseries of the corrupt man not only ruin his worldly life, as he always searches out for sins and vices and his death is without penitence and he leaves a heavy debt of usurped money. In fact, he loses everything, he may have spent some part of money in form of alms and sadaqat, which Allah do not accept and corrupt man leaves his treasure of money for others. This is why money stocked in foreign bank accounts is seized because there are no claimants of this money as he has not nominated any heir. What a pity because a strict punishment is always his fate in the next world, he would be ditched to hell. It is commonly said that accountability would be on pure earning, whereas, Haram would straight away taken for punishment.

In case, if a person requires an answer how this repentance "taubah" is to be pronounced, then let's discuss the issue in detail. Repentance means the utterance of words by mouth and deep grief in the heart re-affirming faith to Allah. The person will promise to Allah that he will not repeat the act of bribery in the future. The repentance is complete, when three phases are implemented.

This first phase is, when the person should genuinely feel a deep sense of grief and remorse in his heart. He or she should have deep regret on the acts in his/her past. The second phase "taubah" entails renunciation of the sin, by a strong commitment not to repeat it in the future. The third and last phase of repentance is that, during the course of this act by the briber, he might have unlawfully infringed material rights of others. Therefore,

it is necessary that he should make a provision of retrieval, a repayment or compensation to the affected party immediately. For example, if one had not offered prayers in the past, he should start offering the deferred prayers at a later date. Similarly, if fasting was ignored in the past, the person should start fasting in order to make amends for leaving it out. If zakat was not paid in the past it could be paid at a later date, after making a fair estimate of the amount that was to be given.

If anyone unlawfully took money and deprived anyone of his right, the same has to be returned at a later date as has been discussed above. This principle also applies for bribe money. Whatever has been taken in the form of bribes has to be returned to the same person, making a fair estimate of the amount that was taken. If the owners of money or articles cannot be identified, even after a hectic attempt on searching him, the amount can be calculated according to a rough estimate and can be distributed as alms from the side of the actual owner along with the belief that, no reward should be given to him for these alms and charity.

Implication of Corruption on Character

          • Corruption makes a person immoral, heartless and conditions him towards extravagance.
          • Corruption de-habitualize sobriety and shyness, fails to distinguish a right from wrong.
          • Contentment, peace and tranquility is almost absent in the life of a corrupt man.
          • Dependency and trust in Allah is almost negligible.
          • Corruption destroys the system of justice, law and equality.
          • Corruption damages self-respect and dignity, a corrupt person is always projecting selfish feeling.
          • A corrupt one has a dwindling believe in Al-Mighty Allah.
          • A corrupt one is always seen observing and behaving in devils like way.
          • Corruption destroys velour bravery, and induces cowardice.
          • The value of service of humanity is almost absent in the life of a corrupt man.

His public image and dignity is tarnished. He loses self-respect and dignity irrespective of the fact that he had spent a stylish life. The curse of God is befalling on him, his prayers, fasting, zakat, Hajj and good deeds are not accepted. He may lose intersession of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as it is said that bribe will create a wedge between the taker and the heavens. He is generally disgraced and dishonored in public; the moment the work of the giver is done he backs his verses with verbatim abuses, at the moment he leaves the office.

All the above characteristics are visible in an antidote mentioned in the book by Maulana Thanvi.    The Maulana alleges that people do indulge blindly in bribe ignoring the fate and consequences they would face in this world. There was an employee of a police department who had amassed large sum of money by bribe. An anti-corruption case was framed during the course of his service. The department initiated an inquiry and made a strong case against him.

The corrupt police official spent not only what he had earned by corruption on the litigation in the court, but also he had to sell ornaments and jewelry of his wife. Tough, in the end he won the case from the court and was restored to his position, but he became a pauper and debt ridden. The irony of the fate, he again started taking bribes. Whereas, after so much toiling and tribulation, he should have renounced bribe and started an honorable and honest life, but his ill luck prevailed again.

He became hallucinated thought that his relatives were the people who had informed the department; he maintained scenery in hiding of his ill-gotten money from his wife as well. He stitched currency notes in a big pillow and kept that pillow with him along his bed side. The idea worked well and nobody knew the worth of the pillow. Once in his absence, his house suddenly caught fire, his wife and children saved their lives along-with some valuable assets which they could muster.

He came back and asked about the fate of the pillow instead of asking about the safety of his family. He shrieked and wept over the lost money because the pillow caught fire. People consoled him and asked him to have forbearance, but he could not tell anyone that while coming back he executed an agreement with an agriculturist to buy some agriculture land. He had promised the agriculturist that he will be sending him some advance for purchase of agriculture land which he could not fulfill now.

The police official in order to escape from the deal filed a false case in the court against him. The agriculturist was so infuriated that he killed the police official on the day when the case came for hearing before the magistrate. The corrupt man not only lost everything he earned, but also his life, imagine what would happen to him in the aftermath of his life. These types of stories are in abundance in the society, but we have to finally believe in the saying of the Qur’an and the Holy Prophet (PBUH). A lot of details have been earmarked about corruption, but it would be an injustice if we briefly touch some aspect of an honest life. Here are some of the fruits of poised and up right Muslim.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said as narrated by Hazrat Abu Huraira:

“Those who toiled in their life to earn livelihood by Halal means and avoided situations to beg from people, these lucky people will be in the company of him the Holy Prophet (PBUH) on the Day of Judgment”.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) raised his two fingers before the crowd and showed the proximity of closeness of Halal earners comparable as two fingers are close to each other.

Hazrat Ibn-e-Abbas narrates a saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Any person who takes Halal food and spend a night that would be a blessed night and the person’s sin would be forgiven”. .

A Social Study By Ashfaq Ahmed

Sociologists from various countries (America and Scandinavia) came to Pakistan few years back to investigate why corruption had increased manifold in the governmental sector. Their thesis revolved around the fact as to why corruption formed such a predominant part of the Pakistani culture. They questioned as to why people in the government and semi-government departments were so deeply involved in bribery and also why they thought of their fellow countrymen as enemies? Ashfaq Ahmad a famous sociologist and intellectual also accompanied this team. The conclusion of the thesis is summarized herein below:

"No person takes bribes until he has lost his self-respect completely. The more bribes he takes, the more honor, dignity and pride he loses; this continues until he becomes habitual and eventually turns into an automaton. Previously when he was a dignified man, he had a very good reputation in the society, whereas once he started taking bribes he lost his standing altogether".

Let’s scrutinize the results of the social scientist, which Islam had laid 1400 years ago, an emphasis on honor, dignity, uprightness and honesty is all that is requested. It is written in books that the dog is one of the most contemptible creatures on earth. People are discouraged to keep it as a pet. This is because it is a dirty animal; it has a sycophantic trait, which is not found in any other animal. Sycophancy is the most negative characteristic which could ever be present in a human being. Keeping a dog as a pet makes man a sycophant. Other animals, such as cats or horses may defy their masters even when they may be trustworthy, whereas a dog would always remain a sycophant and would always be faithful. Even a falcon can attack its owner, which is why before it is placed on a person's hand, a black cloth is tied on its eyes for preventive measure in case of an attack.     

In order to distinguish right from wrong, Islam is the only religion which compels its followers to renounce wrong things, so that they learn "Taqwa" or abstinence. In the month of Ramadan rightful things are also prohibited such as eating and drinking from dawn until dusk.

The commandment of God is more important; therefore, all believers obey to the will of Allah. Ashfaq Ahmed mention an incident in this context as, A pet dog belonging to army personnel used to roam in the streets. After few days he found a butcher's shop where he used to go and pick up stale meat. The owner came to know the avidity of the dog; he tied a tag around dog's neck which had an inscription that no meat should be given to the dog. The next day the meat seller on reading the tag did not allow the dog to take the meat. A few days later the tag broke loose due to the effort of the dog and again the butcher started giving the dog stale meat. The moral of the story is as the author say, it is better to live in honor without begging rather than to live a life of cowardice comparable to that of a dog.

Muslim Ummah is required to guide other people in the world to adopt a right path, shed their darkness with their character and obedience to Allah, instead, they had themselves descended into darkness. It is a distinct Ummah whose day starts with the sunset; its month starts in the evening when the moon is sited in the evening compared to other Ummah’s whose days start with the sun rise.

Story of Dignity and Grace

Khawaja Naseemuddin, a disciple of Hazrat Nazimuddin Auliya narrates a story. Once drought set in Delhi which leads to severe shortage of food. Distressed people asked Khawaja Naseemuddin, a saint of the time to offer prayers "Istaskah" which is a supplication to ask Allah for rain. The prayers were offered, but there was no rain anywhere in Delhi.

Khawaja Naseemuddin helplessly asked the people to offer penitence to Allah. A person named "Yousaf Sarhandi" present in the crowd told Khawaja Naseem that he knows of the man named Khawaja Rahat after whose prayers few years back, the rain did fall and his supplications were accepted by Allah. Thus, people went to him and asked for the prayers. Khawaja Rahat was a eunuch and always said that he was not sorry as he was a eunuch, it is the will of Allah, but he had led a life of honor and dignity throughout his life.

Khawaja Rahat prayed to Allah and asked Khawaja Naseemuddin again to go back and pray now. The rain started immediately. The moral of the story is that honor and dignity inculcates in a person that he begs from Allah only taking his bliss and adhering to his commands.

The choice before the Muslims now is evident if they lead the life of dignity, grace and honor, they would be the most respectable Ummah, having the most honorable and respected Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) out of all the comity of Prophets.

Chapter 8: Importance of Halal in Islam

Islam is a complete code of life. It is not only a belief or congregation of rituals, such as prayer, fasting and Haj, but it encompasses all aspects of human code and conduct. It guides a Muslim to live in the world in accordance to the will of Allah. It has provided a system of complete justice, social and economic system and its dispensation in view of all the matter that can arise in the world. It has also provided the mode of earning identifying Halal, i.e. a permissible way. It has also prescribed haram way of earning. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that any person who died during a pursuit of earning Halal Rizq his sins are forgiven by Allah. Hazrat Umar described Halal earning as being tougher than Jihad or battling infidels in the battlefield.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has appreciated the brave efforts put in by the believers in earning Halal income. Once Saad Ibn-e-Maaz came to see the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Prophet saw his palm of his hand was injured. On enquiry, it was revealed that Hazrat Saad injured his hand by digging the earth. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) delightedly raised his hand before Allah and said these injured hands are very precious and valuable as they were used for earning Halal livelihood.

Imam Ghazali has laid a very strong emphasis on earning of Halal livelihood. He said that a Muslim should adhere to ten orders of God. These are:

  1. Prayer.
  2. Fasting.
  3. Zakat.
  4. Recitation of Qur’an.
  5. Zikar Allah.
  6. Pursuit in Halal earning.
  7. Rights of the neighbor and relatives.
  8. Refer people to adhere to good deeds.
  9. Refer to people abstinence from doing bad (sins and vices).
  10. Follow and profess the sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once said that there is no food better than to eat out of halal earning from one’s own hand. The Prophet Hazrat Daud (AS) used to earn his living himself despite the fact that God had provided him the command to get everything from the earth and heaven.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that halal earning washes away the sins which are left intact even after offering prayers, fasting, Haj and Umrah. The importance of halal earning is therefore cardinal in Islam, because to earn such a livelihood, there are many difficulties and obstacles. This is liked by Allah very much because sacrifice is the ingredient Allah wants from a staunch believes.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that all the prophets sent by God were shepherds. They pursued their Halal earnings by grazing their sheep. Hazrat Moosa (AS) was married to Hazrat Shoaib's (AS) daughter who ploughed the fields and earned his livelihood. Hazrat Daud (AS) used to make fighting ornaments through which he earned his living. Hazrat Adam (AS) used to till agricultural land. Hazrat Noah (AS) was a carpenter and Hazrat Idrees (AS) was a tailor.

The Holy Qur'an asked his Prophet (PBUH) to earn pure livelihood. The Muslims are, therefore, under a religious obligation to feed their children and dependent as Allah wants them through Halal earnings. The Holy Qur'an stresses on a great deal for adopting Halal and abstains from Haram way of livelihood. Halal are those things that are allowable by Allah and Shariah.

