The world has been witnessing rising calls for criminal justice reforms in the recent days owing to the extraordinarily huge levels of incarceration witnessed across the world. While the policy (criminal justice and policing policy) has been applied in addressing different types of criminal justice issues, this paper intends to focus on the application of criminal justice and policing policy in the control of drugs and gambling. The two vices have had negative consequences to the society and up today it seems there are not established policies to deal with them effectively. In the discussion, the paper will explore the right criminal justices approaches as well the policing policies that can be adopted to the end the menace contributed by the two anti-social aspects.
Wayne (2013, p. 203) wonders why policymakers and regulatory authorities define some activities and human behaviors as being criminal, thus subjecting them to legal sanctions while exempting other similar forms of activities and human behaviors from the definition of a crime. In a seemingly quick response, Baradar and Frank (2012, p. 539) offer an answer by stating that what makes an activity or human behavior constitute a criminal activity is the nature of harm that such an activity or human behavior causes. At this point, the reason for a pause is, is gambling a criminal activity? What harm does it cause? Obviously, there are quite a number of harms in the public domain that can be either directly or indirectly associated with the gambling activity.
While gambling is an addiction and not necessarily a crime, it is its association with the elevated rates of the crime of illicit drugs that makes it hard to separate the two. In fact, it is gambling that supersedes illicit drug dealing in most of the cases (Reiner, 2012, p. 117). Most gamblers start as law-abiding citizens for the first few years (or months), but upon the exhaustion of their resources, at a time in which they have generated into problem gamblers, they turn to the crime of drugs.
A study conducted by Naughton (2011, p. 43) concluded that income-generating criminal activities were statistically related to the pathological gambling witnessed in the world, with drug ranking the highest. In this study, the researchers compared the different convictions of crimes in the United Kingdom with a relatively corresponding pattern of a random sample drawn from gamblers across the United Kingdom. Besides, another study conducted in Vietnam prisons among 35 women also proved a strong relation between gambling as a social problem in the casinos in Melbourne and the illicit drugs in the area. However, Beck (2015, p. 196) argues that a clear role that gambling plays in contributing to the sale and use of drugs may only be brought out in the light of the knowledge of the other kinds of addictions (noting that gambling is an addiction) and their associated patterns of crimes. Based, on the two researches, this paper attests that gambling causes harm to the society.
The author, Carol (2012, p. 124), notes that drug and gambling have been described to constitute the problem of ‘law and order.' But one wonders what the description of ‘the problem of law and order' really means. Different authorities, scholars, and analysts offer differing explanations on the roots of drugs and gambling as a social problem and Bushway, and Emily (2013, p. 318) attributes the difference in the explanations to the fact that all problems rest on theories. As such, it depends on the approach that one uses to describe or analyze the social problem. For instance, economists base their argument on the rationality and self-interest of the crime where they argue that such an individual will cease pursuing crime should the cost of the crime surpass the benefit. On the other hand, sociologists argue that the social environment in which the individuals who turn out to be the victims operates places them in an arguably structurally strained and disorganized setting; which pressures them to pursue the criminal activity.
Policy analysts, in high contrast to the two explanations above, advocate that the inequity in the construction and application of laws brew the criminals. Despite all these explanations, there arise situations in which no specific explanation fits in describing the situation. For instance, a closer analysis of gambling shows that individuals who generate ‘clean wealth’ through legally recognized methods serve as gambling greatest victims. Do they turn to the drug after exhausting their resources? Some don’t (Beckett and Alexes, 2011, p. 512).
A more challenging situation arises due to the fact that, owing to the difference in the theoretical approaches to drug and crime as a social problem, there exist key areas of departure in the policy recommendations that each approach generates. Going by the description above; economists advocate for a punitive and a deterring remedy while sociologists favor the expansion of the legitimate opportunities in the economy and equity to solve the problem. In contrast, political analysts encourage a societal reorganization such that wealth is equitably distributed and justice system moves from responding to class power to limiting harm (Braga et al., 2014, p. 650). All the policy recommendations are not, however, with key limitations due to the assumptions that each approach considers. The drug crime and gambling as a social problem being as a result of the inequity in the society is mistaken when considering the fact that wealthy individuals do gamble.
The key question at this point would be what the best policy approach to drug and gambling is a social problem? Dansky (2016, p. 64) argues that a suitable approach should act as a double-edged sword; one side aimed at punishment and deterrence and the other aimed at rehabilitation and reintegration. No single side of the ‘sword' would prove effective as it has been witnessed by the two different media publication with one advocating for the use of prisons to deter/stop crime and the other arguing that tough crime laws and punishment serve to fail (Boylan and Naci, 2013, p. 579). With each article basing their argument on well-reasoned arguments, it becomes hard to choose the suitable approach hence the need to blend the two given the fact that a punitive approach through prisons ‘brews more crime' and a rehabilitative approach reduces deterrence.
Although gambling has been associated with several social-related problems, the crime of illicit drugs serves as the most prominent. Besides, while no policy approach to a social problem serves as a ‘ready-to-drink solution’ it’s inarguably true that the policy intervention that would go the greatest deal to solving the dilemma would be the most suitable. This calls for the intervention of the criminal justice system and society at large to establish policies that are capable controlling and precenting the gambling activities.
