The WHO reported that as many nations are showing continuous advancements in combating most chronic diseases, there is a great challenge associated with abdominal obesity (Carmienke et al., 2013). Abdominal obesity presents risks to acute myocardial infarction amid adults. However, recent studies indicate that adolescents present significant values (DiCenso et al., 2014). The primary reason alludes to the environmental and genetic factors, but of late modifications in the lifestyle of most teenaged individual's records increased cases (Ford et al., 2014). Therefore, Leah a twenty-one-year-old student at an Australian university presents to the student undertaking placement at the school clinic with abdominal obesity. After engaging with Leah, the student notes that the underpinning factor to Leah's condition is a change in the social life that affects her exercise and eating habits (Richardson-Tench et al., 2016). As such, ideas in this paper seek to illustrate how Leah's personal circumstances act as a barrier for application of evidence-based practices. Additionally, the article pays attention to matters research aligning with the PICO question. Further, the paper has several sections that critically analyze the works of several authors. Finally, the study will provide a succinct summary of the discussed ideas concerning the thesis statement and provide an opinion for future reference as shown below.
Rogerson, Soltani & Copeland., 2016; Share et al., 2015 are professors presenting with a broad field of health sciences expertise amid several universities in Australia. The authors have affiliated lectures to several institutions. Such institutions include but are not limited to "School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia."
Regarding conflict of interest, the authors had different opinions on matters weight loss and the model of study employed. Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016 is of the opinion that structured interviews served a significant role in soliciting information from the participants. Further, the author stipulates that environmental factors played a significant role in causing abdominal obesity. On the other hand, the works of Share et al., 2015 employed a linear mixed model to study the participants. Moreover, the author is of the opinion that it was difficult to make judgments on the participants' health regarding physical activity and nutrition, but after some time it was evident that exercising and good eating habits reduced abdominal obesity. Notably, it is evident that the participants in the two study were different. In the study by Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016 the participants were from both genders whereas in the study by Share et al., 2015 the participants were all females.
According to Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016, the study aimed at investigating a sample of participants who were subjected to environmental factors; without alignment to clinical interventions. The works of Share et al., 2015 aimed at assessing the impact of a twelve-week multifaceted lifestyle program on cardiometabolic risks associated with abdominal obesity. First, Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016 employed use of semi-structured interview to assess the participants and collect data. The sampling technique used was purposive where data saturation guided the sample size. Theoretical underpinning using realist meta-theory enabled in-depth analysis of the participants' experiences and opinions. Then the data was analyzed using framework analysis. According to Share et al., 2015 employed a participatory linear model to study the group. Twenty-six women aged 18-30 years were sampled and introduced t a twelve-week lifestyle involvement program. During the program, cognitive behavioral therapy, biochemical, nutrition, and fitness testing were completed. The results were calculated concerning the waist-hip ratio and waist height ratio.
Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016 used a problem-oriented research methodology characterized by inclusion semi-structured interviews. Theoretical underpinning using realist meta-theory served as the method to calculate and explain the results. Share et al., 2015 used a phenomenology research methodology in a twelve-week lifestyle intervention program. The study involved taking notes of the waist-height ratio and wait-hip ratio to determine the waist circumference f the abdominal obese participants.
The research methodology and method remained relevant to the aims of the study according to the scholars' works. Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016 was able to justify the causal agent of abdominal obesity regarding environmental factors within the study group made up of eight British volunteers. The problem-oriented research approach and use of semi-structured interviews indicated the participants view regarding abdominal obesity: most of them were of the opinion that weight loss is challenging both mentally, emotionally, and physically (Greenhalgh et al., 2017). The model of Share et al., 2015 is relevant as the findings indicated the relationship between physical activity and nutrition and weight loss as being an effective mechanism in combating abdominal obesity.
In the study by Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016 the participants were eight British volunteers of both genders aged between 30-50 years of age. The study by Share et al., 2015 had twenty-six participants aged between 18-30 years.
According to the works Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016:
The results indicated that all the participants had a clue about weight loss and the risk factors associated with abdominal obesity. Further, the participants were aware of the importance of enrolling in an exercise program and the need for observing healthy eating habit. However, the results indicate that no participant was involved in a weight-loss intervention research. The conclusion asserts that cognitive, physical, emotional, and social factors were responsible for the reduced rate of exercise engagement for the participants. Therefore, rendering weight loss a challenging program.
Regarding the works of Share et al., 2015:
The findings indicate that there is increased rate of abdominal obesity amid adolescents. The result justified the rationale when a group made up of twenty-six women aged 18-30 years is studied. Further, the results indicate that lack of lifestyle intervention research and programs expose teens to risk factors of acute myocardial. The conclusion indicates that after the implementation of the twelve-week lifestyle intervention program the participants had reduced waist circumferences. Also, it is possible to discern that the study made use of observation skills and studied behavioral patterns amid the participants to understand their wait-list.
