This report focuses on the problem that may occur in a workplace and the manner in which it can be solved. The report highlights the concepts of problems and complex problems along with the consideration of a specific context to identify a problem. Boundary examination technique is required to be seen at every stage of the development process so that the problems can be solved effectively. The contribution of taxation-law stakeholders in the problem-solving situations is highlighted in the report. The possible solution and evaluation of the problems are highlighted to understand the report in a manner.
What is a complex problem, what makes it complex rather than simple?
According to Van Aken and Berends (2018), the problem is perceived as a gap between the state of existence and the state that is desired by a particular organisation or an individual. It can be considered as a deviation that exists from a particular norm or status quo. The standard that is maintained in an organisation needs to be perfect so that individuals can do not suffer from any issues. However, many of the problems that arise for an individual turns out as a solution for the person as the difficulties are either not obvious or immediately available. On the other hand, the complex problem is a collection of processes that are self-regulated in the psychological processes (Bardach and Patashnik 2015). Goals are set up in certain organisations that cannot be reached easily by the individuals. A broad set of strategies along with knowledge is required to solve the issues that are not regular. Thus, problem-solving and complex solving technique have differences wherein the manner in which the solutions are reached need to be attained in a more complex manner. In this regard, a complex problem can be analysed by stating a particular situation.
One of the key areas that create complex problems in the workplace is the redesigning of the human resource practices that are used to raise productivity in an organisation. Seidman (2016) is of the opinion that the human resource practice related to increasing productivity in an organisation requires the application of certain techniques. These techniques can help employees to be motivated and provide their full potential for the growth and development of an organisation. The techniques include analysing the problems and applying motivational methods that can be used to ensure that the organisations and the managers employ the correct framework of the technique. However, motivating the employees is a complex problem, as managers remain unaware of the methods and factors that can be effective for providing motivation to the employees. Hence, the concept of a complex problem is maintained as this type of issue exists in every department in an organisation. Robertson (2016) opined that the challenging behaviours undertaken by the employees at the workplace might pose threat to the productivity of services. Thereby, it needs to be kept in mind that the critical problem of increasing productivity in organisations needs to be met with the application of proper motivational tools in the organisation. In this regard, it can be said that the stakeholders of organisations are linked with the application of the motivational factors for productivity.
Missonier and Loufrani-Fedida (2014) stated that for every organisation, the involvement of a stakeholder is important. This is mainly because of the fact that interests of the stakeholders are linked with the development of an organisation. Without proper support from the stakeholders, organisations are not motivated to function effectively. Thereby, the involvement of the stakeholders is an important role in the management of an organisation to continue production. For example, stakeholders can provide solutions about the ways to motivate to employees and the manner in which the talents can be utilised to increase their productivity. After analysing the complex problem that may arise in an organisation, it can be said that the stakeholders linked to the organisations may suffer heavily. One of the important stakeholders of an organisation is the employees (Yang 2014). Without the contribution of the employees, organisations cannot function properly and give the best productivity. management, it can be said that the employees may feel the direct effect of the changes in the organisational policy for increasing productivity. Hence, the link with the stakeholders in this context is vital for considering the manner in which organisations operate. In this case, the stakeholders can be affected, as less productivity would mean less value and enrichment for the organisation.
Every problem has a key aspect that is needed to be managed by the owners of an organisation by consulting with the employees. The key aspects are formed due to the context of the problems and the manner in which the problems can be defined by the organisations. In this case, it can be said that the problem related to the increase in the productivity in organisations provides certain contexts that are based on the rise of the problems. The context relating to this problem can be described in a manner that outlines the effective use of methods required for motivating employees. According to Savery (2015), the fall in productivity of an organisation can be due to the lack of experience of the employees along with lack of motivational factor that drives the employees. These two contexts are required to be analysed so that the complexity of the problems at hand can be analysed and the manner in which these problems can be solved is formulated. Thus, it can be said that the complex problem at hand requires the experience of the managers for mitigation.
