1. Beiefly outline the main structures of the cardiovascular system.
2. Provide a brief description of the normal function of the cardiovascular system.
The nervous system performs three general functions in the body, a sensory function, an interpretative function and a motor function as well. The sensory nerves gather information from the body as well as the external environment and the nerves help to carry the information to the central nervous system. The sensory information is processed and interpreted in the central nervous system and response is generated. The response information is conveyed from the central nervous system to the rest of the body via motor nerves (Nieuwenhuys, Hansand Nicholson 2014).
Multiple sclerosis can be defined as an immune controlled inflammatory disease, it targets the central nervous system of the patent by attacking the myelinated axons in the central nervous system. It can be mentioned that the targeting of the myelinated axons results into destruction of myelin and axon in variable degrees, producing significant disability in the 30% of the patient within a time frame of 20 to 25 years. The manifestation of this disease is facilitated by the production of demyelinating lesions of MS also known as plaques.
The musculoskeletal system provide structural support to the body, the bones help in storing minerals and lipids and is the site of production of blood cells, 70% of the total calcium count of the boy is stored in the bones. The bones also protect the body organs and soft tissues from external stimuli or impact and also provide leverage and movement, the muscular system generates the main locomotive force in the body and the skeletal system levers and controls the magnitude and direction of the movement (Taylor 2013).
There is a significant impact of the multiple sclerosis on the musculoskeletal system as well. Multiple sclerosis often causes an acute neuropathic or musculoskeletal pain caused by the targeting of the nociceptors. Nociceptors are the free nerve endings that that help in detection of the pain stimulus and its subsequent interpretation. They remain protected by myelin in all types of body tissue s except for in the brain. As multiple sclerosis facilitates myelin degeneration, it facilitates an acute musculoskeletal pain by the nociceptors detecting actual tissue damage (Neumann 2013).
Exploring on the signs and symptoms that the patient had been suffering from, blurry vision is a key symptom associated with this condition. The first set of signs and symptoms associated with the multiple sclerosis is called the clinical isolated syndrome or CIS, and the blurry vision is one of the most common manifestations (Notcutt et al. 2012). The pathophysilogy behind the blurry vision experienced by the patent is due to the occurrence of optic neuritis, this damages the nerve between the eye and brain causing disruption in neuron signal exchange, resulting in blurring the vision of the patient. The next symptom had been bilateral numbness in the both legs; it generally is the first stage of muscle spasm and stiffness. According to the Pilutti et al. (2014), multiple sclerosis reduces muscle spasticity in the patient making them stiff and resistant and leads to spasm when trying to move the muscles. The third symptom that the patient had been facing had been urinary urgency which is a very common phenomenon in multiple sclerosis; this disease often causes a spastic or overactive bladder that is unable to hold even normal amount of urine; along with that, this condition even enhances the vulnerability of the patient to urinary tract infections as well. Along with that it has to be mentioned that poor focus, slowed thinking and fuzzy memory are another key symptom of the multiple sclerosis. The presence of the multiple lesions and damage to the blood brain barrier can cause gradual loss of cognitive functions leading to loss of memory. The last symptom exhibited by the patient had been poor balance and walking difficulties due to the reduction of muscle spasticity and fatigue.
The integumentary system of the body consists of skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves. The main function facilitated by the integumentary system is to act as a barrier to protect the body from the external stimuli and harmful impacts. The integumentary system also helps in retaining body fluids, provides protection against diseases, eliminates waste products and also helps in regulating the body temperature of the individual (McLafferty, Hendry and Farley 2012).
Both eczema and psoriasis are skin diseases that damage the skin integrity of the patient and affects the integumentary system o the body as well. First and foremost, eczema an be defined as the reaction pattern of the skin to a number of diseases. It mainly targets the dermis of the integumentary system by producing red elevated plaques topped by tiny raised blisters containing clear fluid. As the disease progresses it also causes thickening and scaling of the affected tissue and it is always itchy (von Kobyletzki et al. 2014).
Psoriasis, on the other hand, is a noncontiguous, chronic skin condition that causes production of plaques produced by thickened scaling skin. This is another integumentary system disease with manifestations limited to the dermis. On a more elaborative note, it causes dry flakes of the skin caused by rapid proliferation of skin cells as well. It mainly affects the knee, elbows, and scalp but is can also target the skin of the torso, palms and the soles of the feet (Bushmakin et al. 2015).
The most common type of treatment interventions are a handful of pharmacological interventions. First and foremost, hydrocortisone ointment is given to the patient to help is calming the lesions. Antihistamines are oral tablets which are also given to the eczema patients that help in controlling the occurrence of the blisters. Corticosteroids are also given in conjuncture of this medication to calm the manifestation spread of the medication (von Kobyletzki et al. 2014).
In case of psoriasis, the treatment options are also topical antibiotics such as topical corticosteroids that help in reducing the inflammation and helps in relieving itching as well. Anthralin is another topical medication that helps in slowing down the rate of skin cell growth and can help in removing the scales smoothing out the skin (Bushmakin et al. 2015).
First and foremost the patient will require interventions for the urinary urgency that the patient is suffering from which significantly enhances her risk of acquiring urinary tract infections. based on my assessment of urgency, I would require administration of medications such as oxybutanin, propanthalene, hyoscyamine sulfate and tolterodine which will help in reducing the bladder spasticity which will help in reducing the urinary urgency of the patient (Lublin et al. 2014). Another urgency that I have discovered in the assessment is the self care deficitdue the high muscular spasticity, unstable gait and abnormal sensations which can deter her from successfully perform self care or activities of daily living. I would administer medications such as Tizanidine, baclofen, carbamezepine which will promote muscle relaxation and inhibit spinal root level reflex helping calm thee muscle spasm and related discomfort.
