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Cultural Attitudes Including Discrimination

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What Do You Mean By Cross-Cultural Attitudes That Include Prejudice And Discrimination?

How Far Cross-Cultural Attitudes Influences Behavior At Studying Settings (Schools Or University)?

What Are The Cultural Theories Or Frameworks Used To Understand The Relationship Between Culture And Behavior?




This study deals with understanding the aspects of cross-cultural attitudes that involve prejudice and discrimination (Thomas & Peterson, 2017). In the literature review section, proper literatures are selected that explains the research topic on cross-cultural attitudes by giving main emphasis upon the prejudice and discrimination factors. Theories are mentioned in the research study that shows relationship between culture and behavior. Limitations and gap in the literature review are properly defined in the research study with proper justification at the same time. The research study mainly describes about the cross-cultural attitudes that had evolved from past decades and how individuals management or get treated in university or schools at different countries and states. There are some stereotyping feeling that are present among the individuals where they start presuming facts at the time of judging a person based on their race, religion, ethnic groups and caste (Simpson & Yinger, 2013).


Literature Review

As rightly put forward by Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2014), cross-cultural activities have been in existence from past decades that moves from recordingsocialalterations for classifying the expressive as well as pertinentmagnitudes of socialinconsistency and using those measurements for creation of sophisticatedtheoreticsimulations.

The first article is taken from “Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology” and title of the article is “Contact and Attitudes towards international students in Australia” (Mak, Brown & Wadey, 2014). The current article investigates the impact of intercultural contact between domestic as well as international students on attitudes towards international students and possible mediators of this relationship. Research shows that domestic undergraduates completes survey of the quantity as well as quality of contact with international students, Intercultural Communications Emotions (ICE) as well as levels of intergroup anxiety (IA) and attitudes towards international students. Furthermore, Positive quality of intercultural contacts with less of intergroup anxiety and more positive intercultural communications emotions as it is related to more positive attitudes towards international students. In addition, Quality of contact exerts on intergroup attitudes through intergroup anxiety as well as intercultural communications emotions. As per the results, it explains the importance of addressing communication barriers as well as emotions that gets associated at the time of promoting positive interactions between domestic and international students. Therefore, it is suggested that theoretical integration of intergroup as well as communication based perspectives consider attitudes toward linguistically diverse outgroups such as international students.

The second article is taken from “Journal of General Internal Medicine” and title of the article is “A Systematic Review of the Extent and Measurement of Healthcare Provider Racism” (Paradies, Truong & Priest, 2014).  The article highlights about major key driver of racial disparities that is present in healthcare sector that is significantly little and how to best measure this type of racism. The paper shows worldwide evidence for racism among the healthcare providers and comparing it with existing measurement approaches for emerging best practice and emphasis upon assessing interpersonal racism rather than systematic racism.

he third article is taken from “Association for psychology Science” and the title of the article is “Does Lower Cognitive Ability to Predict Greater Prejudice” (Dhont & Hodson, 2014). The article proposes a theoretical negative association between cognitive abilities as well as prejudice. The literature section shows that negative association between cognitive abilities as well as right wing social cultural attitudes that include authoritarian.

Cultural diversity or in other words multiculturalism is one of the ways that best describes the presence of different cultures in the country and world as a whole. This diversity highlights the presence as well as value of learned behaviors that include beliefs and other features of many other ethnic groups in and across the world and nation (Shiraev et al., 2016).

It is understood that both prejudice as well as racism have caused enormous suffering during the past history and denotes to a negative view of one group of people purely based upon association of that group. Stereotyping properly goes hand in hand with prejudice. When individual’s starts believing in some stereotyping activities, they get hold of some of the traits by linking with a specific group of people (Levy & Macdonald, 2016)

As rightly put forward by Katz & Hoyt (2014), prejudice as well as discrimination has been recognized throughout the human history. To explain in detail, prejudice links with the inflexible as well as irrational attitudes and opinions that are held by members of one group to other. On the contrary, discrimination means behaviors that get directed against other groups. If a person is prejudiced, that means they are already have hold to preconceived beliefs about some of the groups of people or in case socialactivities. Prejudices can be either positive or negative where both the forms are difficult at the time of alteration. Here, the negative form of prejudice leads to discrimination where the individual remain preconceived upon some of the attitudes. Individuals who exercisejudgment do so because to defend the chances for themselves after denying access and not deserving the same treatment.

As rightly put forward by Kite & Whitley (2016), cross-cultural research is considered as cross-national where individual need to take into account all adequate sources that can conventionally observe between the country differences. At ecological level, it is noted that potentially relevant non-cultural variables like affluence or socio-economic status, religion as well as population and religious practices. Each of the above listed variables varies depending upon each potential effect that had on psychological process.