In the light of the problems that have been analysed, a problem statement can be formulated. Theoretically, it has been stated that organisations with low productivity may get more amount of work done. However, managers tend to focus on the reputation of the organisations and aim to increase the profit of the company via productivity. The complex problem to be solved is the improvement of productivity of employees in an organisation. It is a complex problem because organisations need to have a proper performance to ensure competitive advantage. The meaning of complex problem can be defined as the collection of various process that can be applied in the physical process of an organisation (Yang 2014).
The boundary setting or problem boundary is the differential equations that exist with a set of additional constraints at the workplace (Hawley 2015). The constraints can be both internal and external that identifies and provides insight into the boundary conditions that exist in a business. Thereby it is important for the organisations to apply certain models that are necessary for analysing the boundary setting that exists in an organisation. As stated by Kaufmann (2017) the internal and external contexts provide an important aspect for the analysis of the problem at hand. Hence, it can be said that for internal context a SWOT analysis can be conducted whereas for the external context a PESTEL analysis can be conducted.
The SWOT analysis is conducted to identify the internal capability and the manner in which the problems can be solved. For example, in the problem identified for increasing the productivity of the organisation, it is necessary that the strengths and weaknesses be identified at the foremost point. The strength includes the talents of the employees whereas the weakness includes the de-motivating factors that suppress the employees from working in an effective manner. The opportunities that can be derived from the talents of the employees include the enhancement of the reputation of the organisation. However, the threat of lack of motivation can result in the employees being hired by the competitors.
The PESTEL analysis is conducted to analyse the external factor that is important for the growth of an organisation. The challenges that are faced by an organisation outside the boundary setting can be in the form of political, economic, social, technological, environmental as well as legal (Rawlinson 2017). These factors are important to mitigate the challenges that exist in the boundaries outside the society in which they work. Thus, it can be said that keeping in mind the complex problem identified in the report, the external analysis may result in the severe consequences for the organisations if it is set to expand its market beyond the local regions.
The application of SWOT and PESTEL analysis has its advantages as the models provide a countering analysis of both the important factors that are necessary for the development of the business. In my opinion, I have seen that the application of SWOT and PESTEL helps in detailing the problem and the context in which the problems are identified. However, the disadvantage of using these methods includesfailure to understand the effects it may cause to the organisations. For this, it can be advantageous to use the cause and effect model that is useful for the identification of the factors that are involved and the effects it may have on an organisation. At the same time, the application of EVR congruence can help an organisation to understand the issues and risks that are involved in the implementation of efforts to increase the productivity.
I have also undergone a thorough application of the various models that are important for the identification of problems in the organisations. In my opinion, these models are normally used to identify the problems set by the boundaries. For example, the application of SWOT can help in identifying the internal strength and weakness of the companies. According to Shi (2015), the internal analysis generally provides a perspective to organisations about the manner in which the resources and capabilities can be utilised to continue with the working of an organisation. At the same time, the application of PESTEL analysis provides an understanding of each aspect of the external environment that can have a huge impact on the growth of an organisation outside its society.
As I had observed earlier, the application of the models has certain positive as well as a negative consequence. For example, applying the cause and effect model can de-motivate an organisation from making progress mainly because of the fact that the cause and effect may not be suitable for the need of the organisations. The cause and effect model can help in the derivation of mechanisms so that possible causes can be determined. It can help in solving problem by understanding the effects of a strategy such as motivational strategy and the reasons behind adopting the strategy. The application of the model made it clear that the solutions that were sought could be identified properly. At the same, time the application of a model like the EVR congruence can have a positive impact on the risks and issues that can be faced by the organisations are predicted beforehand. The EVR congruence model consists of three factors that include the effective concentration of resources, opportunities for adding value and leadership and values. This provides assistance to understand the level of solution that can be achieved in an organisation. Hence, employees can understand the possible nature of the risks that they may face with the acceptance or rejection of the application of motivation.
Frensch and Funke (2014)stated that the boundary problem might be due to various factors that exist in an organisation. Thus, the nature of the problem boundary may be either critical or lenient based on the manner in which the problem affects an organisation. In my opinion, the problem boundary of the selected complex problem in the report can be critical for the progress of organisations. This is mainly because of the fact that without the cooperation of the employees it can be difficult for the managers to increase productivity. At the same time, without productivity, organisations cannot succeed in the internal or external boundary of business.
