Discuss about the Critical Evaluation Comparing and Contrasting Motivational Concepts.
The word motivation comes from the word ‘motive’, which comprises of basic needs, wants, drives and desires of an individual. Motivation promotes an individual toward his goal and makes him able to achieve it (Schunk, Meece and Pintrich 2012). The main aim of an organization is to stimulate the employees and make them able to give their best for well being of the organization. Therefore, every organization incorporates motivational program to ensure high quality work of the individuals (Chen et al. 2013). In order to motivate employees properly, it is essential to identify individual’s drive in quantitative manner and understand the level at which higher motivation results in higher productivity of the employee (Chen et al. 2013). Studies have shown that highly motivated employees produce good quality work and contribute actively in the achievement of the organization (Chen et al. 2013). Motivation not only influences the quality of work given by the employees but also increases job satisfaction among the employees, which in turn enhances employee engagement within the organization (Elias, Amith and Barney 2012). Incorporation of motivational program does not require any additional capital as the managers or the team leaders can play the role of a motivator by managing behavioral responses of the employees.
This essay deals with the critical analysis about the positive impact of incorporation of motivational program in Woolworths limited, a renowned Australian company, which possesses extensive retail interest in both Australia and New Zealand.
This essay discusses about the concepts of basic motivational theories, which enhances employee attachment with the organization. The essay also explains the practical applications of the motivational theories, which positively influence employee engagement within the organization, and increases the quality of work given by the employees.
One of the most renowned motivational theories is Abraham Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. In this theory, Maslow presented needs of an individual that can motivate him, in the form of pyramids (Chapman 2012). The base of the pyramid comprises of the fundamental physiological needs of an individual whereas the top of the pyramid portrays self-actualization (Chapman 2012). The intermediate levels of pyramid comprise of social and financial safety needs, emotional needs and self-esteem (Chapman 2012).
Maslow’s theory explains that if the basic physiological need of an individual is not reasonably met he is no longer motivated to express his desire about the higher level of needs. Additionally the need of an individual shapes his behavioral characteristics. Unsatisfied need motivates the individual whereas satisfied need no longer serves as a motivator (Jerome 2013). Although an individual does not possesses strong desire for the higher level of need until basic needs are met urge to fulfill higher level of need does not require the complete fulfillment of basic needs. From a more practical view point it can be said that satisfaction possesses decreasing percentages with the increase of potency such as 80% fulfillment of physiological need is enough to trigger the desire for safety needs (Jerome 2013). Unlike other motivational theories that explain the role of several external factors as motivator, Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory solely focuses on human needs and their satisfaction. Maslow’s theory can be widely used in developing countries where individual considers money as a main motivator however; other motivational theories are solely applicable for developed country where money is a secondary motivator (Datta 2014).
Woolworths, the largest retailer in Australia incorporates Maslow’s motivational theory in their corporal agenda to motivate their employees. Woolworths make individual need assessment to identify the desires of individual. Woolworths found that, employees whose fundamental needs are not met engage with the company solely based on compensation and safety they are getting from the job. Woolworths realizes that the managers should take humanely decisions so that the employees do not feel threatened to continue their engagement with the organization. Once the basic need of the employees are met and they experience effective relationship between employees and administrative staffs of the organization they desire to be self-esteemed which genuinely motivates them to recognized as a contributor in achievement of Woolworth. Thus, application of Need hierarchy theory ensures the engagement of employees within the company.