The main ingredient of Halal is that there is no lawful claimant over that is earned by a person. This makes an article pure "Tayyab". Haram, on the contrary, are the things that are prohibited by Allah and Shariah. It is impure because someone right has been taken forcibly just as in the case of bribery and other sins.

Auspiciousness In Halal Earning

Halal generates good deeds, builds a strong and moral character which leads a strong predisposition to pray Allah as he requires from a firm believer. A good and hygienic diet makes body physically healthy and fit, on the contrary, stale food makes a body sick. In the same way pure and Halal earning strengthens the soul and a special light "Noor" advents in the heart, which not only creates a fear of God, but also, the person is prevented from bad deeds and sins.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) once remarked to Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar, if there are four characteristics in somebody it is the greatest blessing of Allah on him. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that these characteristics are:

  1. Trustworthiness in keeping peoples belongings.
  2. Observance of truth.
  3. High moral character.
  4. Strive to earn from Halal source.

Logic of less income has been used deliberately because it is the public functionary who is the main target to abstain from Haram. These are the people who put logic of less income as the main reason of corruption, therefore, let discuss the importance of Halal. Hazrat Saad-Bin-Waqas asked the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that how can his prayers and supplications always be accepted? The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied: “Saad! Make your earnings pure and Halal and you will attain the position you are demanding.

Logic of less income has been used deliberately because it is the public functionary who is the main target to be abstained from Haram. These are the people who put logic of less income as the main reason of corruption; therefore, let's discuss the importance of Halal. Hazrat Saad-Bin-Waqas asked the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that how can his prayers and supplications always be accepted? The Holy Prophet (PBUH) replied: "Saad! Make your earnings pure and Halal and you will attain the position you are demanding.

The creation of light "Noor" in the heart as a result of Halal earning is narrated in the book "Corruption" compiled by Maulana Ajmal Khan. He narrates a story about Hazrat Iman Shafi who visited Imam Ahmad-Bin-Hambal, another great Imam. Once Imam Shafi decided to stay overnight at Imam Hambal's place, after coming from a long journey. Iman Ahmad-Bin -Hambal, asked his daughter to look after his teacher Imam Shafi with due care, respect and hospitality as he was great religious scholar and a pious man. She cooked delicious food, which Imam Shafi ate profusely to his brink.

Later in the night to keep the guest comfortable, she kept a pitcher full of water for the Imam to make ablution for prayers. She found that the water she kept was not used all the night until morning. She enquiringly asked his father that may be Imam Shafi ate more and did not get up for prayer as water was not used at all. Imam Ahmad-Bin-Hambal hesitantly asked Imam Shafi about his affairs in the night to get to know the answer his daughter has asked.

Imam Shafi replied that thought of a Hadith of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) "That pure and Halal food gives advent to a light "Noor". He therefore, ate more than my appetite as enlightened by this Hadith. Later in the night, he started to think on one of the Hadith of the Holy Prophet. He said he thought about one hundred solutions to a certain issue. He did not sleep the whole night and was sustaining the ablution of Isha, therefore, he offered Tahajud and Fajr prayers without performing the ablution it. Imam Hambal satisfied her daughter with a remark that people like Imam Shafi are rare Sufis and ordinary rules cannot be applied over them to them.

Self Effort to Resist Demon    

Leading extravagant life tends to raise expenditure exorbitantly which leads to corruption because income doesn't commensurate with expenditures. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) has given a solution to this insatiable desire not to emulate people. He said

"A person should always consider those people who were poorer than him, instead of following rich".

Following this will lead people to start a simple life and this instruction can be applied in all other pursuits as well. In order to make an effort to get rid of menace of corruption, the foremost duty is to learn the religious way of life prescribed in the Holy book of Qur'an and the way Prophet (PBUH) spent his life. This understanding will inculcate a God fearing repose leading to a building of moral character. Islamic history is full of examples where by doing so people have been successful in leading an honest life and later become torch bearer for the whole of humanity.

Great were the people who led a life of honor dignity and honesty even if they were poor. Whereas, those failed who had a bad vision of attaining materialistic gain in the world, hence, they sacrificed their eternal life for money. A simple life is a key to better budgeting and spending in the future to avoid Haram. However, the key to success is to ask Allah's help and assistance.

Change of Mindset by Fear of God

The Holy Qur'an has repeatedly said: Oh Believer! Fear God. Two angles are always looking our action and recording our words one pertains to good deeds and the other sins. Any part of body that is used as instruments for sinful actions, on the Day of Judgment, would be a speaking witness against us. In fact, everything is being recorded in a book that will be presented to us on the day of resurrection. A concerted effort has to be undertaken to escape the punishment that is waiting for a corrupt one. Now the question arises that how the fear of God can be elicited in the minds of people. People can resort and decide that it can be done so by religious training and education and make a stock of the company of pious people.

Training for Self Development

This phase of anti-corruption measures is to arrange for such training that increases man's self-actualization. A Directorate for Religious Affairs should be created in every government department. People should be well-versed with religious, as well as worldly education. They should be well equipped for the changing needs of the people and society.

The work of this directorate should be, to train civil servants by using different methods including the psychological tests which are an effective way of training people on religious grounds. Apart from this, an atmosphere of Islamic teaching should be created at national level, so that ordinary people develop the idea of God's fear which not only prevents them from doing wrong, but also helps in developing an animosity for those who follow the wrong path.            

The culprits fear the loss of their self-respect, are scared of reprisal if they renounce this ill, hence the departments for rectification need to play a pivotal role to try and reform them. The religious people, who run madrasas, are available throughout the country, so they should be used effectively for this purpose and in achieving the desired result. Furthermore, their efforts should be regulated in a set framework. The different religious schools of thought should regulate and enforce these teachings, without wasting time on trivial matters and on differences of opinion.

One should concentrate on the reformation of the society at large. The matters, involving differences of opinion, within different schools of thought should be left to the religious scholars, who have ability and are experts in their field of work. There is no difference in Islam, therefore the things common in all schools of thoughts should be shared with the people at large.

The religious scholars should be consulted, as they are experts; practicing within the precincts of mosques is not enough, the present day changing circumstances in the society should be kept in mind while giving sermons. The present day situation is such that people, who are practicing Islam, are generally those who are regular mosque goers. The need of the hour is, to reach out to those people who do not go to mosques because they are not brought up in the environment conducive to Islam. There is a need for the scholars to act in order to reach out to the people at large, instead of waiting in mosques to impart the required religious training.

Corruptionless Government

It is an irony of fate, particularly in Pakistan, that when any national assembly is formed after election, the primary task before them is how to control the rampant corruption. In fact, each government is formed by corruption in the election, but later on things go from bad to worse. In fact, unleashed corruption in public offices now has infected even the private sector as well.

The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said that whoever witnesses a bad deed or a sin he should try to tackle it with his hand. If he is not able to do so he should propagate it to fortify it with his speech, in the end he should abhor it in heart, the weakest form of faith. In the light of this saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) the government has power and resources both to make an effort to control corruption.

If the government needs a stable environment and good governance, corruption has to be checked. In case if we are successful we can control the menace of obscenity, vulgarity, gambling and drinking, even thefts and burglaries and political violence can come under control. We must bear it in our mind that we have to reform trust ourselves, alien from outside would not come to our rescue.

Courage and conviction is required for a way forward to combat corruption. Corruption is an enemy; the war has to be fought in the battlefield. Religious education has to be introduced again from childhood schooling.

Ability of A Ruler/Administrator

Islam attaches a strong emphasis on the accountability of the rulers and the administrators. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) had given a sermon on one occasion about a person who was sent to a clan of Azd to collect zakat and received gift from the tribe along with zakat. Holly Prophet (PBUH) scolded him and showed anger toward this act. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) asked the people to abstain from these of acts. He raised his hand and addressed Allah and said that he has delivered this message to all of the people.

Hazrat Umar (RA) sent Kutba Ibn-e-sufiyan as governor to "Rawana". After this return, Hazrat Umar took him to task and put him to accountability to explain that how did he accrued the money and assets, which he did not possess before being a governor. The governor explained that he took his own money and deploys it in trading. He earned a handsome profit out of the venture from where he accumulated the assets. Hazrat Umar said that it was unbecoming act for a governor to invest his money for business where he was sent to serve people. His reply was found unsatisfactory; his money was confiscated and deposited in the Baitul mall.

In another instance Hazrat Umar dismissed some employees of his caliphate on the charges of corruption. Half of their assets were forfeited and deposited in Baitul-ul-Mal. They acquired these assets while they were on duty and misused their powers.

It is true that very few people are reformed through sermons and persuasions and get themselves on right path, but the majority of government functionaries is blind to divine guidance and would remain a die-hard corrupt. A department of public accountability is, therefore, a need of the hour, but it formation should strictly be on Islamic foundation and people of high integrity should be inducted like the Islamic scholars of known fame and knowledge.

Anti Corruption Strategy

In the end, it is necessary to give straightforward suggestions for anti-corruption measures. If we look at the issue, it is evident that gigantic efforts need to be made for anti-corruption measures, as compared to the efforts that were made in the past. Many laws were framed through different legislation, in order to eradicate this evil; different departments were setup to nip the corruption in the bud.

Many rules and procedures were also drafted to break the momentum of corruption, no stone was left unturned; yet even after all these concerted efforts it is strange to see that corruption is still flourishing and rapidly growing. Instead of being controlled, corruption has increased day by day. It is also observed that even hectic efforts, it has not furnished a remedy as yet.

It has opened the door for corruption even wider than before. It appears that nobody has paid attention to the real cause of failure; hence the anti-corruption measures have been resorted to have failed miserably. Thus existing laws and enactments cannot effectively curb this menace other qualitative efforts of reformation of the government functionaries have to be undertaken.

We have diagnosed corruption correctly because it is a disease of rusting of the soul. Wrong medication would not eradicate the disease. Drafting new laws would not be effective unless consistent dose of pills of honesty, righteousness and due consideration to fair play is not given.

Anti Corruption Department

Anti-corruption departments have become more corrupt, they were formed to be a watchdog and exemplary organization. New rules and procedures are framed for new departments to recover the bribed money; however, surprisingly these departments are floundering in sea of corruption. The rules and procedures are so stringent for the reporter that no one bothers to file an FIR a complaint. The officers and staff in these departments are discourteous and prone to red-tapism. The state affairs depict a correct picture of heinous corruption spread these days.

These new laws until today have not been effective to control corruption because people do not respect law. Even the law enforcing agencies and departments require anti-corruption measures. Instead of catching the culprit and recover the lost money, it is generally seen that these departments catch innocent people. National Accountability Bureau did not serve the purpose of curbing corruption.

The culprits amass money and start bribing people for the investigation stage and finally he is free to go. The need of the hour today is to indoctrinate people in character building on moral grounds, inculcate fear of God and ask them to adopt spiritual and religious life. These messages should be sent in writings from the newspapers and electronic media in order to literate public and create awareness in the masses against the heinous crime of corruption. It is, therefore, not a simple act of give and take, fair play and equity is plagued by the ill of corruption.

The corrupt one is himself affected as his family is generally disobedient, he is ill in life. Corrupt are generally seen settling court cases and inquiries against them. The corrupt one spends it more quickly than at a speed he earns. In the end it is sometimes seen that he is spending a life of a pauper or he is under debt.

Public awareness is, therefore, very necessary because public functionaries are not even 1% of the total population. The majority, the public, has to decide that bribe is not acceptable. The need of the hour is to train government officers to adhere to spirituality for betting their morality for adherence to merit.

The training in NEPA and Administrative Staff College should be tailored in such a way that they really become public servants and not masters of the people. A sense of fear of judgment day can strengthen our sense of duty to the people; a change is needed to build up again our collapsed system.

Practical steps, such as merit in recruitment, have to be placed on degree of integrity and honesty can be accorded highest score. Furthermore, it is necessary that salaries of the public servants should be according to the market as private employees who are highly paid. A special police can be formed where honest and efficient officers are recruited, where high pay should be tied with special awards in unearthing of assets of the corrupt officers.