According to Andriofet al. (2017), the stakeholders are important for the progress of a business and the manner in which organisations can maintain their reputation in the market. Hence, the role of the internal, as well as the external stakeholders, is important for the effective conduct of a business and the success of an organisation. The internal stakeholders include the managers, employees and owners of the organisations, whereas the external stakeholders include the customers, investors and the shareholders. Thereby, it is important for every business organisation to ensure that the internal and external stakeholders of an organisation possess an interest in the matter relating to the success of organisations.
In the case of the problem discussed in the report, the stakeholders of an organisation have serious interest in its solving and the manner in which it can be prevented in the future. The increase of productivity in an organisation may give rise to changes, which in turn may give rise to employee dissatisfaction (Sternberg and Frensch 2014). The employees are the internal stakeholders of a company and it is necessary that the interests of the employees be kept in mind to continue with the aim of increasing productivity in the organisation. At the same time, external stakeholder such as customers may be deprived of quality work and service that are expected from the organisation. As stated by Frenseh and Funke (2014) complex problems in organisations may give rise to the dissatisfaction of the customers. Hence, it can be said that the interest of the internal and external stakeholders play an important role in the effective conducting of business and solving of problems.
According to Goleman (2017), the leadership and management prowess of an organisation can help in solving the problems that occur in an organisation. These problems are basically related to the management of ideas and the manner in which it can be applied for the effective performance of the organisation. The leaders need to play an important role that consists of providing guidance and leading by example so that the employees do not feel isolated. Hence, it can be said that the manner in which the leaders need to approach the problem of increasing the productivity of the employees are by identifying the factors that contribute to ensuring satisfaction of the employees (Proctor 2014). Thus, it can be said that every leader needs to access the situation in a manner that can help the employees gain satisfaction in the organisations.
At the same time,as stated by Robinsonet al. (2016) the managers need to be lenient in terms of applying pressure on the employee. The work atmosphere needs to be made free from stress so that the workers do not pressure in completing a task in a hurried manner. Ethical issues that need to be considered can help the organisations maintain the legal policies that are inflicted by the Government. For example, it can be considered as illegal to apply excess pressure on employees for completing the work. Thus, it can be said that the ethics in the decision-making involves the manner in which every company involves the opinion of every employee. At the same time, it is required that religion or race of employees does not hinder any decisions taken by the organisation.
According to Nachman, Regev and Tataru (2017), the stakeholders of an organisation may maintain a conflicting view as well as a consensus view of the problems that are associated. This is mainly because of the fact that the stakeholders focus on identifying the best results that can help an organisation. For example, investors may want more funding for the promotion of a company as the increased promotional activities can help in gaining reputation. At the same time, owners may tend to use the excess amount for recruiting talented employees or purchasing latest equipment. The conflicting interests of the stakeholders can help the organisations to continue with the line of work and make effective progress in the market(Davidet al. 2016).
In the case of the problem identified in the report, the view of the stakeholders includes the manner in which it can help in increasing the productivity in the organisation. Conflicting views may be seen wherein the owners and customers would want the organisations to provide the best quality products and services necessary for their satisfaction. At the same time, the internal stakeholders such as the employees would want a lenient approach and would want to be motivated so that they can perform to be the best. Hence, the conflicting interest of the stakeholders would require organisations to adopt an approach that can help in maintaining the interests of the concerned stakeholders (Weiss 2014).
In order to ensure that the employees in an organisation get the required amount of interaction, it is necessary that an interactive session is conducted so that the employee and employers can sit together and find solutions required for the progress of the organisation. In this regard, it can be said that a brainstorming session can be formed that can help in identifying the potential solutions applicable to the problem at hand (Waterhouse, Keast and Koppenjan 2016). Two types of brainstorming sessions can take place that can help employees and employers to interact with one another. The two types of brainstorming can help in gathering the employees in a circular manner and be divided into experts related to the various departments. The problem is provided in front of the employees and the opinions regarding the application of perfect solution for the employees is discussed. It is at this time that the interaction with the employees helps in understanding the problems of the employees and identifies ways by which the problems can be mitigated. The advantage of brainstorming is that it provides opportunities to learn from the best in the business but at the same time it may make some employees feel that they are not worth working in the organisation. In this regard, other approaches that may be compared with this can be the SWOT approach.
