Social Perspective and Social Responsibility Perspective
According to social perspective, the key criminogenic factors include the social factors. This perspective postulates that the social factor plays a decisive role in the various manifestations of delinquency, but it should be noted that, over time, analyzes of this criminogenic factor have varied considerably. To state that the social factor is a criminogenic factor refers to the social category to which the offender belongs. From the beginning, the criminologist was convinced that delinquency necessarily came from underprivileged social categories, which meant that the standard of living predisposed to delinquency. In fact, it was not until the 1970s that people became aware that people living in affluent social environments could also fall into delinquency (Shen, 2015). Of course, the type of delinquency perpetrated is not the same. It is rather business delinquency. This is called "white collar" delinquency. Another criminogenic factor is the migratory factor with immigrants who are more vulnerable. This perspective can also explain why socialist state have relatively lower crime rates that capitalist states. In socialist state, the distribution of wealth, the participation of the citizen in the state production system as well as the so-called community distribution encourages, it is true, more sharing than appropriation, yet there is still of delinquency (Wikström, 2012). But it is still lower than that of a capitalist country.
On the contrary, under the social responsibility perspective, individual crime factors are criminogenic factors specific to each individual considered in isolation. Criminologists have the habit of listing them in two categories. In the first category, they study what they call endogenous factors, that is, factors that are inherent, innate, specific to a particular offender. In the other category, they consider what are called exogenous factors, i.e. factors that result from the confrontation of a given offender in a given environment. One of the individual factors is time. Criminological studies reveal an evolution of delinquency according to the age of the subject (Dugmore & Pickford, 2012). These studies appeared around 1830. They reveal that if delinquency is more or less exceptional during early childhood, delinquency will be multiplied by 10 at the time of adolescence. Later, it will continue to progress until the fateful threshold of 23/25 years and then it will begin to gradually decline. "From the age of 60, the offender retires". Hereditary and racial factors have been shown to represent individual factors that influence the decision to engage in crime. Similarly, the psychological factor is necessarily a criminogenic factor under the social responsibility perspective. Exogenous individual factors include professional and family factors. Initially, it was thought that work with little or no qualification, low pay, exposed the individual to precariousness and therefore delinquency (Shen, 2015). However, in recent years, we also note that graduates in a professional environment with a comfortable remuneration, can also sink into delinquency.
Dugmore, P., & Pickford, J. (2012). Youth Justice and Social Work. London: Learning Matters Limited [Imprint.
Goodman, A., & Wiley Online Library (Service en ligne). (2012). Rehabilitating and resettling offenders in the community. Chichester ; [Hoboken, NJ] : John Wiley & Sons
Shen, A. (2015). Offending Women in Contemporary China: Gender and Pathways into Crime. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Wikström, P.-O. H. (2012). Breaking rules: The social and situational dynamics of young people's urban crime. Oxford: Oxford University Press.