This police force could be formed on the pattern of motorway police. The cases should be tried in special courts where renowned and special judges should hear such cases.

Out of Box Solution

A department should be constituted to look after few left over honest officers who are bravely facing odds in the society, who take courage and are fighting the corrupt system.

Honest people in government department are almost negotiable as because dishonest people think them as an impediment in their give and take. Honest officers are subjected to adversity in posting and transfer; their promotions are blocked because big post carries a price tag.

The laws are discriminatory as 15 marks for promotion from grade 19 to 20 and from 20 to 21 vests with the head of the department and that are generally accorded to blue-eyed officers in favoritism or recommendations and sometimes with money.

Few honest officers are seen struggling in the office because the corruption is widely spread from below rank to the higher officer. Honest people deserve a better treatment then the present conditions.

In the book "Nasiyaat-al-Aloom", Imam Ghazali narrates an incident from Banu Israel, An honest fisherman use to sell fish in the market and earned his living. One day he caught a very big fish. He was delighted as he expected to get a return more than what he ordinarily used to earn. As he was coming back, he was stopped by a corrupt police officer on duty in that area and he demanded the fisherman to sell his fish to him. The fisherman refused to sell his fish to the officer and the officer in return start beating the fisherman profusely and took the fish without paying him.

The fisherman wept and pleaded God emotionally of his helplessness. He prayed to get repayment of this deed from the officer in this world. The officer reached home and ordered his wife to fry the fish. The officer had usurped a right of an honest fisherman. The moment he stretched his hand to eat the fish, the fish became alive and gnawed his finger.

The officer cried in pain and was taken to a doctor. The doctor advised him to amputate his finger as the poison was spreading very fast. The finger was amputated, but the pain did not subside as a result his whole hand had to be cut off. The pain still did not subside; finally, he prostrated before Allah and asked for forgiveness for the agony and pain. An unknown voice said, how many part of the body will you amputate? There is no cure of this pain in this world as you have to ask forgiveness from the real sufferer, the poor fisherman.

He was an honest man and you have usurped his right by taking his fish forcibly. The officer hectically searched the fisherman and asked for forgiveness for what he had done, the fisherman forgave him on his protestation. Hazrat Musa (AS) received this revelation from Allah who narrated the whole incident through Hazrat Gabriel.

The moral of the story is that this world is standing on the edifice of rightful and honest foundations. It is; therefore, better to mend our ways earlier than later, before we are doomed, Allah forbid.

A Moral Story

Haram earning leads to shameful acts and multiple sins, whereas pure ways of earning prevent those acts. Although the devil instigates everyone even the pure earner, but Allah pullets him as he is toiling hard to earn his pure earnings.

The devil prevents a corrupt man to do good just as narrated above, Allah prevails a pure earner to resort to bad acts. Corrupt people usually complain that they cannot save money as the bliss of Allah is absent. The Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) once said that if anyone performed Hajj from Haram money and uttered "Labaik" the angel from the heaven say that you’re "Labaik" is not accepted as you travelled for Hajj out of ill-gotten money.

Once upon a time Hazrat Thanvi was invited by a rich man who had ill-gotten and dirty money in abundance. Soon after Maulana ate a small piece of sweet, he said his heart was filled with delectations of sensuous nature, he said he felt temptation to talk to pretty girls. Mufti sahib stated that his mental condition remained disturbed for a long time. Just imagine the intensity of worthlessness of Harm.

            Maulana Ali Qadri in a book of Hadith has written a story. He narrates that a rich visionary pious man earned his livelihood by resorting to pure means of earning the profit divided into three parts one he gave it in the way of Allah as sadqats, the other one he spent it on his family and the third part he invested in his business.

            One day a corrupt man came to him and said that he wanted to give some part of his money in sadqats. The rich man know he had Haram money so he advised the person to return the ill-gotten money back to the people he took from and usurped their rights and start earning through Halal means. The person refused to submit to pious man's advice. So again, hesitantly he advised the corrupt man to give the money to the first person he meets in the market.

            The sadqat were given to a blind old man as the corrupt person saw him as soon as he entered the market. Late in the afternoon blind man was talking to his friends and the corrupt man heard his story. The blind man was telling his friends that how he got a big chunk of money.

            He said that soon after receiving this money the first idea struck to his to his mind was to go to a prostitute, so he did join a prostitute and spent all his money on her. The corrupt man came to know the hidden truth he had ignored; therefore, he went to the poise man again and tendered his apology. The poise man now gave him one dihram out of his own pocket and asked him to give this dirham to someone else and observe the difference.

            The turn fell on a well-dressed man in the market, who looked little disturbed. The person ran after receiving one dirham and entered his dilapidated house and brought a dead pigeon and threw it in the trash. The man who had given one dirham followed him and inquired him about the matter, the person replied that he was a dignified person living an honorable life, bringing up his family and children from hard work, but did not expose his poverty to anyone; neither, did he beg at the time of need even in the past. For the last few days he was running from pillar to post, but could not get the job. He did not have any money to feed his family and children. He wore good clothes, but even then he could not find a job.

            He said, he hated begging, his honor and dignity did not allow him to resort to theft. He had decided in his mind that if he did not get anything today, if it was ordained by Allah, he would cook this dead pigeon for his children. He was elated when Allah sent him one dihram as Halal because he did not beg. He; therefore, went inside his house and thanked Allah as he had a firm belief that even a meager sustenance is fixed by Allah and that did come. He said he had firm belief that even in the crises like that Allah, the beneficent, will provide his Rizq.

            This episode highlights the belief of a true Muslim and taqwa along with how feeding of Haram money effects life as is seen in the blind person's case, adherence to Halal ways brings in durable quality of endurance, dignity and grace in one's life as is seen in the case of the person who did not go before anyone, but kept striving and got his return which was due from Allah to him.                  

Taqwa and It’s Impacts

If we believe in Islam and tailor ourselves by adherence to Islamic living, we have to be patient enough that we believe in Allah Al-Mighty and his Holy Prophet (PBUH) is the ultimate success of better life both in this world and the life that we have to spend in the next world.

Resorting to Halal mean can bring financial adversity temporarily, but to avoid Haram would save ourselves from an agonizing punishment, which is awaits us in the next world. Let us be contended with less and meager because for a true believer that is even written by Allah the Al-Mighty in his book that he has kept with him.

Allama Ibn-e-Shami, an Islamic scholar said to be aware of that time on the day of resurrection where the weak will be powerful enough to demand his rights, which he forfeited in the world by powerful people. If rights of the people are unjustifiably deprived in this world, he will be demanding the justice from Allah on the day of judgment.

The characteristics of honesty can only be learned through observance of taqwa meaning Allah's fearfulness. This state can be attained through religious training and in doing so the education system should be tailored accordingly as in the past. Training for material approach towards life instead of spiritual ascending has derailed everything today. There are no attempts by anyone to bring in Islamic personalities before a child to idealize the character of people who were real embodiment of taqwa.

Corruption is malignant in Pakistan because no efforts are seen from the government. Enactments of new laws have not made any change in the prosperity of corruption. It is seen that with passage of time, new ways and techniques are invented making the situation more alarming. The law enforcement agencies are in fact a bunch of dishonest people. Anti-corruption departments justify their existence by booking poor and lower staff to show the government that they are doing something to combat the ills of corruption. Big people are not touched because they have social and political connections and ample money to escape with workable strategies from the clutches of law.

Taqwa Brings In Honesty And Truthfulnes 

Allama Ibn-e-Rajab has narrated a heart touching story of Qazi Abu Bin Muhammad Ibn-e-Baqi, a famous saint of his time in the Fifth century. The author states that Qazi Abu Bakar was an inhabitant of Makkah and was a poor man. He could not succeed to meet his two ends and occasionally slept without food. One day he was searching for some work, but due to hunger he felt weak and sat down to relax. On the spot he found a bag lying beside him, which contained a gold necklace with precious diamonds. Abu Bakar delight heightened as he found such an expensive bag which was sufficient to overcome his poverty. Instead, he went home and kept the bag with him and again went out to find the job, as he thought he would not act dishonestly as the owner might trace it out knowing.

As Qazi Abu Bakar was pondering on the issues, he saw an old man announcing in a middle of a road that he had lost a bag and whoever returns it, would get Five Hundred dirham as a prize. Qazi Abu Bakar approached him asked to accompany him to his house where he handed over the bag to the owner. The old man thanked Qazi Abu Bakar for his act of honesty and immediately gave him five hundred dirham. Although Qazi Abu Bakar needed the money, but he apologized giving reason that he would not accept anything in return over a moral duty which Allah has entrusted on a believer. On persistent refusal to accept money the old man parted.

Qazi Abu Bakar remained financially distressed for a long time. He decided to undertake a journey and try fortune somewhere else and boarded a boat from Makkah, but the boat capsized in middle of the sea. Qazi Abu Bakar, with the help of Allah, got hold of wooden shelves and landed on an island. People cured the unconscious Qazi until he regained consciousness. Qazi Abu Bakar was an Islamic scholar and the people on the island were Muslims, so he was made an Imam of the mosque. He started teaching Qur'an in the mosque and took a keen interest in the affairs of the public.

He became a love-able personality for the people on the island and soon there were hundreds of students getting religious education from him. His characteristics of piety, trustworthiness earned him a name and he became economically stable as well. Qazi Abu Bakar was a brilliant calligraphist and he started to write Qur'an in a beautiful style. He taught this art to many people on the island and soon his fame spread far and wide.

Qazi Abu Bakar led a celebrity life; therefore, respectable people asked him to marry a girl whose father was a very pious man. Qazi Abu Bakar agreed to the wedlock, but he was awed to see the same necklace with his wife, which he had found and returned in Makkah.

His wife inquired him that was so amazing about the necklace that has made him so upset. Qazi Abu Bakar narrated the whole story to his wife who turned out to be the daughter of the old man to whom Qazi Abu Bakar had returned his necklace. She said that my father used to praise and pray for you and used to say that if he could find you he would definitely give my hand to you in wedlock.            

The moral of the story is that honesty, truthfulness, conscientious nature always pays in one’s life time and what Allah has kept for them in the world they would get it .It certainly is true and enunciated in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith of Holy Prophet (PBUH).

Chapter 9: Devine Guidance

Muhammad (PBUH), A Leader

The qualities and manners of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) were unique. He was a man of very fine appearance and expressions; he was thoroughly reliable and also zealous in the execution of his tasks. Moreover, He was extremely patient, merciful, generous and courageous; always going though the most difficult times with the most admirable sangfroid. Far from being arrogant or proud, he was modest and very accurate in his judgments. Visiting the poor and the needy and entertaining them were some of his favorite jobs. He never felt superior, and used to attend himself to most of his personal requirements. Always fully in control of his temper, he was very fair in his treatment of others. Every situation was treated by him with sagacity and each was given his due attention so that the best result might be achieved. The Prophet’s goal was righteousness and remembrance of the Almighty. His magnanimity, broad- mindedness and tolerance were all quite exceptional. He was cheerful, easy going pleasant and lenient. Above all, he was divinely guided.

Monumental examples of people who showed strength of character as is observed in the qualities of leadership.

All prophets whom Allah sent from time to time were role models for all the people in their time. They were sent by Allah to the world directly under his control and Hazrat Jibrail (A.S) was the communicator of the commands of Allah to the people. They were honest and trustworthy people therefore we have to see and judge that what impact did the prophet had upon his followers.

Setting Personal Examples

Don’t wait that other people change; you should act as a catalyst of change, the Holy Quran and the life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is an embodiment, a sample from where we can take a start. Every Muslim knows how a leader should be. Some of his characteristics are detailed here as under.      

To excel in leadership, one must have very special qualities. Some acquire such qualities as they grow more mature, while others possess them from the outset. The latter are called born leaders, the Prophet Muhammad being the best example. His conduct and qualities made it possible for him to excel in management and leadership to a degree which is still unmatched to date. A successful leader is one who attains his ends in the best possible manner, with the least inconvenience to the team, at the minimum cost, in record time and with a high-quality performance. With modern techniques, there are several ways of doing this, but the path adopted by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the best for it was with divine guidance of Allah that he became the supreme leader of the human race.