Most of the cross-cultural research shows the fact about university student samples that become easy to trust that there is some degree of correspondence present among the samples due to high level of teaching. In most of the cases, it is noted that requirements for entering into universities varies from one country to another. For instance, in United States, it is very usual factor that high school graduates gain an entrance into a university or college. On comparing with other countries, university education considers as a luxury that is limited to members of advantaged class (Kumar, Karabenick & Burgoon, 2015).

On analysis, it is found that religious backgrounds as well as practices consider as one of the major difference that is present among different individuals and cultures at the same time. Most of the people till now practice their religion strictly. There is however little or no departure present between culture and religion in any era. Religion is so pervaded in the culture that both get inseparable to each other (Hui et al., 2015).

Theory on Cognitive ability and style of evaluation that shows the effects of cognitive ability and style on intergroup outcomes through psychological process that controls factors like education and socio economics status


There are different theories that explain the Universal dimensions of cultural, variability. The first theoretical background is Hofstede dimensions of work-related standards where there are main dimensions present that explain the overall theory and this include Individualism versus collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, long versus short-term orientation and masculinity versus femininity (Levy & Macdonald, 2016). Theoretical frameworks used in the study accounts for observing the country differences at the time of viewing at the psychological processes that developing by making use of dimensions other than individualism versus collectivism method. Some of the data even points out the fact about the importance of other dimensions as well. In one of the study, it is noted that long-term orientation was considered as the best forecaster of country differences who follows the norms and regulations as it governs emotional expressivity as well as emotional experience at the same time. In addition, the country level-dimensions show the fact that individualism versus collectivism was highly connected as compared to power distance. There were other correlations as well where dimensions had been reported in the most appropriate way. In this particular dimension, value orientations correlates with intellectual as well as affective autonomy along with egalitarian. From the viewpoint of the researcher, it is noted that they mainly focus on individualism versus collectivism dimension because the frameworks relates well with the overall concepts of the given research study (Habtegiorgis, Paradies& Dunn, 2014).

The second framework is Scwartz dimensions of values where the dimensions include embeddedness, harmony, hierarchy, affective autonomy, intellectual autonomy, mastery and egalitarian (Levy & Macdonald, 2016).

These theoretical models of frameworks actually show the relationship between culture as well as behavior. This means the model explains the environmental causation that is rooted in anthropology as well as evolutionary psychology. In addition, it mainly explains about the ecological factors like climate, population density as well as natural resources and group-level affluence that influence the creation of cultures (Fishbein, 2014).

As far as individual level variable is concerned, researcher need to treat that as personality traitsof individuals that completely varies from one individual to other. It is taken into account that countries widely differs in aggregate levels of personality traits (Simpson &Yinger, 2013).

As far as ecological level factors are concerned, it is considered that all the individual level variables best describes about the culture part for establishing equivalence in samples on all the demographic features. It is however noted that cross-cultural researcher are of the opinion that full demographic assessment of samples help in examining the possible relationship between demographic variables as well as psychological process of interest (Dinh et al., 2014).

Limitations or gaps in the literature

The limitation to the present research study is lack of time that restricted the researcher to conduct in-depth analysis of the given research study on cross-cultural attitudes. The gap was present in the present literature where there was lack of information present regarding cross-cultural attitudes and how far it influences individuals at certain level. There should be proper ways suggested so that these cultural differences should be sorted out and there should be equality present mankind (Dhont&Hodson, 2014).

One of the limitations of cross-cultural attitudes is that they are not empirically defensibleclarifications where philosophy acts as a source of groups alterations. After the groups differences are identified, researcher had generally concluded the differences that have cultural source where there is documentation present among the peer groups that actually justifies the documentations. There are wide ranges of ways where differences can be noted such as countries, ethnic groups as well as racial groups (Dinh et al., 2014).

Limitation is drawn from the research paper because of the ways cultures are samples such as country, cultural or racial groups and also due to cross-cultures studies that takes into account comparisons of a small handful of groups (Simpson &Yinger, 2013).

The deductive approach is used by the researcher as they have taken assistance from already published journal articles regarding the topic on cross- cultural attitudes and then engaged in drawing conclusions at the end (Dinh et al., 2014).


Research proposal

This research proposal had been implemented that explain about the literature gap and answers the questions. Here the main participants are the individuals who are engaging in biasness, prejudice and discrimination activities (Simpson &Yinger, 2013). Be it schools or universities, it is quite prevalent to find individuals giving importance or judging people based on caste, religion and race. This should not be a case and all should respect each other culture and give rise to a uniform society without any biasness in actions. The sourced materials used by the researcher are peer-reviewed journal articles, books and websites. The research design used in the study is descriptive one as the topic need descriptive analysis by the researcher. The demographic data obtained by the cross-cultural researcher is one step forward in establishing linkage between the cultures (Dinh et al., 2014).