According to Tsvetkova, Gustafsson and Wikström (2014), the stakeholder mapping is done based on the importance a particular stakeholder has in the business. In this regard, it can be said that the interests of the stakeholders vary by depending upon the situation in which an organisation functions. However, the difference mainly centres around two factors that are necessary for the success of conducting a proper stakeholder mapping. These include the interests and the influence of the stakeholders. The interests of the stakeholders exist with the internal stakeholders of the business. This is because the internal stakeholders aim to promote the organisation in the market and gain maximum benefit from it. At the same time, the external stakeholders are the influential partners of an organisation. The effectiveness of the solutions and implementation plan based on the stakeholder mapping includes the manner in which organisations apply the opinions provided by the stakeholders (Frese et al. 2016).
Although the interests of the stakeholders vary from one another and usually create conflict, there is time during which consensus is established among the stakeholders that highlight the interest and the influence it creates it on an organisation. However, as observed by Kent and Zunker (2015), issues may arise that may prevent the stakeholders from interacting with one another and make a valuable contribution to the success of the organisation. These constraints include lack of foreseeing of the economic environment and the lack of excess involvement on the part of the stakeholders. The owners take the decisions most of the time and it is seen that not all the stakeholders are consulted and the internal stakeholders solely decide the decisions regarding the welfare of the organisation. This can reduce the effectiveness of the opinions provided by the employees and consequently affect the decisions of the organisation. According to Antonakis and Day (2017), the improvement of the decisions of the stakeholders regarding the working environment of an organisation can be done by considering the opinions of every stakeholder. For this, a brainstorming session can be conducted that can shed light on the various opinions of the stakeholders.
Hence, in order to ensure that the interaction continues, a communication plan can be developed for the welfare of the stakeholders and the organisation. In the modern day, the application of internet is the best method for maintaining communication with one another (Fairhurst and Connaughton 2014). The communication tools used for this may include an effective exchange of emails consisting of necessary documents and requirements to meet the standards of the organisations. For the external stakeholders such as the customers, the use of social networking sites can be used for interaction. This is mainly because of the fact that the customers are active social network users and the opinions provided by them in these media can help in analysing the products, services or problems. Thus, the decision-making environment for the stakeholders can be improved by considering this type of communication process that can help organisations maintain scrutiny of the customers.
Having analysed the involvement of the stakeholders and the manner in which interaction between stakeholders and organisations can be made, it can be said that the approach to the interaction of the stakeholders requires proper planning. In my opinion, it is important for the managers to ensure that the opinion of stakeholder is taken into consideration and consequently necessary actions are taken for its welfare. I believe that the modern means of communication can have a significant impact on the stakeholders. I can say that during my evaluation of the effectiveness of the stakeholders and the communication pattern involved for the interaction with the stakeholders I have managed to provide the perfect solutions necessary for the improvement of the stakeholder analysis. I have used at least three solution techniques that can help me to uncover the solution required for solving the problem of increasing productivity in an organisation. At the same time, I believe that a further research about the effectiveness of the opinions of stakeholders could have been analysed to determine the level of interaction required in every company.
After having analysed the productivity problem that may arise in the organisation, it is necessary to evaluate the tactics that are involved in the effective management of the problems. This includes finding a suitable solution that can help in eradicating the problems in the solution. According to Wanget al. (2018), a certain method can be used to identify three solutions that can be used to solve the problems. One such method that can be used is the checklist method. In this method, the managers make a list of things that are expected of the employees to maintain productivity in the organisations. These lists are signalled out one at a time so that a systematic approach can be made in solving the issues. According to Ahern, Leavy and Byrne (2014), the solution that can be generated from the checklist method is maintaining the full contribution of the employees. At the same time, another solution that can be derived is from the use of attribute list.
According to the application of this model, it can be stated that the solution generated from this provides a comprehensive view of the problem. The attributes of the employees are analysed and based on it tasks are delegated so that the full potential of the employees can be obtained. Stadler et al. (2015) was of the opinion that this is one of the best methods that can be used in organisations for generating effective solutions, particularly in team-related problems. This is because the application model help in applying the solutions and generate the pros and cons required for conducting the given solution. Thus, the attribute method can help in identifying the characteristics of the employees. A third solution can be developed with the application of the sequence-attribute modification matrix. This includes altering the situations that exist in the organisation to understand the manner in which different attributes of the employees can be used for multiple purposes (Fairhurst and Connaughton 2014). As such, the skill of the employees can be developed for providing an effective solution to the situation at hand.