In the care planning for the patient in the case study, the patent will require the attention of the medical practitioner who will assess the disease progression of the patient and will provide necessary pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for the patient. He next health professional will be the physiotherapists who will help in muscle relaxation and reducing the impact of the bone decay. Lastly, Daisy will require the assistance of an allied health professional, preferably a dietician which will help her with a mineral and antioxidant rich diet to overcome bone decay and aging associated with multiple sclerosis (Cohen et al. 2012).
The cardiovascular system is comprised of heart and an intricate network of blood vessels including blood veins, capillaries and arteries. The heart remains connected with the rest of the body by the means of the connective tissue blood and the network of blood vessels (Brown and Griendling 2015).
The main function of the cardiovascular system is to provide oxygenated blood to the rest of the body and supply the deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs. On a more elaborative note, arteries are the blood vessels that take the oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. The veins help in returning the deoxygenated blood to the heart. And the heart helps to pump the blood for transport of oxygen, nutrients and hormones throughout the body and helps in removal of metabolic wastes (Yang et al. 2013).
Aging as a significant impact on each and every functioning system of the body and hence the cardiovascular system also is effected by the process of aging. In the process of aging, the natural pacemaker loses some cells and becomes rigid leading to atrial fibrillation. With aging the muscles of the left ventricle become thicker and even the heart can increase in size declining the volume of the left ventricle. It results is reduction of the pumping ability of the heart and leads to decreased circulatory output (McEvoy and Shander 2013).
Angina can be defined as the chest pain or pressure that is developed during a myocardial infarction. It is also known as angina pectoris and the underlying pathophysiology of the condition is due to the heart muscles not getting enough oxygenated blood. Elaborating more, coronary arteries often are obstructed due to coronaries arterial spasms and coronary blockages. The coronary arteries become blocked due to cholesterol deposition by the process of atheroschlerosis leading to obstructed blood flow of the main arteries and gives rise to angina (McEvoy and Shander 2013).
The patient John in the case study had angina or acute chest pain when he was engaged in some activity and it reduced when he was resting. The underlying reason behind the same can be the fact the patient had effort angina or stable angina which is a classic symptom of myocardial ischemia. During any exerting activity the energy consumption is higher increasing the oxygen requirement of the body leading to higher burden on the heart to pump more blood. With blocked arteries it exerts pressure on the left ventricle and leads to angina. During resting there is no exertion of excess energy and hence the pressure on the heart is also reduced, which results into the angina subsiding (Koralkova, Solinge and Wijk 2014).
Anemia is a disease that is facilitated by anomaly in the RBC production and destruction, there are many causes behind the anemia. The disturbance with proliferation and differentiation of the stem cells can be one reason behind the disease, along with that, enhanced destruction of the RBC also results in anemia. The signs and symptoms include weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, and in severe anemia even increased cardiac output and angina. The risk of anemia are facilitated by low iron diet, low vitamin or mineral intake, chronic diseases like kidney disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid, gastritis, and heart failure (Young 2013).
As John had been struggling with anemia his hemoglobin levels are reduced in th blood stream. With reduced hemoglobin levels in the body, the ability of his blood to deliver sufficient oxygen to the brain, heart, muscles and other key organs is compromised as well. And hence the patient feels increasing tired and fatigued. Along with that, due to the lack of sufficient oxygen delivery to the entire body, the oxygen demand is increased with extra pressure on he lungs and the heart to overcompensate the oxygen requirement of the body. This led to labored breathing in the patient and caused shortness of breath (Lavie et al. 2015).
Hemoglobin is the complex protein that is found in the red blood cells, they contain an iron molecule and functions as the key oxygen binding molecule. It helps in carrying oxygen to the rest of the body (Young 2013).
The normal levels of hemoglobin in a adult is 13.5 to 17.5 grams per deciliter of blood for an adult male.
Based on the key signs and symptoms that John is exhibiting, I would order an arterial blood gases assessment for the patient to obtain the pH levels and I would recommend serum iron level testing as well.
The lifestyle recommendations will include:
- Taking an iron rich diet for the patient to increase the hemoglobin count.
- Taking iron supplements that will facilitate hemoglobin level increase in the body.
- Asking the patient to quit smoking and quit his sedentary lifestyle and adapt a healthier lifestyle with healthy eating and regular exercise (Young 2013).
The first health professional would be a cardiologist to assess and treat his cardiac complications. The second health professionals will be a dietician who will help in guiding the patient to switch to a healthy and iron rich diet. The third health professional will be an allied health professional, a physiotherapist who will help him develop healthy exercise regimen (Koralkova, Solinge and Wijk 2014).
Bushmakin, A.G., Mamolo, C., Cappelleri, J.C. and Stewart, M., 2015. The relationship between pruritus and the clinical signs of psoriasis in patients receiving tofacitinib. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 26(1), pp.19-22.
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Pilutti, L.A., Dlugonski, D., Sandroff, B.M., Klaren, R. and Motl, R.W., 2014. Randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention targeting symptoms and physical activity in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 20(5), pp.594-601.
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von Kobyletzki, L., Svensson, Å., Schmitt, J., Chalmers, J. and Thomas, K., 2014. Eczema Signs and Symptoms: what is important to patients?. Br J Dermatol, 170(6 Suppl), p.e11.
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Young, N.S., 2013. Current concepts in the pathophysiology and treatment of aplastic anemia. ASH Education Program Book, 2013(1), pp.76-81.