Another renowned theory in motivational program is Fedrick Herzberg’s two-factor theory. From Herzberg’s theory a clearly depicts the role of motivating factors and job satisfaction in employee motivation (Pegler 2012). Two factor theory explains two basic need of an individual in his workplace— Hygiene factor and motivational factors. Hygiene factors consist of salary, working environment, working condition, types of work and gained benefits (Pegler 2012). Herzberg claimed that these hygiene factors are not essential for job satisfaction but if these needs are not met job dissatisfaction occurs. Job dissatisfaction decreases the engagement of the employee with the organization (Mehboob, Sarwar and Bhutto 2012). Motivational Factors includes reward system, recognition, opportunity, achievement and responsibility toward the organization. An individual get motivated when his contribution towards the organization is noticed and it increases his responsibility toward the organization and further motivate him to contribute. According to Herzberg, the combination of Hygiene factor and motivational factor can motivate an individual and make them able to perform well (Pegler 2012). Unlike Maslow’s theory, Herzberg’s theory deals with the external factors that have direct influence on individual motivation. Two Factor theory is the most prescriptive motivational theory. The theory suggests the most effective motivating factors for an employee, as the information of this theory is practically collected after considering 203 employees, working in specific organizations (Pegler 2012). In Two-factor theory it is stated that hygiene factors do not serve as motivators whereas in other motivational theories every individual need is considered as a motivator.
After considering Two-factor theory the managers of Woolworths found that absence of hygiene factor de-motivated the employees to a significant extent. After providing proper working condition, effective relationship with administrative staffs and work of interest to the employees it is found that job satisfaction among the employees increases and their engagement with the company also increase significantly. Woolworths also incorporate the reward system within the company and it is found that the quality of work of employees increases significantly and they get motivated and take responsibilities to contribute for the company. This motivation also ensures employee engagement within the organization.
Hawthrone effect is a phenomenon, which stated that employees perform well while being observed. Henry A. Landsberger first coined the term Hawthrone Effect after observing a tendency of some employees to work more attentively under the supervision of higher authority (Latham 2012). According to human psychology, individual get more attentive when they are observed. This attentiveness make them more motivated towards their work. Studies also found that the relationship of the employee with his supervisor increases the Hawthrone effect and thus enhances good quality of work (Harter et al. 2013). Hawthrone effect also considers the impact of work environment on motivation.
The team leaders and mangers of Woolworths found that employees get motivated when their work has been supervised. The company also noticed that employee-supervisor relationship have positive impact upon the productivity of the employee. In addition, Woolworths found that if the supervisor make the employee realize about his contribution towards his organization and observe his work periodically the employee remain alert, which enables him to give his best effort towards his job, make him satisfied and motivated. Managers also noticed that friendly supervision also ensure long term attachments of employee with the company.
Expectancy theory deals with the behavior of people in a certain way, as they wish for an outcome as the effect of their behavior. In another way, people decide their action based on their desired result (Purvis, Zagenczyk and McCray 2015). In a workplace, it may be working long work hours because employees expect a pay rise. However, this theory also proposes how strong the person desires the outcome. For instance, workers might work harder if they had been given the assurance of a pay rise, thus the outcome is quite enviable, than if they have only assumed to get a pay rise. Moreover, expectancy theory talks about the mental practices about choice. In the framework of organizational behavior, Victor Vroom first proposed this theory as one of the motivation theory, saying expectancy theory highlights the necessity of relating awards directly to the performance of the deserving employees. In Woolworths Limited, the employees are valued and considered as the driver of their business (Taylor 2014). The staffs are motivated, positive and energetic. The company provides ample numbers of opportunities to grow in the position with the rising responsibility as the brand develops and expand internationally. The organization believes in internal promotion and they offer a diverse series of challenging career options for the motivated employees in the leading retail company of Australia. The team members encounter new and exciting challenges each day. It does not matter whether the employee is part time one or a waiting for a long term career option within the retail industry, Woolworths offers a huge range of varied position for the eligible people.