After having analysed the three methods for solutions such as application of this model, sequence-attribute modification matrix and checklist method it can be said that the solutions generated from these models provide an appropriate understanding of the solutions that are involved in the organisation. Hence, the insights that were generated from the application of the models include certain complementary as well as contradictory analysis. The solutions provided by the implementation of the three models can be said to be effective for conducting the business by analysing the problems. The solutions help in understanding the problems in a manner that can assist in the application of the proper management tool. As stated by Martin and Rice (2015) problems in organisations always attribute to the overall effectiveness of the models. In this case, the application of the three models sheds light on the fact of identifying different components in business that can help in analysing the possible solutions. Thus, the effective generation of solutions to the business provides a path that can help in formulating the business in a proper manner. In this regard, the roles of the learning organisations and the management can be analysed.
The learning organisations provide a comprehensive analysis of the members that exist in an organisation and transform the strategies used for the development of the employees. This helps in adding value to the organisation so that every employee can be well equipped with the manner in which they can apply their skills (Tantalo and Priem 2016). The influence of this technique in the search for a solution was that the role of the employees was identified and based on the roles, a system was adopted that helped in improving the level of thinking, mastery and apply shared vision in an organisation. civil-engineering, it can be said that the learning organisations in this particular case helped in developing solutions that require a lot of thought process for effectively identifying an effective solution.
Consideration of staff welfare
Schlichting and Gersten (2016) stated that the welfare of the staffs highlights the effectiveness of the management and the leaders. The managers of an organisation can help in the effective managing of the solutions and the manner in which the employees approach a particular solution. In this case, the management needs to focus on increasing the productivity of the organisation and ensure that the staffs have an idea about the manner in which productivity can be improved. Hence, the effective solution provided by the managers can help in identifying the easiest and effective manner that can be used for solving the problem.
The tools and techniques used for identifying the solutions to the problem include the different secondary analysis of data. According to Barnett, Henriques and Husted Corregan (2018), the secondary analysis of the data is one of the best analytical tools that can be used for conducting a proper research. The secondary analysis provides data that can be used to understand the effectiveness of the research that is conducted. This technique can be used by utilising information from books, journals and websites so that authentic information about a particular factor can be derived.Apart from this, other tools that were used to identify suitable solutions to the problems include advantages and disadvantages table. In this technique, each of the solutions generated was critically evaluated and the pros and cons of all the solutions were evaluated. This provided an opportunity to narrow down the solutions by three.
The three solutions that were developed after the application of the tools and techniques include that workers need to be given the freedom to conduct themselves in the organisation. The freedom provided to the employeescan keep the mind of the employees free and the stress related factors will not exist in the employees. The second solution that can be developed is the fact that the employers need to motivate the employees in a manner that can help them to gain more productivity. Motivation is one of the main factors that can help employers to maintain good relationships with the employees (Brebbia and Walker 2016). The boundary setting that is involved in the motivation of the employees needs to focus on the manner in which organisations can provide motivation in conditions that are not related to the social factors of the local region. The third solution generated is the fact that the production of a company can be improved by providing a benchmark. Although most scholars argue that benchmarking is a type of motivation technique, others such as Aimiet al. (2017) deny the fact that benchmark can provide any type of motivation. The benchmarking can help organisations and employees to improve the quality of production in the organisations.
Prior (2016) stated that the evaluation methods can be analysed by the application of certain techniques that can be used to provide a comprehensive analysis of the solutions. In the case of the problem at hand, the three methods used for the development of the solutions include advantage and disadvantage method, plus/minus/interesting method and force field analysis. These are summarised in the table.
Freedom to employees
Advantage and disadvantage method
This method can be used to identify the possible advantages and disadvantages that exist for the solution. The advantage and disadvantage of the method selected for the solution are provided in this technique. Thus, it can be said that the advantage and disadvantage method is effective for understanding the potential pros and cons of a solution (Johnston and Marshall 2016). The freedom of the employees can be an advantage provided that excess leniency is not provided to the employees. Excess leniency can provide employees with an opportunity to conduct business in an unethical manner.
