Discuss about the Cross Culture Management for Negotiation Capabilities.
Reflection on case studies of negotiation simulations from week 9 to 11 depict several insights into the personal capabilities and pitfalls which could be capitalized upon to derive plausible communication skills, efficient conflict resolution and promising intercultural negotiations. Distinct simulations were characterized by the use of communication, negotiation and cultural theories for deriving the desired outcomes. Therefore, in this part of the reflective journal I would illustrate the missing ideal concepts which could have modified the outcomes of the negotiation simulations (Ang, & Van Dyne, 2015). The reflection would also provide a cognizable impression of the setbacks in the negotiation process which could be catered in the future to deliver feasible outcomes.
Negotiation is associated with communication and has been used in the context of business to solve dilemmas which are detrimental for two or more business organizations or parties. It has been observed in the simulations that intercultural business communication plays a vital role. The sale of the old used car by a local dealer in Newcastle to a Japanese student requires intercultural business communication. Therefore, the scope for universalistic approach in business communication relevant to the specified negotiation scenario suggests the integration of novel aspects in business communication alongside considering the significance of cultural diversity. I was able to observe that some of the simulations were characterized with the universalistic approach which resulted in apprehensions on behalf of either party. This could be perceived as a formidable weakness in my personal capabilities to negotiate.
Thereafter the reflection on the development of an interactive phenomenon for communication allows the use of systemic and dynamic perspective in distinct simulations (Bian, & Forsythe, 2012). The consideration of cultural definitions of communication enables me to apprehend the basis of intercultural communication and hence I could be able to realize strength in the communication process. From the perspective of communication, I realized majority of weaknesses and strengths upon understanding the model of communication. The model of communication indicated my strengths as the knowledge of the context in which the negotiation is conducted. On the other hand, my lack of experience in professional and individual contexts reflected on my weaknesses in negotiation (Bird, & Mendenhall, 2016).
Reviewing my negotiation capabilities with respect to culture was possible with the help of references to Hall’s high and low context theory which depicts the characteristic perception of communication in different cultures as well as the role of proxemics. The integration of cultural contexts in communication is also noted profoundly in the simulation role play. I was able to find that the preferences for low context communication serve as prominent setbacks for my personal capabilities in negotiation. Observation of the simulation for car negotiation conveys that use of low context communication as preferred by the local car dealer for negotiating with a Japanese student belonging to a high context culture accounts for a weakness.
Theories indicate that differences between high context and low context cultures indicate are characterized by the former’s preferences for development of social trust, agreements on the basis of trust and ritualistic negotiations (Budhwar, & Debrah, 2013). On the contrary, low context cultures follow direct approach to business in negotiations which emphasize on performance and expertise. Furthermore, low context cultures are reliant on efficient negotiations along with focus on legal contracts. The formality factor in case of high context cultures is also higher than that of low context cultures and therefore the former are reliant on development of relationships according to high status and new relationships. On the other hand, I was also able to apprehend personal strengths in realizing proxemics as well as avoiding non verbal mishaps effectively in the negotiation simulations. Non verbal mishaps are considered as the major reason of fallout of specific parties in a negotiation due to culturally specific perception of gestures and body language.
The approach implemented for verbal communication accounted for use of an interpreter as well as international English as a mode of communication which provides scope for my personal strength in international English. The simulations also indicated that I was able to refrain from any unwanted facial expressions which could affect the outcome of the negotiations (Cankaya, & LeFevre, 2016). Thereafter, conversational styles implemented by me were characterized with listening which enabled the other party to understand that I was interested in the communication and thus social trust could obtain specific impetus from this personal strength of mine. Following the references to cultural and communication theories, I was also required to emphasize on the ideal practices cited for negotiation in theory in order to apprehend weaknesses and strengths. The individual stages of negotiation depict the requirements from an expert negotiator which include systems orientation, abundance of information, honesty, superior listening skills and maturity. I was able to identify personal traits in context of the indicators of negotiation including time horizon, concern for common objectives, alternative packages preferred and limitations.
My agenda for negotiation involved packaging which means that the negotiation would offer benefits to either parties one time in bulk. The emphasis laid by me on the common interests of negotiating parties was strong and my limitations were fixed on goals of the negotiation (Chen, 2013). The different packages suggested for the negotiation in the negotiation process also accounts for strength in personal traits. Therefore, I was able to comprehend certain necessary advantages and setbacks in personal negotiating styles in context of culture, communication and negotiation theories. Suggestions for improvement largely include acquisition of information on various cultures, developing awareness for cultural diversity and demarcate cultural contexts for application in negotiation processes (Chhokar, Brodbeck, & House, 2013).
The negotiation simulation in week 12 also accounts for illustration of major outcomes specifically referring to the strategies followed for effective realization of negotiation processes. The necessary processes which are required for negotiation primarily include identification of objectives and strategies as well as reasonable approaches to negotiation strategies. The reflection will also cite the distinct stages of the planning process followed in the simulation, thereby indicating the validity of application of strategy in the process. Determination of objectives prior to the negotiation process is a formidable characteristic of a potentially beneficial negotiation process. The objectives are perceived to be a major influence on the strategy of the negotiator which can be observed in the form of direct and indirect effects. First of all, the indirect effects account for development and strengthening of a present relationship.