“Truly, in the Messenger of Allah, you have an excellent example”

                                                                                    (Surah Al-'AÄ¥zāb Ayat-21).

Present-day leaders could parallel at least a part of his achievement, if they did their utmost not being selfish to avoid corruption, destroying the fabric of the society ultimately affecting the Muslim Ummah.

For easy reference the characteristics necessary for leadership are listed below in alphabetical order. Supporting extracts from the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the applicable, translated verses from the Quran appear in the pages that follow.

Ability

Let us become a nation that shall call for righteousness, enjoin justice and forbid evil. Such men will surely triumph. The Holly Qur’an quotes:

“In one tradition it is mentioned that towards the end of the world people will occupy positions for which they are not suited”

 

“An Ansari from Medina once requested the Holy Prophet: “Why do you not appoint me as an executive as you have appointed so and so? How you replied, “You will seed is crimination after I am gone, but be patient till you meet me on the banks of the Kausar (Fountain in Paradise)”

(Hadith)

“The leader must be capable of performing his duties. This is a basic requirement, as success depends on an able performance. Once should never take up a position without first being certain of being able to meet its demands and one should not appoint any one to a post for which he is not suitable. The importance of merit fair play and efficiency would automatically curve corruption. This is possible only if one is true to oneself and brave enough to face the facts. In essence, this means enjoy in good and forbidding evil”

(Hadith from Bukhari Shareef)

Bravery

“Muhammad (PBUH) is the messenger of Allah and those who follow him are firm and unyielding towards the unbelievers but merciful towards one another”.

(Surah Al Fatah- Ayat-29)

“The strong believer is better and more beloved of Allah than the weak one, although there is good in both of them. But you should never say of this is donor that is done. Do your best and leave the rest to Allah”

(Hadith Narrated By Abu Hurayra)

“After me there will be discrimination and you will observe things of which you will disapprove” A companion asked, “Messenger of Allah, what do you command us to do in such a situation? He replied, “Discharge your duties and supplicate Allah for his bounties”

(Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim)

“Whenever the fight grew fierce and the eyes of the fighters were red, we used to resort to the Prophet for succor. He was always closest to the enemy”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Calmness

“It is he who sent down tranquility into the hearts of the believers that their faith might grow stronger.”

(Surah Al-Fatĥ- Ayat#4)

“You who believe, be patient, discipline yourselves and hold yourselves together. Heed good so that you may prosper”

(Surah 'Āli `Imrān-Ayat#200)

“Should Being calm and behaving in a manner worthy of respect is as good as the making of sacrifices. Indeed Allah is gentle and loves gentleness, and gives an approval to gentleness which. He does not give to harshness”

(Hadith from Bukhari-Shareef)

“The strong man is not the one who overcomes others by his strength, but the one who, through angry, controls himself. Calmness is an essential quality for a leader. He should be patient, gentle and to stable mind in order to take the right decisions. He will thus display his dependability”

(Hadith from Bukhari Shareef)

Dependability

“Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their promises. Are the heirs of paradise, they shall abide in forever.”

(Surah Al-Mu'minūn Ayat#8)

“You who believe, stand steadfast before God as witnesses for justice, even though it is against yourselves, your own parents or you own close relatives, whether it concerns a rich or a poor man, Good stands closer to them both. Do not be led by any passion lest you deal unjustly. If you distort your testimony or decline go give it, God distort your testimony or decline go give it, God is still informed of what you do”

(Surah An-Nisā' Ayat# 135)

“Any Abd (slave or man) authorized by Allah to ruler over certain people will never even have the smell of Paradise if he fails to look after them in an honest manner”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“When one of you is to supplicate, he should do so with full confidence and should not stay “Oh Allah, grant me if thou will” for there is no power which can force the hand of Allah”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“The leader must be dependable. He should be acceptable at all times, especially in emergencies demonstrate his dependability and must be impart exemplary in conduct and act in full confidence”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Exemplariness

“Say! Come I will recite what your lord has made binding on you. Serve no other gods besides him. Show kindness towards both your parents. Do not kill your children because of poverty: we shall provide for you as well as for them. Do not indulge in shameful acts, be they open or secret. Do not kill any person for that God has forbidden except through (due process of) Law. He has instructed you in this so that you may grow in wisdom. Do not tamper with an orphan’s wealth before he comes of age, except to improve it. Give full measure and weight in all fitness. We do not charge any person with more than he can bear. Whenever you speak, be just, even though if affect to a close relative. Fulfill God’s covenant. Thus has He instructed you, so that you may take head. This is my straight road, so follow it and do not follow (other) paths which will separate you from Him. Thus has he instructed you so that you may do your duty.”

(Surah Al-'An`ām- Ayat# 151-153)

“There is nothing which weights heavier in the balance than good character”

(Hadith from Iman Ahmed)

“May Allah have mercy on a person who is not difficult, but courteous when he sells, buys or asks for the payment of his dues”

(Hadith from Iman Ahmed)

Fairness

“We have sent our messengers with explanations and sent the scriptures and the scales of justice down with them, so that men may conduct themselves with fairness.”

(Surah Al-Ĥadīd Ayt#25)

“Love the one whom you love to a certain degree (moderately) for perhaps one day he will be someone for whom you will feel hatred”

(Hadith from Thirmidhi Shareef)

A leader must be fair in his dealings. He should be so impartial that nothing influences his decisions, except the facts. The leader must be justly balanced in his love and hate, and this should reflect in all his actions. This can be achieved if he is genuine in his approach”

(Hadith Of Thirmidhi)

Genuineness

“The leader must be genuinely interested in his task. His intentions should be clear and genuine and he must never be hypocritical. He should not take anything for granted. He must have a thorough understanding of each situation, So that an honest and loyal appraisal can be made before embarking on any course of action”

(Hadith from Tirmidhi Shareef)

Honesty

“You, who believe, head God and stand by those, who are truthful.”

(Surah At-Tawbah Ayatr#:119)

Believe In Allah And Be Straight

“There are three signs of the hypocrite: when he speaks, he lies. When he makes a promises, he does not keep it. When he is trusted, he betrays”

(Hadith)

“It is falsehood enough when a person narrates everything that he hears”

(Hadith Narrated By Abu Huraira)

“Honesty is a virtue which we tend to take for granted, but for a leader it is vital. He should be absolutely honest to the point of never repeating what he hears or reads, unless he verifies it. Dealing with a problem and analyzing it honestly will result in a proper solution. This of course, will require the utmost initiative”

(Hadith of Muslim)

Initiative

“A good deed and an evil deed are not alike: repay (evil) with something that is finer and see how someone who is separated from you because of enmity will become a bosom friend.”

(Surah FuÅŸÅŸilat Ayat# 34)

“A man passing along a road found a thorny branch lying cross the road and pushed it away. Allah appreciated his action and forgave his sins”

(Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim)

“Every magnificent and important project no begun with the praise of Allah, remains defective”

(Hadith from Sunan Abu Dawood)

“Taking the initiative and following through are major requirements for a leader. He should not miss any opportunity of gaining ground, even if it is minor. One has to have a global plan of all requirements, so that one may initiate developments in stages with correct judgment”

(Hadith from Sunan Abu Dawood)

Judgment

Whenever you judge between people, you should do so with fairness.

(Surah An-Nisā' Ayat# 58)

“God is with the judge, this is, His help and guidance are reaching him as long as he is just and fair, but when he departs (from the path of justice and fairness) and becomes unjust and tyrannical, the Lord leaves him alone and the Devil attaches himself to him”

(Hadith Of Tirmidhi)

“A judge should not judge between two persons when he is in an angry mood”

(Hadith From Bukhari)

“Correct judgment is essential for a good leader. Being alert all the t5ime will enhance his powers of quick decision-making. This, however, is impossible unless he has full knowledge of his responsibilities”

(Hadith From Bukhari)

Knowledge

The Month of Ramadan is when the Qur’an was sent down as a book of guidance for making with explanations of right and wrong.

(Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat # 185)

“Do not be quick to recite the Qur’an before its revelation has been accomplished. But rather say. “Lord, increase my knowledge”.

(Surah Ţāhā Ayat# 114)

“Do not acquire knowledge in order to complete with scholars or argue with the ignorant, or gain mastery over the gathering”

(Hadith of Muslim)

“When a person follows the path to the acquisition of knowledge, Allah will make it easy for him to enter Paradise”

(Hadith of Muslim)

“Allah will not withdraw knowledge, snatching it away from people, but it will be withdrawn as a result of death of learned persons. When no men of learning are available, people will appoint ignorant men as their leaders and will ask them for guidance on religious matters, and they will give fatwas (verdicts) without knowledge. Thus they will go astray themselves and will lead others astray. Knowledge is a basic requirement of manager, in general and of leadership in particular. With knowledge, one cannot claim to be a leader addition to knowledge of his work the leaders should have a basic knowledge of the Qur’an and Sunnah as applicable of his venture. The application of such knowledge in his daily routine will him to be very liberal in his approach”

(Hadith of Muslim)

Liberalism

“And consult them in affairs (of moment) them, when you have taken your decision, put your trust in Allah, for Allah loves those who put their trust in (Him)”.

(Surah 'Āli `Imrān Ayat # 159)

“When a ruler takes a decision after due consideration and enquiry, and this decision proves to be just and right, he however, after making full enquiries and taking proper care, makes a mistake, he will be entitled to a lesser reward”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“Liberalism as opposed to dictatorship is a fine quality in a leader. He will consult with his colleagues and deputies to arrive at the most suitable solution to a particular problem. He should be freely approachable by those concerned and should have the modesty not to claim credit for his achievements”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Modest

Be modest in the way you walk and lower your voice, the ugliest sound is a donkey’s braying.

(Surah Luqmān Ayat# 19)

“God does not love the man who is arrogant and boastful”

(Surah An-Nisā' Ayat #36)

“Allah, the most exalted, has revealed to me that you should be courteous and cordial to each other, so that nobody may consider himself superior to another nor harm him”

(Hadith of Muslim)

“Modesty results in good alone and nothing else”

(Hadith of Bukhari and Muslim)

“Allah will not look at the person who drags his garment (behind him) out of his conceit”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“Modest leaders are hard to find as it extremely difficult to curb one’s egoism. But the leader who is modest in order to make things easy for everyone is a truly unique person, whose modesty will be seen as a mark of nobility”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Nobility

“Oh making, we have created you from male and female and set you up as nations and tribes, so that you may recognize one another. The noblest among you before God are those of you who best perform their duty. God is all-knowing and wise.”

(Surah Al-Ĥujurāt Ayat# 13)

“The best among you are those who have the best manners”

(Hadith Narrated By Abdullah Ibn Amir)

“Virtue is good conduct, and sin is that which pinches your mind and makes you feel afraid that people may come to know of it”

(Hadith of Muslim)

“The most disgraceful title in the estimation of Allah is the self-styled king of kings, of Emperor”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“Nobility which ranks high in the requirements for leadership is based on the possession of excellent moral qualities. This has to be coupled with organizing ability to reach the top”

Organization

“Recite your prayers at sunset, at nightfall and at down, the down, the dawn prayer during the right as well, an additional duty, for the fulfillment of which your lord may exalt you to an honorable station. Say, “My lord, let me enter through a rightful entrance and leave by a rightful exit.”

(Surah Al-'Isrā' Ayat # 78-80)

“When you travel through fertile land, give the camels their share of the vegetation of the land and when you travel through barren land hasten your pace and thus conserve their energy. When you alt for the night, leave the track unoccupied, for it is also a passage for the beasts and a haunt of insects and reptiles during the right.

(Hadith of Muslim)

“Prayer is not (valid) either when food has been served, or at a time when a person is in need of relieving himself”

(Hadith of Muslim)

A woman came to the Prophet, who ordered her to go away and come back again. She said, “What if I came and didn’t find you? Her tone implying that she might find him dead. The Prophet said “if you should not find me, go to Abu Bakr.”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“For a leader to be productive, he should be well organized and thoughtful, and should delegate authority to associates. These are major keys to success. Successful leaders are of sterling personality”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Personality

“And indeed, you are of a great moral character.”