This method provides an analysis of the possibilities that are found to be interesting and the factors that can be dismissed. In the case of the freedom to the employees, the interesting method can be stated as the method that can be used to understand the value of the employees.
This provides an analysis of the forces that are for and against changes. According to Kerzner and Kerzner (2017), the force field analysis is considered as a means of providing employees with the freedom to act against or for the changes.
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Advantage and disadvantage method
The motivation of the employees mainly provides advantages for a company. However, excess motivation to one particular employee may provide suspicious in the minds of the others, which may be a disadvantage. Despite this, motivation is considered as the best method to improve employee engagement (Christopher 2016).
Motivation models can be applied by following this technique. The various methods are analysed and the most interesting and appropriate method suitable for the organisations are generated.
The pressure against the changes of the employees can be mitigated by the application of the motivation factors. The force field analysis suggests the driving force required for identifying the factors that can help in providing motivation to the employees.
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Advantage and disadvantage method
The benchmarking can be used to provide an example of the best quality work that can be done by the employees. The advantage of this method is the fact that it provides managers with an idea about the changes that are required in the resources of an organisation.
According to Jacobs Chase and Lummus (2014), the benchmarking method can be considered as interesting as the manner in which it is developed provides organisations with an opportunity to implement the tactics that are best suited for improving the productivity of the organisations.
The forces that act as against and for the changes in the organisation can be analysed by the benchmarking technique that is essential for improving the productivity in the organisations. The benchmarking technique usually acts for the changes that are required to be implemented in an organisation.
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After analysing the report, I have learned that problems and complex problems are different from one another in a way that defines the manner in which every component need to be accessed. The factors that are involved in problem-solving are a critical and proper analysis of the resource and capabilities that can be used for solving the problems need to be undertaken. The problem that I have focused my attention is on increasing the level of productivity in an organisation. The solutions stated in the assignment are to focus on the application of checklist method, attribute method and sequence-attribute method. The experience that I gained from analysing this problem is the fact that motivating employees can be hard and managers need to understand the manner in which the motivation of employees need to take place.
The report on finding a complex problem that affects organisations met my expectations, as I had found that the complex problem that I have identified is one of the most common problems that exist in an organisation. The human resource department of an organisation needs to ensure that every employee possesses the ability to manage a task in a skilful manner. The application of various theories and models can help in identifying the task and the manner in which it can be solved. Hence, it can be said that the problem statement at hand is one of the most complex issues that management faces in an organisation.
The problem that I had researched defined the manner in which productivity of organisations can be improved. In order to achieve the target, I had set goals for myself that included proper research of the techniques that can be applied to identify the problems. I had undertaken secondary method of data collection so that I gain insights into the thoughts of various scholars and analyse their opinion about increasing productivity of employees. I had tried to compare the productivity of two organisations that are reputed and un-reputed. The working of the organisations and the manner in which it motivates employees have been analysed.
I have also undertaken research on several models that can help me to understand the problems in each level of an organisation or in the boundaries. The application of SWOT, PESTEL analysis, EVR congruence and other models have been used to define the problem and identify the problem boundary that exists within a local market and an international market. The advantages and disadvantages of these models show that while positive attitudes can be gained from the model, certain disadvantages such as analysis of only the internal capability by using SWOT proves as a disadvantage for the organisations.
The application of the models shows that the complex problem that I have identified is one of the common problems in the human resource department. The stakeholders of every organisation play an important role in its management. This is mainly because of the fact that the stakeholders have a great deal of interest in the business of organisations. The investment made by the stakeholders drives an organisation to succeed in the market and help it to maintain its reputation.
Hence, the conclusion can be made by considering the fact that problems related to the increase in the productivity of the employees are one of the biggest threats that are organisations need to sustain. After the conclusion of the research, I can state that I need to move forward by identifying other complex problems that are related to organisations and the manner in which it can be solved to gain proper expertise. I need to spend time on considering my next aim and try to analyse the factors that give rise to the complexity in organisations.
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