The Three Dimensional Theory of Attribution shows the relation between the interpretation of events and its influence on the behavior of people. Bernard Weiner proposed this theory in 1970’s regarding the interpretation of the success and failure in the mind of employees. According to the theory, people always feel the continuous urge of explaining their failure and success, though the requirement of explanation is more common when the ultimate result is unexpected in situations (Yeheyis et al. 2016). Weiner says, everyone attribute their failures and successes to four different things – Ability, Task Difficulty, Effort and Luck. The theory also expresses a three-stage process underlying any attribution – the must perceived behaviour, the intentional or determined behavior, and the attributed behavior to external and internal causes. The attribution theory of Weiner states that the casual attribution of any individual affects the following behaviors in an organization (Bobev et al. 2015). One of the key assumptions of the theory is that employees will interpret their work environment to maintain a positive image of themselves in the company. Weiner has theorized three characteristics of attributions, which can affect motivation in a company, those are, Stability, Locus of control, and Controllability. Stability deals with the positive and stable attributions for successful achievements, such as completing a project successfully. This can lead to further expectation from the person and thus higher level of motivation for the future success, whereas in the negative situations, stability can lead to inferiority complex and less motivation in the future. Locus of Control states the internal motivation of a person after he judges his own performance. If the person feels he is not competent enough to perform, it will lead o lower motivation. The Controllability factor says that if an employee of a certain organization believes that his performance was not up to the mark, he might feel less motivated in the future projects (Kim et al. 2015). In Woolworths, the Three-dimensional theory of attribution has several implications concerned with the employee feedback. The organization gives feedback to their employees on a regular basis. If some of them have not performed well, the company motivates them on a positive note saying how they can improve. This prevents them from attributing their disappointment to a natural lack of skills. The authority of Woolworths also praises their employees for their effort, even if their outcome is not as great as it was expected. Encouraging employees might help them to attribute the disappointment to controllable issues.
In 1940’s Abraham Maslow stated the theory of needs, where he indentified the basic needs of human life. Later, David McClelland identified his theory of needs with three motivations in the organizational behavior, namely, a need for achievement, a need for power, and a need for affiliation. According to this theory, these three needs work as motivational driver regardless of the culture, gender, age and one of them will be the predominant factor in motivation (Harvey et al. 2014). In an organization, every employee has some characteristics that define his motivational need. If the need of achievement is the priority for a certain employee, he/she will have a strong urge to set the challenging goals and accomplish them. They might take calculated risks as well and like receiving feedback on a regular basis on their achievements from their superiors. These people mostly like to work alone. According to Nuttin (2014), if the need of affiliation is the primary need for an employee, he will want to belong to the team and often will go along with the flow. He will not like taking high risks as well. If the need for power is important for someone, he will have the urge to control and try to influence others. He will like to enjoy the competition and like to win the arguments. These factors help the authority to determine the characteristics of the employees. In Woolworths, the authority separates their employees based on the motivators and assigns them the right job. For instance, if an employee always takes charge during a project, allots responsibilities to others, likes to be the controller of the ultimate deliverables, he must be driven by the power (L?z?roiu 2015). In Woolworths, these people are designated as the front men or the team leaders. The organization motivates its employees to work towards a common goal, and for that, motivating team leaders are as necessary as the employees who go with the flow of the group. In a retail organization both the employees are required and Woolworths knows how to assign them the perfects jobs. This is how Woolworths become the leading retaining organization in Australia.
The ERG Theory o Alderfer simplifies the hierarchy needs of Maslow. It competes the three basic need of any employee to fulfill in the organization. They are existence, relatedness and growth and can be defined, such as, existence is the basic need of material goods; relatedness is the need of interpersonal relations, and the growth is the need for personal improvement. His theory does further things rather than simplifying the needs. It is concerned with the understanding of the factors contributing to human behavior. It depends on six most effectual motivations such as promotion, high wages, interesting work, god working condition and the appreciation of work (Daniel and Gabriela 2013). In Woolworths, employees are treated with all these factors to motivate them towards a common goal. The company treats its employees well as it considers them to be the most important factor in the business.
Successful working conditions are characterized by factors like positive motivators and open communication at every level. The effective organization like Woolworths Ltd recognizes the motivating factors that are valuable for its employees. The management of Woolworths should consider indentifying the needs of every employee and implement the motivating aspects accordingly (Miner 2015). They may take benefit of motivational methods based on lucrative incentives, where the performance is determined by the gained objectives at the end of the work. The motivational methods affect all the employees in every hierarchy and truly inspire the employees effectively.
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