(Surah Al-Qalam Ayat #4)

Quality

“Indeed, he succeeds who purifies himself.”

(Surah Al-'A`lá Ayat # 14)

“Because of committing oppression, for on the Day of resurrection, oppression will be darkness, and beware of Avarice, for avarice destroyed those who came before you, it led them into the shedding of blood and making lawful that which was forbidden for them”

(Hadith of Muslim)

“Quality is the essence of leadership. All ventures will be judgment by the quality of performance attained by the leader’s purifying himself and not oppressing any of his followers in the maintenance of discipline. This cannot be achieved unless he takes responsibility for the outcome”

(Hadith of Muslim)

Responsibility

“God only holds a person responsible for whatever. He has given him. God will grant ease following hardship”.

(Surah Aţ-Ţalāq Ayat #7)

“Each one of you is a Guardian and responsible for those of whom he is in charge. The Ruler is a Guardian and thus responsible for his subject”

“A man is the Guardian of his family and is responsible for those under his care. In like manner, each one of you is a guardian and is responsible for what he is entrusted with.”

(Hadith Related By Umar (RA)

Sacrifice

“You will never attain to virtue until you give in alms what you dearly cherish. God is aware of the alms you give.”

(Surah 'Āli `Imrān Ayat # 92)

“What is the best jihad?” The Prophet was asked:” He who strives against his own self and his desires for the cause of Allah, said the Prophet”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“No leader can deliver the goods unless he is prepared to sacrifice some of his leisure time in the interests of a top-quality performance. He should be content with what he possesses. This exemplary attitude will encourage teamwork among his associates”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Teamwork

“Cling one and all to the faith of God, and do not be divided, Remember the favors God bestowed on you when you were enemies. He united your hearts so that you became brothers through his grace”          

(Surah 'Āli `Imrān Ayat # 103)

“In a group of three persons. Two should not talk confidentially so as to exclude the third”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“Faithful believes are to each other as the bricks of a wall, supporting and reinforcing each other so saying, the Prophet Muhammad grabed his hands by interlocking his fingers”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves, showing love among themselves and being kind among themselves resembling one body, so that if any part of the body in not well than the whole body share the sleepiness and fever with it”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Understanding

“This is a blessed Book we have sent down, so follow it and keep from evil, so that you may receive mercy.”

(Surah Al-'An`ām Ayat # 155)

“The Prophet used to talk very clearly and distinctly so that his audience would understand the point he was making”

(Hadith from Sunan Abu Dawood)

“Whenever the Prophet Muhammad is given the opportunity to choose the easier and more convenient. But if he is certain that it is sinful, he will stay as far away as he can from it. He has never avenged himself, but if the sanctity of Allah were violated, he would do so. That would be for Allah, not for himself. He is the last one to get angry and first to be satisfied. His hospitality and generosity are matchless. His gifts and endowments bespeak a man who does not fear poverty”

(Narrated By Hazrat ‘Ayesha (RA) Hadith Of Bukhari)

Versatility

Oh Prophet, we have sent you forth as a witness, a bearer of good tidings and a warner one who shall call people to God by His leave and guide them like a shining light. Proclaim to believers that they will have great bounty from God.

(Surah Al-'Aĥzāb Ayat # 45-47)

“When you see a person seeking on object earnestly assist him to attain his ends. And never ask for reward except that given by Allah”

(Hadith from Al-Shifa)

Wisdom

“I swear by the declining day that perdition shall be the lot of man, except for those who have faith and do good works, who exhort each other to justice and to fortitude.”

(Surah Al-`AÅŸr Ayat# 1-3)

“A believer is not stung twice from the some hole”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

“There is to be no every except with regard to two kinds of individuals: one to whom Allah has given wealth, which he strives to spend righteously, and one to whom Allah has given the wisdom of the Qur’an upon which he models his behavior and which he teaches to others”

(Hadith of Bukhari)

Youth

“The servants of God have nothing to fear or regret.”

(Surah YÅ«nus Ayat # 62)

“Indeed from amongst the servants of Allah, there are servants who are not Prophet whom the Prophets and martyrs will annoy. “The Prophet was asked, “Who are they, so that we may love them? He replied “they are the people who love each other due to Allah’s lights. The do not fear when the people fear: not do they grieve when the people grieve.”

(Hadith from Tabari Shareef)

Zeal

“No moral knows what Bliss is in store for the pious as a reward for their labors.”

(Surah As-Sajdah Ayat #17)

“Muhammad is the father of No man among, but (he is) Allah’s Messenger and the seal of the Prophet.

Allah is aware of everything.”

(Surah Al-'Aĥzāb Ayat # 40)

Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (RA)

Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique became the first Caliph after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique was given the title “Siddique” which means the truthful, a height of the quality in foundation of integrity and honesty in a person. He was equally respected even before embracing of Islam. He was a very close companion of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) until revelations “Nazool-e-Wahi” from Allah Almighty. Not only this, but also he was a brave individual and on several occasions, during the preaching, he was seriously injured. He was also very benevolent in spending in the way of Allah. He never hesitated donating his wealth for the cause of spreading on Islam and helping Muslim minorities at that time. His one of the greatest endeavor was compilation of the Holy Qur’an. During his caliphate, a salary was fixed for the post of a caliph. In the beginning Hazrat Abu Bakar wanted to carry out his trading business along with his responsibilities as a caliph, but then on the advice of Hazrat Umer (RA) and Hazrat Abu Abaida (RA), he renounced his trade as he was convinced that the job of a caliph was too big in responsibility Hazrat Ayesha, his daughter, told after Hazrat Abu Bakar’s passing away that he did not take any money from the bait-ul-mal, except simple food and clothes. She said that he had a slave, a camel and a quilt in his possession at the time of his death, which on his will was endowed to Hazrat Umer. He also deposited 1/5th of his assets in the bait-ul-mal and forbade share of his family in Khums “Share in Mal-e-Ghanimat”. In his life, he asked Hazrat Ayesha (RA) to wash the clothes he wears, to be used as a shroud at the time of his death.

On one occasion Hazrat Abu Bakar’s delivered a historic sermon to Umer-Bin-Al-Aas, which highlights the strength of his character. He said:

“O Umar! Keep fearing Allah in public and privacy and keep feeling shy of Him for He looks upon you and your acts. And you have already seen that I have given you preference to those who are ahead of you with respect to good acts and wealth among the Muslims; hence you become one who acts keeping the Hereafter, and what you do should be meant for the pleasure of Allah; act as a father to those who depend on you; do not be on the lookout for other’s secrets; never be careless about your duties; fight with your enemies with righteousness and never act cowardly; do not indulge in embezzlement; punish the embezzlers; do not admonish your friends in lengthy terms; rectify yourself and your subjects will turn good”.

There are numerous verses in Holy Quran which depict the excellence of Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique and as many as 181 hadiths of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), which illustrates the excellence of the man who was a pillar of Islam and a true follower of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He is a role model in honesty, integrity, trustworthiness, and all the characteristics which has been spelt in Quran and referred to in this book for a Muslim leader.

Hazrat Umer Farooque (RA)

Hazrat Umer succeeded Hazrat Abu Bakar who was nominated as caliph after his death. During his tenure of 10 years, the Kingdom of Persia came under the influence of Islam. Islamic flag was hoisted from the boundaries of India till Africa.

Hazrat Umer was a very strict administrator, whenever he appointed people for a public post, he used to define their responsibilities on a written agreement, which included their accountability as well. Hazrat Umer administration till to-day is unparalleled and is even replicated by the West.   To facilitate people, during his regime, he has taken so many such steps that they have become a part of legislation in lots of present day countries. For instance, on the occasion of Haj, the public functionaries throughout the Arab world were required to be present for facilitation. On occasions of public gatherings like Haj, Hazrat Umer (AS) asked every person to file a complaint against any administrator who did something wrong or report extravagance living of any public servant.

Once a person complained that one of the administrator, appointed by the Caliph had given him a punishment of 100 lashes unjustly. Hazrat Umer, after investigating, asked that person to thrash the administrator in return as well. Umer Bin Al-Aas intervened and convinced the plaintiff to forgive him against payment for 200 Dinars, as the administrator had already been socially ostracized which was enough punishment for him. The plaintiff agreed and therefore the administrator was able to save his skin.

 

Hazrat Umer used to get information from all sources to know the complaints of the people and address them on the spot. He himself led a very simple life, despite being a caliph. He used to withdraw 2 Dirham daily from the bait-ul-mal for his livelihood. His God fearfulness was exemplary, such that, once he was delivering a sermon in a vociferous voice and a person from the audience stood up and said: “Oh Caliph! fear God”, and repeated the statement. People stood up to forbid the person but he asked the people to let the plaintiff say because he was addressing public for all, and if he did not hear him, how would their matter be addressed.

Hazrat Umer remained poor, despite the fact that after the conquest of Qaiser and Qasra, there was a flood of bounties in war booty, so much so that poor became wealthy and there remained no poor to take Zakat. Hazrat Umer had innumerable qualities and characteristics for which volumes of books have been written. People like him are role models and embodiment of God fearfulness and true teachers of Islam.

Hazrat Umer once addressed Qazis “judges” and said that until you form a habit where an ordinary man can be equal to a caliph in the court, you do not qualify to be a Qazi.

Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA)

Hazrat Usman succeeded after Hazrat Umer’s passing away. Islam had already been spread far and wide and consolidated during his tenure. Hazrat Usman stressed on accountability and public welfare on the same pattern as in the time of Hazrat Umer. He was a very kind hearted man and his forgiveness was exemplary. Accountability though was not strict in the time of Hazrat Usman, however, he used to dismiss any public functionaries against whom any complaint was established, for instance, he dismissed Saad Bin Abi Waqas from the bait-ul-mal on non-payment of debt. Hazrat Usman laid emphasis on religious training of the Muslims and he himself taught Quran as a teacher. Prophet (PBUH) has honored him by making him “Zinoorain” as he gave away his two daughters in wedlock to Hazrat Usman. During his tenure drought set in Madina, he ordered big quantity of food loaded on 1 thousand camels and distribute amongst people. The traders of Madina offered him profit of fifty percent, but he demanded 100% profit quoting that, God had promised ten times more on any good deed, therefore, he demands ten times the profit of the original investment. His benevolence and extravagance in spending in the way of Allah was exemplary. He was a just man. Once he punished his servant by hold of the ear , but fear of God made him restless. He ordered his servant to repeat the action and in return hold his ear. The servant reluctantly stretched, his hand, and twisted his ear. Hazrat Umer said afterwards that reprimand was easier in this world than to face punishment in the life hereafter.

Ala’a Bin Fadal (RA) said that when Hazrat Usman (RA) was martyred, the people searched his belonging. A locked trunk was opened where a paper had the following will written on it:

“This is the will from Usman. In the name of Allah, most gracious and Merciful. Usman bin Afghan testifies that none is worthy of worship but one and the only Allah, and there is no partner unto Him. And verily, Mohammad (PBUH) is the servant and Messenger of Allah. Both the Heaven and the Hell are a fact. In fact, Allah will raise the dead from their graves on a certain day which is bound to come, Certainly Allah does not break his promise. Usman has remained stuck to this creed and will die and will be raised again with it”

As per the narration of Nizam-ul-Mulk the following verses were also found written at the back of this paper:

“The wealth of the ‘self’ makes one care-free and attaches superiority to it and if it overlooks sense of richness, the destitute will dominate it.”

“There is no difficulty which does not have ease in its trail: thus keep patience over the difficulties and one, who is not tested, does not experience the difficulties, and in changes of time lies what is promised by it.”