One of the aspects that need to be discussed by the researcher in the future research is the need to test competing cultural models (Levy & Macdonald, 2016). For more than 15 years from now, it can be noted that one cultural construct had properly dominated the theory as well as research (individualism versus collectivism). Future researcher need to keep in mind about examining carefully all of the cultural constructs that are ready available for developing theoretical models for predicting the differences as well as similarities especially in the psychological study. The model used in the research study mainly incorporates multiple cultural dimensions for interacting in better as well as nuanced views on how culture affects behaviors in a given form of study.

The researcher philosophers had discussed about the tendencies that underlies the cultural constructs that is treated as integral towards mankind. The main cultural construct was relevant to a core of understanding of human nature on how to understand the theoretical developments as well as empirical work especially in cross-cultural psychology (Simpson &Yinger, 2013).

The researcher had used interpretivism research philosophy in this research study because the cross-cultural researcher had taken facts and information from secondary sources of data. Interpretivism research philosophy deals with emotional side of human beings. Here the topic on cross-cultural attitudes considers the qualitative factors (Banks, 2015).



At the end of the study, it is concluded that cross-cultural research had been generally valuable for psychology as well as continues it in the near future. Past research showed cross-cultural similarities as well as differences in most of the aspects of psychological functioning and it had real importance in putting philosophy on the map of thinking from the viewpoint of psychologists. From the discussion, it can be cited that culture is now significanttheoreticconcept that incorporates models of human behavior as well as is an essential variable that need to be considered in all areas of psychological research. It is pointed out that cross-cultural theories are complex by nature as compared to past decades. It is argued that the research methods had evolved for keeping pace with the theoretical developments where the researcher explore the linkage between the culture as well as psychological process that relates with the theories.


Reference List

Banks, J. A. (2015). Cultural diversity and education. Routledge.

Dhont, K., & Hodson, G. (2014). Does lower cognitive ability predict greater prejudice?. Current Directions in psychology Science, 23(6), 454-459.

Dhont, K., &Hodson, G. (2014). Does lower cognitive ability predict greater prejudice?. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(6), 454-459.

Dinh, K. T., Holmberg, M. D., Ho, I. K., & Haynes, M. C. (2014).The relationship of prejudicial attitudes to psychological, social, and physical well-being within a sample of college students in the United States. Journal of cultural diversity, 21(2), 56.

Fishbein, H. D. (2014). Peer prejudice and discrimination: The origins of prejudice. Psychology Press.

Habtegiorgis, A. E., Paradies, Y. C., & Dunn, K. M. (2014). Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data. Social science research, 47, 178-191.

Hui, B. P. H., Chen, S. X., Leung, C. M., & Berry, J. W. (2015).Facilitating adaptation and intercultural contact: The role of integration and multicultural ideology in dominant and non-dominant groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 45, 70-84.

Katz, A. D., & Hoyt, W. T. (2014).The influence of multicultural counseling competence and anti-Black prejudice on therapists’ outcome expectancies. Journal of counseling psychology, 61(2), 299.

Kite, M. E., & Whitley Jr, B. E. (2016). Psychology of prejudice and discrimination.Psychology Press.

Kumar, R., Karabenick, S. A., &Burgoon, J. N. (2015).Teachers’ implicit attitudes, explicit beliefs, and the mediating role of respect and cultural responsibility on mastery and performance-focused instructional practices.Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 533.

Levy, S. R., & Macdonald, J. L. (2016).Progress on understanding ageism. Journal of Social Issues, 72(1), 5-25.

Mak, A. S., Brown, P. M., & Wadey, D. (2014). Contact and attitudes toward international students in Australia: Intergroup anxiety and intercultural communication emotions as mediators. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 45(3), 491-504.

Mak, A. S., Brown, P. M., &Wadey, D. (2014). Contact and attitudes toward international students in Australia: Intergroup anxiety and intercultural communication emotions as mediators. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 45(3), 491-504.

Nagata, K. K. (2014). The scale of attitudes towards disabled persons (SADP): Cross-cultural validation in a middle income Arab country, Jordan. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 3(4).

Paradies, Y., Truong, M., & Priest, N. (2014). A management review of the extent and measurement of healthcare provider racism. Journal of general internal medicine, 29(2), 364-387.

Paradies, Y., Truong, M., & Priest, N. (2014).A systematic review of the extent and measurement of healthcare provider racism. Journal of general internal medicine, 29(2), 364-387.

Rutland, A., & Killen, M. (2015). A developmental science approach to reducing prejudice and social exclusion: Intergroup processes, social?cognitive development, and moral reasoning. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), 121-154.

Seligman, M. E., &Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 279-298).Springer Netherlands.

Shiraev, E. B., Shiraev, E. B., & Levy, D. A. (2016). Cross-cultural psychology: Critical thinking and contemporary applications. Taylor & Francis.

Simpson, G. E., &Yinger, J. M. (2013). Racial and cultural minorities: An analysis of prejudice and discrimination. Springer Science & Business Media.

Thomas, D. C., & Peterson, M. F. (2017). Cross-cultural management: Essential concepts. Sage Publications.


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