Direct effects include specificity of goals, association of goals of both parties and limitations on the objectives (Joint, 2014). Reviewing the simulation also presents a lucid impression of the difference between strategy, planning and tactics. Tactics are short term initiatives which are generally derived from specific scenarios and they are implemented for the pursuit of broad strategies. I was able to understand that the measures which were defined during the course of the negotiation did not account either for planning or strategy and were tactics which were used in context of the strategy. Strategy is considered as the broad approach implemented for accomplishment of goals (Matsumoto, & Hwang, 2013). Strategy has been classified into two categories such as unilateral and bilateral in which the former is characterized by the singular emphasis on personal interests while the latter emphasizes on the influence of other’s strategy on own interests and objectives. I need to emphasize on the strategy development on a generic basis reflecting on personal characteristics and objectives as well as that of the other party.
The effective model which could be used for identifying strategic options reflect on the dual concerns model which recognizes personal stakes as well as the present and future approaches to relationship with other party as the outcomes of the negotiation. Analysis of available strategic option for negotiation alongside the implications of substantial and relative negotiation outcomes in the reflection enabled me to identify the distinct modes of engagement and non engagement. The strategies include four categories such as competition, collaboration, accommodation and avoidance. Avoidance is realized in case the strategy of either party does not lead to promising outcomes (Minkov, & Hofstede, 2012). Therefore, my final apprehension in the reflection on simulation exercise in week 12 conveys the distinct steps of ideal negotiation process and the limitations noticed in actual practice. The distinct stages of the negotiation process included preparation, forming relationships, collection of information, utilization of information, offering bids and closing of deals.
Finally the agreement reached upon by both parties has to be implemented effectively (Mok, Sparks, & Kadampully, 2013). My reflection of the simulation activity suggests limited preparation related to the objectives and strategy of NIDO Petroleum/Gas and JGC Philippines. The construction contract between the companies involved in the negotiation also indicate that the flat fee alongside percentage profit could be beneficial for contractor i.e. JGC while the NIDO Petroleum Limited company presents substantial objections to the percentage due to ambiguity over specifying the profit percentage. Furthermore, implications of the disparities between effective and ineffective strategies perceived in the simulations of week 9 to 11 convey that use of dual concerns model for determination of mutual interests of both parties helps in limiting the insufficiencies in strategic negotiation processes. The use of tactics to resolve the dilemmas during negotiation over contract fee and percentage of profits accounts for effectiveness over the measures followed in simulations during week 9 to11.
The reflection on the different simulation sessions also provides a viable impression of ethical issues which are associated with negotiation and the relevant measures which can resolve them. Ethics are considered as widely accepted precedents in the society which define right and wrong actions in specific scenarios. The utilization of ethics as noticed on an overall basis predict the inclusion of a potential understanding of the moral precedent established in an organization, definition of the problem followed by determination of economic outcomes and legal requirements. This process has to be complemented with the inclusion of comprehensive evaluation of ethical duties resulting in proposals for convincing solutions on moral grounds. Ethical issues arising in negotiation are primarily due to use of deceptive tactics and concerned motives for unethical practices (Rao Vajjhala, & David Strang, 2014).
The motives for unethical conduct include power as well as perception of competitiveness of strategies of the other party. However, negotiators should be aptly aware of the consequences which can be derived from unethical conduct. The consequences are primarily dependent on the context of effectiveness and the reactions of self as well as other entities such as audience. The causes for unethical conduct are also validated on several grounds by practitioners of unethical measures such as harmlessness or compulsion to implement the measure, limitation of negative consequences, and appropriateness of the measure for the situation and initiation of unethical behavior by the other party (Romani, & Claes, 2014). Therefore, my reflection of the simulation indicates that negotiators could adopt measures such as inquiries through probing questions and presenting questions in distinct manner, references to the tactic implemented by the other party unethically as well as some choose to respond kindly in order to obtain favorable ethical behavior from the other party.
This section of the reflective journal represents a negotiation planning process used for the negotiation simulation in Week 12. Furthermore, the specific references to negotiation roles, responsibilities, strategies and tactics used in the negotiation process (Thomas, & Peterson, 2014).
Role: I assumed the role of key negotiator in the simulation representing JGC Philippines.
Responsibilities: I was responsible for analyzing information related to the other party NIDO Petroleum Limited alongside preparing a viable planning process in order to execute the negotiation.
Strategy and tactics:
I followed a dual concern model for identification of concerns on behalf of both parties suggestively indicating towards the contract’s outcomes such as contract fee, percentage of fee and penalties associated with the contract. My strategy was characterized by emphasis on realization of the collaboration model of negotiation. The tactics implemented by me during the negotiation included review of the past records of association between the two enterprises which enabled to identify common areas of interest such as review of state legislations.
My planning process was characterized with the illustrated description of the distinct issues to be addressed in the negotiation process. Thereafter I was able to apprehend the issues on a cumulative basis depicting the bargaining mix. The bargaining mix included the definitions for benefits for either party in the negotiation.
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