Hazrat Ali Ibne Abi Talib (RA)

Hazrat Ali succeeded Hazrat Usman when he was martyred, therefore, revolts and dissension started in the Muslim Ummah. It is to point out that, Hazrat Ali was a gate way of knowledge. His humbleness can be seen from the fact that he used to clean bait-ul-mal with the broom himself. He used to distribute all the belongings of bait-ul-mal in the poor Muslims and destitute. He used to offer Nawafils at the spot as a token of witness for that place before Allah because it is said that everything will speak before God when he would judge accounts of everybody. For illustration some part of his sermon is narrated here as below:

 

“Muslim is greater than the inviolability of the Haram. Allah Most Holy has been very severe with the Muslims in respect of divine unity and sincerity (Ikhlas). He alone is a Muslim from whose hand and tongue the other Muslims may remain safe. When you see good, evil, leave it. There is no escaping from death. If you are prepared for it, even then it will catch you and if you tried to run away from it, even then it will overtake you. Therefore, seek salvation, seek salvation; make haste, make haste. A seeker is pursuing you, walking very fast; it is the grave. Fear the darkness of the grave and its narrowness and its desolation. The worldly life may not beguile you. This world is a house surrounded by calamities and well-known for perishing and has been defined with treachery, and whatever is there in this is to decay. This world for the world lings is a big and small bucket. Enjoyment in this world is not a good thing and plenitude is not to last in this world. What will be your condition when all the affairs will have ended and the dead will be resurrected from the graves, and whatever is there in the chest will be manifested and you will be made to stand before the Glorious Allah for reward and punishment? All the hearts will be beating; the fear of sins done by you all your veils will be torn asunder and your obvious and hidden faults will be expressed. At that time every soul will be punished for that which it has done. The guilty will be fearing and saying that misery! What’s happened to this book that it has kept count of all”? Allah has honored you with perfect bounties and has favored you with too many gifts. The world consists of available necessaries from which the good and the bad both eat, and the Hereafter is a true promise over which a very omnipotent king will rule. Listen! The Satan threatens everyone with his eminent i.e. poverty and orders obscene work, whereas Allah gives you his promise for pardon and blessing and Allah is omnipotent. The hell is a fire whose tumult will not subside; its prisoner will not get release. Its heat is severe and its abyss is very deep, and its water is pus. I am afraid of for you is to follow desires and cherish long hopes. Don’t be of those who hope for the Hereafter without action and delay in repenting (Taubah) owing to the lengthening of hopes (i.e. worldly avarice). About the world they talk like recluses but in the world they behave like those people who incline towards the world. When any one of you experiences loss in family, wealth and self and sees the opposite of it in others, let this thing not involve one in mischief. It is because it is the dignity of Muslim that as long as he may not do a bad work for which he may have to express humbleness at the time it is talked about and the mean people may be provoked at him; like a successful gambler who awaits success at the first move whereby he may gain some money and may be saved from losing. Similarly a Muslim man who is free from dishonesty (Khiyanat) awaits one of the two good things; when he may pray to Allah, that which is with Allah is better for him or this that Allah may make him a man of family and wealth”.

Hazrat Umer Bin Abdul Aziz (RA)

Hazrat Umer bin Abdul Aziz is known to be the fifth caliph after Khilafat-e-Rashida. Suleman Bin Marwan left a will to nominate Umer bin Abdul Aziz his nephew instead of his son. The will was opened after the death of Suleman Bin Marwan; therefore, he became the Caliph. Hazrat Umer Bin Abdul Aziz was a very rich man and spent his life in luxuries. It is said that his personal belongings were so big in size that it were loaded on thirty camels. He was the best dressed person of that time and spent extravagantly on perfumes purchased from the most expensive market of that town. As soon as he was made the caliph, his posture changed. He sacrificed his personal belongings immediately after he became the Caliph, for instance, he had a battalion of best horses of Arab peninsula which he sold and deposited the money in the bait-ul-mal.

The foremost issue before the new caliph was imparting justice. The Royal families of Kings and Ministers of Banu Ummayah had usurped lot of wealth and properties of the people. He deposited all of his belongings in the bait-ul-mal and assembled all the families of Kings and ministers and also asked them to deposit their ill-gotten properties and wealth, either to deserving people from whom they forcibly acquired the property, or deposit in bait-ul-mal. Thus this wealth was deposited in the bait-ul-mal and those rightful owners were returned back the properties. The justice system is effectively operative when personal wishes and agendas are given way for public interest. All scholarships of Royal families were discontinued and the deserving ones were given money out of public fund of the bait-ul-mal. The poor and destitute were given scholarships, sadqat and Alms. The people became affluent. It is said that within the tenure of two and a half years, there were hardly any people to consume Zakat which people used to deposit in bait-ul-mal.

His quality of God fearfulness was exemplary. Hazrat Umer Bin Abdul Aziz liked Lebanese honey very much but could not afford it from his meager earning fixed by bait-ul-mal. His wife once asked the Governor of Lebanon to send some honey. He sent the honey which his wife Fatima wanted the caliph to eat. The caliph reclined to eat, sold it in the market and deposited the money in the bait-ul-mal and sent an exclamatory note to the Governor to be careful in future.

Once a person sent him a present and wrote a letter to Hazrat Umer Bin Abdul Aziz mentioning that it is “Hadiya”. The same was returned back with the remarks that the Prophet (PBUH) would have received it as “Hadiya” but for people like him it is bribe because he is not a prophet.

The following narration shows the strength of his character God fearfulness and integrity. Once, his servant tried to poison him for a bribe of 1000 dinar. The servant was caught and interrogated by him. He ordered him to deposit 1000 dinars back in the bait-ul-mal, and asked him to run away for fear that people will kill him.

Salahuddin Ayubi

Salahuddin Ayubi was the greatest Muslim General of his time. He was made governor of Egypt and the chief of the army after his uncle. Moreover, after the death of Nooruddin Zangi, he was made the emperor in 1174. He fought the Crusades for two decades. In the battle of Khittian and Jerusalem, his army captured Jerusalem, while in the third crusade, collective Christian army could not defeat him and Jerusalem remained with the Muslim. Many Christian emperors and kings jointly arranged armies from all the way from Pacific Ocean down Asian sub-continent under the General of Richards, as known as “Lion Heart”. Before the start of Crusade Richard sent a message to Salahuddin “We are many kings, having a large army and you are alone, you should vacate Jerusalem; otherwise, you will be perish with your army” Sallahuddin replied “The territory of Asia is very big and I will make graveyard for you and your army here”.

Difference in character of Salahuddin Ayubi with other contemporary rulers was that, they took recognition by power and glory, whereas Sallahuddin fame attained height because of his love and benevolence to people with a keen interest of solving their problems. Famous European historian Stanley Walpole writes in his book “Saladin” that, Sallahuddin can be very well observed in Crusade in which a Sallahuddin captured large spoil of war along with huge enemy’s army. Sallahuddin Ayubi divided the spoil into three parts. One was distributed to the prisoner of war as they were released. The second part was distributed in the common people and the third part, was given to religious education system of the country. He and his army did not keep the spoil themselves. The prisoner of war took oath of allegiance, and joined his army. His humanity approach and reformatory approach paid dividend.

Stanley Walpole further mentioned an incident, as once a magistrate committed a high handedness on a Christian and Sallahuddin himself punished the magistrate in front of everyone. King Phillips and Richard massacred Muslim breathlessly during wars in Crusades but when Richard fell ill, Sallahuddin Ayubi took a doctor to attend to this illness with himself went and nursed the ailing king. Sallahuddin Ayubi was a considerate man, full of wisdom and soft spoken person who avoided loose talk and wasting time. He was used to of living a very simple life. Once he was offered a very beautiful palace in Damascus to live, but he declined to stay in it and said that he is not here to live here permanently as his martyrdom is waiting for him in battlefield.

During the capture of Jerusalem, Christians surrendered to him on the terms that that they will pay a tax, but Sallahudin exempted the prisoner who were poor and they were released. The action made Sallahuddin Ayubi famous throughout Europe.

An austere leader of Muslim world, a charismatic politician and a leader and one of the greatest general of his time, Sallahuddin Ayubi ruled over Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Egypt. He captured Jerusalem but when he died, his coffin and expense of funeral were arranged by borrowing. He was buried in a very simple ceremony. The Muslim Ummah suffered a huge loss at his death, people wept furiously and the streets of Damascus were mourning his death. He left one horse, one metal protection vest used in the fights, one dinar and 36 dirhams as inheritance. He had a very strong desire to perform Haj but could not do so.

Lucky and Blessed Ones

A road to Makkah is written by a Jew converted to a Muslim by the name of Muhammad Asad. Muhammad Asad states that he studied Islam by traveling throughout the world to establish its truthfulness. He was convinced in his heart that Islam was a true and complete religion but an episode changed his life completely. He said he was traveling in the desert and saw an old man sitting beside a tree who had o loaf of bread with him, he inquiringly called me and gave half of his bread to me and said Muslim cannot eat alone, without inviting a guest. The hospitality and sacrifice is a hall mark character in a Muslim, therefore he converted to Islam and became an ardent Muslim.

In another book, written by a Hindu Kishan Lal who converted to Muslim by the name of Ghazi Ahmed. He has also written a book describing his own account “From Darkness to Light” about Islam. The book depicts an enthralling struggle of a man who was absolutely convinced that Islam was the only true religion and a complete code of life. Ghazi Ahmed as Kishan Lal before partition lived at Buggha Kallaih near a small village near Chakwal, now in Pakistan. Ghazi Ahmed narrates that before he became a Muslim, he had a distinctive quality of honesty and uprightness even when he was a Hindu. This quality as Hindu consistently motivated him to find a right path. He narrates that he studied Obaidullah Sindhi a Muslim scholar who was also converted from a Hindu to a Muslim and became a very prominent religious scholar. A tale of miseries started immediately when Ghazi Ahmed embraced Islam by the hands of Moulana Abdur Rauf, a pious Muslim of that time. Ghazi Ahmed’s father filed three cases consecutively before different magistrates. His father, a Hindu, thought that Kishan Lal was doped by the opportunist Muslims forcing him to convert himself. Ghazi Ahmed won all the three cases because he had attained adult age and he had solemnly affirmed before the court that he converted to a Muslim on his own. His father arranged a forged certificate from Jhelum, bribing the issuing authority, declaring him as a minor and the magistrate in Jhelum was also bribed to overrule the previous judgments and decided the case in favor of his father. Ghazi Ahmed in his arguments before the Magistrate and the Hindu community categorically stated that he became Muslim by his own choice and thought that Islam and the life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was a true embodiment of the religion. Ghazi Ahmed also stated that the partition of subcontinent brought him a harbinger as his family migrated to India. He continued his studies in Pakistan and after his masters in Arabic, Ghazi Ahmed became principal of Government College Bocharkallian district Jhelum. Ghazi Ahmed’s honesty was a hall mark of his character. His aunt, a Hindu, lived in Muslim populated area. She gave him a bag containing 160 tolas gold, 3200 tolas silver (Around 80 pounds) to Ghazi Ahmed to keep it as an Amanat. During those days, people were migrating from Pakistan to India. Ghazi Ahmed came to know that his aunt was leaving for India by a special train from Chakwal and people advised Ghazi Ahmed not to go and meet his aunt due to fear of theft or loss of his life. He said that if she left Pakistan how he would be able to return back the Amanat to a rightful owner. Ghazi Ahmed disregarded the advice and by the grace of Allah he reached the station safely with the baggage and immediately handed it to his aunt, the owner. The Hindu’s that had gathered raised the slogan that a Hindu blood can only be trustworthy, however his demeanor changed. Ghazi Ahmed robustly said that had he been a Hindu he would have kept with the money instead he is giving it back as he was a Muslim. Ghazi Ahmed repeatedly said that he had learned honesty, dignity and valor from a close study of the life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who has categorically asked everybody to return belongings to the rightful owner in his anyone’s life time. A Hindu who was onboard the train said that if other Muslim were like him; he would have not gone to India.