Bacchi, Carol. 2014. Analysing Policy. What’s the problem represented to be? Pearson Australia
Baradaran, Shima and Frank, McIntyre. 2012. “Predicting Violence.” Texas Law Review 90 (1): 497-570.
Beck, Allen. 2015. “Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S. Prisons and Jails, 2011-12.” U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Beckett, Katherine and Alexes, Harris. 2011. “On cash and conviction: Monetary sanctions as misguided policy.” Criminology & Public Policy 10(3): 509-537.
Boylan, Richard T., and Naci Mocan. 2013. "Intended and Unintended Consequences of Prison Reform." The Journal of Law and Economics 30(3): 558-586.
Braga, Anthony, Andrew Papachristos and David Hureau. 2014. “The Effects of Hot Spots Policing on Crime: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Justice Quarterly 31(4): 633-663.
Bushway, Shawn D., and Emily G. Owens. 2013. "Framing Punishment: Incarceration, Recommended Sentences, and Recidivism." Journal of Law & Economics 56(2): 301-331.
Dansky, Kara. 2016. “Local Democratic Oversight of Police Militarization.” Harvard Law Review 10: 59-75.
Naughton, M., 2011. ‘How the Presumption of Innocence Renders the Innocent Vulnerable to Wrongful Convictions‘Irish Journal of Legal Studies, 2(1): 40-54.
Reiner, Morgan. (eds), 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (5th Edition) Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Wayne Morrison, in Hale, C., et al., (eds), 2013. ‘What is Crime? Contrasting definitions and Perspectives’, Criminology, Oxford: OUP.
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:
My Assignment Help. (2019). Criminal Justice And Policing Policy. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/criminal-justice-and-policing-policy.
"Criminal Justice And Policing Policy." My Assignment Help, 2019, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/criminal-justice-and-policing-policy.
My Assignment Help (2019) Criminal Justice And Policing Policy [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/criminal-justice-and-policing-policy
[Accessed 31 May 2020].
My Assignment Help. 'Criminal Justice And Policing Policy' (My Assignment Help, 2019) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/criminal-justice-and-policing-policy> accessed 31 May 2020.
My Assignment Help. Criminal Justice And Policing Policy [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 31 May 2020]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/criminal-justice-and-policing-policy.
At MyAssignmenthelp.com, we are committed to deliver quality assignment assistance in the fastest way possible. To make our service delivery fast, we have hired subject matter experts to work on different subject specific assignments. We have hired experts who owe in-depth knowledge in their respective subjects. As per their expertise, they provide geography assignment help, Physics assignment help, Strategic assignment help, history assignment help, art architecture assignment help and assistance with other subjects as well.
Answer: Project Activities Activity List: WBS Task Name Duration Start Finish 0 Essendon & Buckley Street level crossing removal 985 days Wed 4/25/18 Tue 2/1/22 1 Initiation phase of the project 73 days Wed 4/25/18 Fri 8/3/18 1.1 Identifying objectives of the project 15 days Wed 4/25/18 Tue 5/15/18 1.2 Undertak...Read More
Answer: Portraying company’s information, while depicting core markets, activities, and factors: The company is relatively focused in mining and exploring gold, copper, and uranium in Australia. Marmota Limited is mainly situated in south of Australia, where relevant fields are controlled by the company for its mining needs. The company operations in Australia and is linked with the Australian consumer demand, which could help in genera...Read More
Answer: Introduction: The Australian Health Survey 2011-2012 found that nearly two in every three people aged two years and over had a usual intake of sodium that exceeded the Upper Limit (UL). Intakes of sodium were also consistently higher for males than females. At a population level, how do you think sodium intakes could decrease so that more people are meeting, (or at least not exceeding) the recommendations? Sodium intake has ...Read More
Answer: Introduction The area of organization theory is considered as a fragmented body of knowledge by including various competing theories to understand and explain the organization design and its actions. There are many researchers, which claim that, the arguments among different organizational theories are the level of competition of their ideas and thoughts (D’Adderio, and Pollock, 2014). Some management experts assume that these t...Read More
Answer: 1. The usages of BIM in facilities management The information which is stored in within the BIM includes the blueprints, schedules and the asset data such as location, cost, carbon impact, and maintenance, integrating the BIM with the facility management software system is a great tool to standardized data and also the better services. Reliable data is provided by BIM which can be used to report to the board. This because the data can b...Read More
Just share Requriment and get customize Solution.
Our writers make sure that all orders are submitted, prior to the deadline.
Using reliable plagiarism detection software, Turnitin.com.We only provide customized 100 percent original papers.
Feel free to contact our assignment writing services any time via phone, email or live chat.
Our writers can provide you professional writing assistance on any subject at any level.
Our best price guarantee ensures that the features we offer cannot be matched by any of the competitors.
Get all your documents checked for plagiarism or duplicacy with us.
Get different kinds of essays typed in minutes with clicks.
Calculate your semester grades and cumulative GPa with our GPA Calculator.
Balance any chemical equation in minutes just by entering the formula.
Calculate the number of words and number of pages of all your academic documents.
Our Mission Client Satisfaction
thank you writer the assignment was great and the work done is great. the amount that i paid is not expensive and perfect
The tutor has taken more time than expected but it was fine. I liked the work but you should make sure that you are performing everything within the time provided by students as they are paying you.
Thank you for all your research for answers to the question you did a awesome job.
Thank you amazing paper this service has been a big help to me with all my classes. Thank you again