As such, it is evident that the two studies are relevant and specific in answering the research question and justifying the study aims.
Leah is an outgoing person who treasures partying. Moreover, Leah is socialized within the new demographic location and deviates from attending the gym and eating healthy meals (Hoofman et al., 2013). The idea of Leah having a part time job supports her partying life. Due to self-criticism, Leah realizes that she has drastically increased weight around her abdomen. It is to such evidence that Leah seeks medical intervention from the school clinic. However, it is difficult to apply evidence lifestyle intervention to Leah since the evidence-practice calls for personal commitment from Leah (Schneider and Whitehead, 2013). Additionally, implementation of the intervention is a long-term program that will reduce her waist circumference while negatively influencing her social behavior (Ladabaum et al., 2014). Notably, research shows dealing with an alcoholic call for rehabilitation where therapeutic interventions are offered: From the literature provided, Leah is not anywhere near to resorting to the same (Kelishadi et al., 2015). Therefore, it is difficult to implement the evidence approach due to her behavioral and social life that are more expressed than her zeal to reduce the waist circumference.
The research aims at creating awareness on the risk factors associated with abdominal obesity. Additionally, the two research studies provide platforms for the discussion on matters exercises, healthy eating, and weight loss. For instance, the works of Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. 2016 indicated that most of the participants were aware of exercises and healthy eating habits as control measures to reducing abdominal obesity but none was willing to engage in the intervention research. The same is the ideas presented by the PICO question where most university students are affected by abdominal obesity due to reduced exercises and poor eating habits. Further, increased social behaviors such as partying and alcoholism are responsible for the increased cases of abdominal obesity amid university students (Smith, 2015).
To that end, it is possible to discern that abdominal obesity is health disorder that can affect anyone. However, adolescents due to their social and behavioral patterns present increased cases. For instance, Leah represents a majority of teenaged students who are affected by abdominal obesity due to poor eating habits, reduced exercises, and increased clubbing and alcoholism. Further, from the discussion above, it is evident that both environmental and genetic factors present risk factors associated with abdominal factors. Additionally, for implementation of evidence-based intervention calls for an understanding of an individuals' behavior, social patterns, cultural, and economic aspects. As such, a clinician can formulate a lifestyle intervention program that favors the victim regarding cost efficiency, personal behavior, traditional beliefs, and the social networks. Therefore, to promote recovery and well-being of persons with lived experiences of abdominal obesity, it is considered wise to engage clinicians, patients, and the community to support the application.
Carmienke, S., Freitag, M. H., Pischon, T., Schlattmann, P., Fankhaenel, T., Goebel, H., & Gensichen, J. (2013). General and abdominal obesity parameters and their combination in relation to mortality: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. European journal of clinical nutrition, 67(6), 573-585.
DiCenso, A., Guyatt, G., & Ciliska, D. (2014). Evidence-based nursing: A guide to clinical practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Ford, E. S., Maynard, L. M., & Li, C. (2014). Trends in mean waist circumference and abdominal obesity among US adults, 1999-2012. Jama, 312(11), 1151-1153.
Greenhalgh, T.M., Bidewell, J., Crisp, E., Ambros, A., & Warland, J. (2017). Understanding research methods for evidence-based practice in health care. Milton, Australia: Wiley.
Hoffman, T., Bennett, S., Del Mar, C. (2013). Evidence-based practice across the health professions (2nd Ed.). Sydney, Australia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.
Kelishadi, R., Mirmoghtadaee, P., Najafi, H., & Keikha, M. (2015). Systematic review on the association of abdominal obesity in children and adolescents with cardio-metabolic risk factors. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 20(3).
Ladabaum, U., Mannalithara, A., Myer, P. A., & Singh, G. (2014). Obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults: 1988 to 2010. The American journal of medicine, 127(8), 717-727.
Richardson-Tench, M., Taylor, B., Kermode, S., & Roberts, K. (2016). Inquiry in health care. South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.
Rogerson, D., Soltani, H., & Copeland, R. (2016). The weight-loss experience: A qualitative exploration. BMC Public Health, 16, 371, 1-12. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855339/pdf/12889_2016_Article_304 5.pdf
Schneider, Z., & Whitehead, D. (2013). Nursing and midwifery research: methods and appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Australia.
Share, B.L., Naughton, G.A., Obert, P., Peat, J.K., Aumand, E.A., & Kemp, J.G. (2015). Effects of a multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors in young women with abdominal obesity: A randomised controlled trial. PloS One, 10(6), 1-15.Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4483260/pdf/pone.0130270.pdf
Smith, U. (2015). Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation. The Journal of clinical investigation, 125(5), 1790-1792.
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