Ghazi Ahmed valor, bravery and unflinching belief was an embodiment of a true Muslim. He has narrated another story in his book. He said that one day a Tehsildar of that area called him in his office and informed him that his family have left some agriculture land which can be transferred and mutated in his name, only if Ghazi Ahmed was ready to grease his palm. On his refusal, the revenue officer transferred 10 acres of land to another agriculturist as he received handsome bribe from someone else, thus depriving the rightful owner. In his book he writes that he did not embrace Islam because of money, the bag of his aunt which he returned was more valuable than 100 acres of land, if he wanted the money. His unflinching belief in Islam was not for the worldly gain because many rich and effluent Hindus offered Ghazi Ahmed their beautiful daughters as a bride just to eluding him to remain Hindu. Ghazi Ahmed said that he remembered the historical words of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) who said: “Oh my dear Uncle! If these people place sun on my right hand and moon on my left I will not detract from the message God has given me to convey to the whole of mankind”. He remained a steadfast Muslim from the day he embraced Islam and never cared about the decision of the Magistrate.

The above mentioned personalities were great people of their time. In contrast, Muslim history has seen few individuals because of whom Muslims have suffered unbearable loss. If they just would not have carried out those atrocities against Muslims, the geography of Muslim world would have been different then today. The great poet Allama Iqbal has mentioned their characteristics in just few lines his poetic verses, which depicts them perfectly, he said:

JAFAR AZ BANGAL O SADIQ AZ DAKAN
NANG - E MILLAT, NANG - E DEEN, NANG -
E WATAN

Too much worldly lust and greed make a man traitor, who is doomed both in the world and hereafter. Names of Mir Sadiq and Mir Jafar are the monument of curse of Allah.

Mir Jafar

Mir Jafar Ali Khan, commonly known as Mir Jafar, was the army chief (Bakhshi) of Alivardi Khan the Nawab of Bengal. In battle of Plessey he ordered Bengal army not to fight against the British and thus Bengal fell under the British rule that lasted for next two hundred years. In the annals of history of Bengal, therefore, he is notoriously recorded as traitor.

Mir Jafar did not belong to a well off family. As a pauper he started a job in the army of Nawab Alivardi Khan and ascended the ranks all the way to his confidant and finally married the sister of Nawab and was raised to the designation of the Army Chief. Mir Jafar was an ambitious man and conspired with Ataullah (Army Chief of Rajmahal) to overthrow and murder Nawab Alivardi Khan; nonetheless the conspiracy was unsuccessful.

After the death of Alivardi Khan, Siraj-Ud-Daulah became the Nawab of Bengal. Mir Jafar culminated differences with Siraj due to his political and administrative decisions and became determined to overthrow him. Therefore, Mir Jafar made a secret treaty on 1 May 1757 with the British Calcutta Council, who promised to place him the throne of Bengal. William Watts, the chief of the British factory at Cossimbazar carried the conspiracy with remarkable diplomatic skill and secrecy.

Mir Jafar’s, known as Ghaddar-e-Hind, name has become synonymous with treason for all time to course. In the critical battle of Plessey between Robert Clive and Sirajuddaulah in 1757, Siraj had the advantage but at the critical moment Mir Jafar did not move his troops, as he had sold out to the British. Thus began the British domination of India.

After the death of Siraj-ud-Duala, Mir Jafar became the puppet Nawab of Bengal in 1763 and held the position until his death in 1765. This new puppet state, with Mir Jafar as its Nawab, paid large bribes to the Company and its officials.

Mir Jafar was disgrace to the faith, to humanity, to the nation. The germ of seed of dishonesty was sown in aggrandizement of power and money. A corrupt man’s highest posture is his treason which is evidently seen in his life and his name is still synonymous with treason in both Bengali and in Urdu language.

Over ambitious and lust of greed, money, and power with undignified and faithless approach towards life was the main characteristics of these people. These peoples are fearless from Allah. There characterless traits of personality are always towards grabbing power and wealth by trampling the rights of the people for their selfish end. That is why Mir Jafar name will stand behind satanic class, in the anal of history.

Mir Sadiq

When we speak of traitors or betrayers, the name of Mir Sadiq comes to our mind also. He was an ordinary soldier in the army of Hyder Ali. But due to his opportunist nature, he climbed up the ladder quickly. Unsuspecting Tipu Sultan promoted him and made him the chief of revenue and finance. He remained faithful to Tipu till 1792. However when British gained an upper hand, Mir Sadiq understood that Tipu was not a winning horse and that there is no use in supporting him any longer. Overnight he changed his loyalty to the British but kept it as a secret and pretended loyalty to Tipu. He selected his own men and sent secret information to British Governor Cornwallis. He used code words and if by chance the messenger was caught, he would be killed immediately.

People like Mir Sadiq are well known for their act of cowardliness and very few people would know why these people ruined their life. Perhaps treachery is as old as man himself. Our tradition believes that this was less in earlier times but very rampant now days. Thus the traitors are condemned from all sides.

Evil designs of Mir sadiq came to lime light but due to this psycho fancy nature he pleaded his innocence and took a false oath to be faithful and obedient to him in future. Unfortunately, Tipu believed him and released him from prison.

As soon as he came out of the prison, he continued his breach of trust against the Sultan with greater caution. Tipu came to know of this treachery again and prepared a list of persons to be hanged. The first name in this list was that of Mir Sadiq. He immediately became alert and before Tipu could act, the British were made to attack. The soldiers of Tipu already knew about the treachery of Mir Sadiq, so they attacked him and killed him when he was on his way to join the British. The people were so furious against Mir Sadiq and decided that this treacherous person should not be allowed to rest in peace even after death. They exhumed his body from the grave and showed their indignation by throwing human excreta on the body, actually this is the fate of a traitor in the world and what is awaiting for him after death is explicitly given in the Holy Quran and the Hadith of the Prophet (PBUH).

Even today when tourists go to Srirangapattana to see the Palace of Tipu and his tomb, the guide who explains the history of Tipu Sultan shows the tomb of Mir Sadiq and vividly describes the betrayal of Mir Sadiq in a highly emotional way. Some tourists even throw stones on his grave and feel justified in doing so. Thus Mir Sadiq has become a symbol of treachery or betrayal in our history.

Mir Sadiq is dead but his character “Mir Sadiqism” still continues in various forms as deceit, deception breach of contract and corruption. If a friend or a relative behaves in a treacherous way and betrays the trust deposed in him or her, such a person is referred to as Mir Sadiq. Thus Mir Sadiq has unfortunately become negatively immortal in history for his notorious character. That is the defect of history, bad character and no religious training and education leads to betrayal. Betrayer is dead but betrayal continues just like the demon as devil is continuing his design till to-day.

NAHI HAI NA UMEED IQBAL APNI KASHT-E-VEERAN SE,

ZARA NUM HO TO YEH MITTI BOHAT ZARKHAIZ HAY SAQI

There are people in the Ummah who will remain steadfast, fear God, belief in Day of Judgment, accountability and punishment of hell and reward of heavens.

Chapter 10: Blessing in Disguise

A Personal Memoir

The blessing of Allah is not only present in the worldly benefits, but the life hereafter and eternity is also important, as that is a permanent life; the life we are spending here is transitory in nature. However, this transitory life is a spring board for a better life in the next world. We are under a constant check and examination in this world, the paper is set by Allah and He is forever checking our actions till we reach Him on the Day of Judgment, presenting our accounts, where there will be no favoritism, nepotism, recommendation, or any give and take that is possible in this world only.

I intend to write few details of my life because sometimes trials, tribulations and commotions can be a reprieve from an artificial life. Before I decided to write this book I translated another master piece in English by the title “Why We Should Not Take Bribe” written in Urdu by Moulana Fahim Ahmed Usmani. I gave an interview to daily newspaper “Ummat” and they printed a small glimpse of my thirty five years of professional life. The purpose of the interview being that, I had served for thirty four years in government service. I am now an “Income Tax Commissioner” here in Karachi. The idea behind the interview was that the reader should get a view that I am writer and everything that I have worked on is not a bolt out of the blue. I have saved these thoughts and feelings, since the past couple of years. Now that I am in a position to give a bird’s eye view on how corruption manifests so heinously, I have decided to give my point of view. I have spent a very simple and contended life up till now. My life was drastically altered at the death of my father. It impacted me tremendously, when all his belongings were given in alms and sadqats. My mother said that things of the dead were not kept in houses. I was deeply despaired at that particular moment; when person or a loved one is dead, a complete metamorphosis is seen in everybody’s mental state. At that time I kept quiet, but later on decided to change. The transition was not so abrupt; the foundation is already laid by God in the heart and mind when a person is born. Since childhood I distinctly remember my Islamic studies teacher who taught me when I was in a missionary school called St: Anthony’s High School. He was a staunch Muslim and led a very simple life. He portrayed a true depiction of the life of the Holy Prophet (PBUH); I vividly remember him describing about Hazrat Owais Qarni who was a devout follower of the Prophet (PBUH). A son was born to me in 1992; I named him Owais, who is a Hafiz-e-Quran. As a student I particularly felt the warmth of my Islamic studies teacher as he like a father figure to me. A seed of character building was therefore sown in me since childhood. I have spent a tumultuous life, but by the grace of God my upbringing has been under an umbrella of blessed men and I have en-cashed the upheavals to my advantage in educating myself on the lines of Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). I was impressed by an Arabic book translated into Urdu, the book depicts the woes and difficulties in one’s life, which are sometimes helpful in this world and the hereafter; Tolstoy’s War and Peace, Debstrovisky’s Crime and Punishment are also aspirational account which were written by these authors when they were in a miserable state of mind. Ibn-e-Al-Asar who was a disabled man, also wrote his famous book Jamiya-Al-Asool Nahiah. There are innumerable instances where masterpieces were written, as an outcome of abject misery. Furthermore it is also not wrong to say that difficulties confronting a true believer are a source of washing away the sins.

A Muslim is put to test in consonance of strength for his faith. Prophets and true believers are put up to tests and difficulties in order to gauge their patience and forbearance. I pray that I may be a lucky enough to have my sins washed off for whatever difficulties I have faced till today.

In Surah Al-Baqra Ayat-200, Allah says:

“There are men who say: Our lord gives us (bounties) in this world, but they will have no portion in the hereafter”.

It is very difficult to lead a simple and an upright life in government offices today, particularly the Income Tax Department where there are lures and ample ways to earn ostentatious earnings; devilish people are always around, instigating and inciting people who want or try to lead a rightful life.

I was married in 1985, after which I spent a peaceful life for some time. I was blessed with four children out of my wedlock till 1992. My wife was predisposed to worldly desires and an extravagant life. I advised her to forget about the worldly glory, pomposity and an unnatural way of living. A simple life was the core to all solutions. She did not agree to my way of thinking, therefore, the marriage was dissolved on 3rd October 1995, after 10 years. I, however, did not budge from my principles and believed that whatever happened, I would remain firm and steadfast. There was a lot of commotion after she left me; it started immediately, as she had links with few of bureaucrats who offered her both moral and physical support. She was re-married soon afterwards, this time to a notoriously famous police officer, a bureaucrat. She filed a series of petitions with the help of that police officer in the Sindh High Court implicating me in wrong cases. She followed court cases and litigation till 1998 because her husband and many bureaucrats were supporting her. I won these cases in 1998, after three and a half years of struggle. She demanded 1.5 Million Rupees for the custody of my children selling them for a puny amount. I swallowed that bitter pill in order to save my remaining family. Till 2007 when her husband retired, I had to face many problems on what a separate book can be written. I remember distinctly that she used to project me as a stupid man; this was because, when I was in the Income Tax Department, my style of living was simple and ordinary. I have single handed brought up my four children and MashAllah due to the blessing of Allah they are very obedient and God fearing.

The second phase of my life is even more disturbing then the first. I feel that corruption has completely destroyed the system of justice, fair play and equality in the society I have served the nation on the lines written in the instructional codes of the Government of Pakistan; I joined the civil service on 8th March 1978 and took an oath to serve with dignity and within the lines of departmental and religious codes. I have tried to abide by that oath; the solemn affirmation I made with the people of Pakistan. I have worked honestly to the best of my ability, and since I am writing this book I may be put to test by the public at large. There is complete chaos, a breakdown of the government machinery; new ways and means are being devised to prevent good people to rise in their ranks. My heart aches because I feel we have forgotten the innumerable human sacrifices, the Muslims of United India laid down their lives in order to get a separate home land i.e. Pakistan. I know that within thirty four years of my service, I have fought a lonely battle. I am also oblivious of the fact that government service is now a personal and private service of the political elite and the big wigs, yet I feel that I have a duty towards the people of Pakistan, which I intend to perform till any dying day. People need to be told that how steeply they have degenerated in their morals and ethics.

After this brief background, I would like to mention another upsetting episode in my life, which occurred in March 2009, it was my case of promotion to grade 21. I was superseded by the Central Selection Board. What more sinister injury can occur to a career driven, diligent and upright civil servant, depriving him of his rightful promotion. The matter did not end there; moreover, I have been dropped thrice with a simple reason because I honestly think a give and take is all that it takes to settle a matter. The system propagates patronage and recommendations with money, against which I have fought all my life. Presently I am fighting my promotion’s case in High Court of Sindh as my batch mates are in grade 22 and juniors are my current boss. There is hardly any person in the Federal Board of Revenue who has taken any pain to reply to my presentation. There are glaring and intentional calculation mistakes in my quantification that were not corrected even after a passage of four years. During the hearing of the case before the Sindh High Court, the FBR added salt to the injury, as I came to know that three Performance Evaluation Reports in my career in past years were replaced and fudged. A blatant act of commission ruined my career and life. I have known that foul play exists in a corrupt system and even it was present in the beginning, where my family life became a prey to the police vandalism. I do not regret the tumultuous public career I have had, I believe that it was a part of my fortune, but nobody has even bothered to hear my case. Thousands of people like me are facing the same kind of situation which I had to face with a deep regret.

I would like to conclude here by saying that I consider this episode as a blessing in disguise. The personal life saga gave me a clear verdict; God saved me from the frightening consequences of corruption. Later, while I was not promoted, I started investigating that why people in service became “Pharaoh”. They do not deliver service to themselves, neither do they do so to other people and I have come to the conclusion that pre-destination or what is written in the fortune is the best recourse. I have taken up the pen and have started writing. I remember the words of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) when he said Jihad of the pen was more apt than fighting the infidels in the battlefield.

I have not written this portion of my autobiography to gain sympathy; if so, I should have done it eighteen years ago when I was confronted with personal upheavals in 1994-95. The difficulties I have faced have taught me patience, forbearance and preservation, I have strength of faith trust in God, and courage of conviction and believe that “from eternity we have come and there we shall go finally”.

 

DIL MEIN TU AATA HAI SAMAJ MEIN NAHI AATA,

MEIN JAN GAYA TERI PECHCHAN KIA HAI (ALLAH)

A Dedicated Neighbor

Muhammad Aslam is my neighbor. Presently, he is about 80 years of age. We both attended various Islamic courses in Masjid-e-Siddique within past twenty years. He has not only an upright personality, but also has staunch and strong dedication as I know some of his personal details. I thought it would be appropriate to share some of these details in the context of this book. Muhammad Aslam migrated to Karachi after partition. His family was in dire financial needs and remained so for next ten years until 1958. Mr. Aslam got married in 1958 and decided to go to Kuwait to work there. He toiled very hard but could not succeed; still he managed to find a menial job and started working there. He was made a store in-charge after sometime. During his tenure as store in-charge, he found several irregularities in accounts and inventory. The people behind the mess wanted to bribe him, and for the reason, he was offered handsome amount to hush up; which he refused. He escaped dismissal because the management of the company changed during the course of this mess. The next management inquired and found him innocent and promoted him as a supervisor. Aslam was allowed to bring his wife and children to live in Kuwait where he brought up his family through hard work and an honest living. As a result, now his three daughters are qualified doctors, two are married to Muslim doctors outside Pakistan and the third one is still unmarried and working in Pakistan and his son is a highly paid engineer working in Riyadh. Muhammad Aslam has brought up his family with toil dedication and honesty which has given him abundant money and all his children are financially well off. His children are very obedient and they all get together after every five years to stay with their parents. This is a prize of honesty Allah has bestowed upon him. He leads a very contented life, his children are economically well to do and enjoy above average status. The honesty has paid him well.

God Fearfulness A Propelling Force Even In Mabha

Nawab Masood is a lawyer by profession and belongs to a very religious family. His family is renowned as family of Judges and one of his uncles, Mr. Justice Ajmal Mian, was Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Pakistan. He started his career as a lawyer with Mr. Musheer Alam in Musheer Alam and Co. who was also a lawyer himself. Nawab Masood accompanied me to perform Hajj in 1997. Once during the Hajj, we both were praying nearby Khana Kaaba and Nawab Masood announced that he would no longer be practicing the law when he returns back to Karachi. I interrogatively asked him that what has changed his heart as I fear a backlash in his family, who are aspiring to see him as Chief Justice of the High Court of Sindh. I tried to convince him that Judicial Profession can also be sacred pursuit and he may take genuine cases and extend legal assistance to rightfully deprived people. He said that there are many lawyers who are catering such types of cases. He stubbornly renounced to continue practice and now sixteen years have passed he is persevering his stand till today. He is involved in activities of various beneficial trusts and pursuing his duties towards humanity. Poor patient society has adopted a ward in Civil Hospital. A gigantic hospital has been built in Korangi by the name of Indus Hospital. Nawab Masood is a true champion of courage, bravery and valor. His sacrifice in Allah’s way is unflinching. He is lot younger to me but his sacrifice and God fearfulness makes him more matured that I am.

Fear Of Loss Of Income Or Money (A Brief Sketch On Junaid Jamshed)

The essential task of the devil, as has been discussed, is to create a fear of uncertainty in the mind of earner whose earning is doubtful. He is always on the lookout to trap people and instigates them to adopt Haram way because earning Haram money is easier than to toil day in day out, that is to adopt Halal and permissible way to earn livelihood. It is very difficult to comprehend a Halal way these days when Haram ways are exercised and adopted by every living being. Though it is certain that Allah has fixed a quota of sustenance of all humans and the animals, but materialistic tendencies have made our mind rationalized and not spiritualized. The case of Junaid Jamshed is a fit case in these conditions to refer it briefly. Junaid Jamshed was an epoch singer before Allah showered his benevolence on him. Moulana Tariq Jameel a religious scholar worked very hard to motivate Junaid Jamshed to renounce his life of singing and come in the fold of real life i.e. the Islamic life which is a guarantee of success in both worlds. He offered his penitence and renounced show business and singing. He faced innumerable obstacles after he left singing, which actually was a test from Allah to see his forbearance and valor, but now he is leading a life which is financially much better than he used to earn as a singer. He is earning more than before with a difference as Allah bestowed his blessing on Junaid Jamshed, he had to get what he is getting now but Allah changed his fortune in giving him forbearance to adopt a right way to earn his livelihood.

BARSON FALAASFI KI CHUNA CHUNI RAHI,

MAGAR KHUDA KI BAAT JAHAN THI WAHIN RAHI.

A True Professional

In the context on this book, I would like to refer to Late “Mr. X” who was an advocate, owning a law firm. He started his job as an Income Tax Practitioner and very soon attained the stature of a well-respected practitioner. His ethics and principle were imbibed in his actions. He practiced what he professed. His personality was much taller than his stature. He always took a principled stand whenever he was confronted in presenting his case before the tax authority. He appeared before me in many cases and I found him a man of conviction, intellect, sobriety and a polite argumentation. I remember his quality of bluntness more than anybody else. He used to say that he has charged professional fee from his client and whatever details and documents are required by the authorities, he would graciously provide the department to enable it to assess the state of affairs of the assesse. He usually said that he was tied by the dictates of his clients as well and had a duty to the department to get to a balance approach towards the settlement of the case. He said to me that if the matter was not amicably solved in reaching a consensus; the finance manager or the chief accountant of the company would meet the department, whatever they decided will be among the parties. I remember him saying that he was the custodian of the case of the assesse and if the matter required give and take, he has asked his clients to deal with it himself. He had a positive professional approach completed with ethics and moral stance. There are lot of people like him but I have chosen him for reference in this book because I had a personal first-hand experience which is empirical to me.

Pakistan, A Miracle of Creation

This extract is from a book “Freedom At Midnight” written by Larry Collins and Dominique LA Pierre, it describes the secrecy which, If Louis Mountbatten, Jawaharlal Nehru, or Mahatma Gandhi had been aware in April 1947, the division which was threatening Unified India might have been avoided. That secret was on a piece of an X-Ray film, a film which could have upset the Indian political equation and would certainly have changed the course of Asian history. Yet the British CID, one of the most effective investigative agencies in the world, was ignorant of its existence.

The heart of this X-Ray film was two dark circles no bigger than a pair of Ping-Pong balls. Each was ringed by an irregular white border like the corona of the sun eclipsed by the moon. Above them, a galaxy of litter white spots stretched up the film’s grey surface towards the top of the thoracic cage. That film was an X-ray of a pair of human lungs. The black circles were pulmonary cavities, gaping holes in which the lung’s vital tissues no longer existed. The little chain of white dots indicated areas where more pulmonary or pleural tissue was already hardening and confirmed the diagnosis: tuberculosis was devouring the lungs. The damage was already so extensive that the human being whose lungs were on that film could have barely two or three years to live.

Sealed in an unmarked envelope, those X-rays were locked in the office safe of Dr. J.A.L Patel, a Bombay physician. The lungs belonged to a rigid and inflexible man who had frustrated Louis Mountbatten’s efforts to preserve India’s unity. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the one unmovable obstacle between the Viceroy and Indian Unity, was living under a sentence of death.

In June 1946, nine months before Mountbatten’s arrival, Dr. Patel had lifted those X-rays from their developing bath and discovered the terrible disease that threatened to put a rapid end to Jinnah’s life. Tuberculosis, the cruel scourge which annually took the lives of millions of undernourished Indians, had invaded the lungs of the Prophet of Pakistan at the age of seventy.

All his life, Jinnah had suffered from delicate health due to his weal pulmonary system. Long before the war, he’d been treated in Berlin for complications arising out of an attack of pleurisy. Frequent bronchitis since then had diminished his strength and weakened his respiratory system to the point at which the effort demanded by a major speech would have him panting for hours.

In Shimla, May 1946, bronchitis had again struck the Muslim League leader. Jinnah’s devoted sister Fatima got him on a train to Bombay, but en route his condition worsened. His state was so alarming that she sent and urgent call to Dr. Patel. Patel boarded his train outside Bombay. His distinguished patient’s condition was ‘desperately bad’. He warned Jinnah that he would collapse if he tried to get through the reception waiting for him at Bombay’s Grand Railroad Station, Patel bundled him off the train at a suburban station and into a hospital. It was a while he was there, slowly regaining his strength, that Patel discovered what would become the most closely guarded secret in India.

If Jinnah had been just any unfortunate victim of tuberculosis, he would have been confined in a sanatorium for the rest of his life. Jinnah, however, was not a normal patient. When he was discharged from hospital, Patel brought him to his office. Sadly, he revealed to his friend and patient the fatal illness which was stalking him. He was reaching the end of his physical resources. Unless he severely reduce his work load, rested much more frequently, gave up cigarettes, and eased the pressures on his system. He did not have more than one or two years to live.

Jinnah received that harsh news impassively. Not the slightest expression crossed his pale face. There was no question of abandoning his life’s crusade for a sanatorium bed. Nothing except the grave was going to turn him from the task to which he’d appointed himself of leading India’s Muslims at this critical juncture in their history. He would follow the doctor’s advice and reduce his work load only in so far as it was compatible with that great duty. Jinnah knew that if his Hindu enemies learned he was dying, their whole political outlook could change. They might wait until he was in his grave, then unravel his dream with the more malleable men underneath him in the hierarchy of the Muslim league of Muslim league future, was ‘the essence of the contract’. And so, too, had it become the essence of Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s own contract with destiny. In whole episode of hardship and courage the main factor was “Professional ethics”, which have helped the State of Pakistan when it was on the last stage of its formation. Dr. Patel adhered to his ethics at the dying moments of United India which in result produced a miracle of creation of Pakistan.

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