The social changes being witness in Asian states are huge. They have been found to have significant changes on the health status of women in Indonesia, (Langer et aal., 2015) . Women in Indonesia are underrepresented in the labour work force in that according to 2015 data in reference with ILO report, indicates that labour force was 127.87 million, of which 46 million were for female while 75 million were dominated by men, while the participation rate was 62.6 % of which female gender utilised 50.22 % while men utilised 83.05 %, (Mee, 2015). Open unemployment rate in Indonesia has had more pouncing effect on the livelihoods of women. The gender dynamics remain to be entirely segregated in Indonesia living the larger proportion of women jobless. Data suggest that open employment rate is much higher than that of women.
These trends in employment and non employment have significant impact on the social capital changes which have significant impact on the mental and physical health of women in Indonesia, (Lee & Wie, 2015). ). Social capital has major impacts on the utilisation of health services am, long women in Indonesia. The different measure on social capital has been found to have an impact on the health measure being assessed, (Benach et al, 2014). The impact of social capital on the health status of the working category has had major shifts following major economic transformations encountered, (van der Noordt et al., 2014).
The wage levels of pay are found across several manufacturing industries in Indonesia especially in the textile, garment and footwear, cross sectional studies have found out that they offer low pay compared to other south East Asia countries, (Bartley & Eagels, 2015).
The social impacts on the health status affecting women in the labour market have pronouncedly discussed and documented. The article, ‘Effect of Gender and Social Capital on the Dual Burden of Malnutrition: A Multilevel Study in Indonesia, 2014’, examines the coexistence of overweight and underweight in low and middle income countries, Indonesia included. The study found out that in order to improve health and reduce inequality in socio economic groups, there is need to include women empowerment in the social capital.
The article ‘Dual Burden Households and Nutritional Inequality in Indonesia; published in 2012, outlines the double burden of the diseases and its role in overall health status of the population. The study views the social capital of the households and asses that the prevalence of duel burden of diseases hardly changes and the index is steadily rising, thus household inequality is rising within the households. In an aim of streamlining the labour indifference on women, regarding to employment in industrial places like the factories significant changes has to be made.
The article on, ‘how to do (or not to do)…….gender analysis in health systems research’ , (2016), on gender socially constructed roles, emphasis streamlining gender in the health systems research, through gender analysis and sex disaggregation supports power relations in health.
With this initiative the government of Indonesia came up with the policy of employment creation. Organisations such as the International Labour Organization is playing a key role in streamline the efforts of labour work force globally. It is a UN agency which specializes on the work place related issues.
Baud, I. and Smyth, I., 2014. Searching for security: women's responses to economic transformations. Routledge.
Christiani, Y., Byles, J., Tavener, M. and Dugdale, P., 2015. Socioeconomic related inequality in depression among young and middle-adult women in Indonesia? s major cities. Journal of affective disorders, 182, pp.76-81.
Kanbur, R., Rhee, C. and Zhuang, J., 2014. Inequality in Asia and the Pacific: Trends, drivers, and policy implications. Routledge.
Langer, A., Meleis, A., Knaul, F.M., Atun, R., Aran, M., Arreola-Ornelas, H., Bhutta, Z.A., Binagwaho, A., Bonita, R., Caglia, J.M. and Claeson, M., 2015. Women and Health: the key for sustainable development. The Lancet, 386(9999), pp.1165-1210.
Lee, J.W. and Wie, D., 2015. Technological change, skill demand, and wage inequality: Evidence from Indonesia. World Development, 67, pp.238-250.
Mee, W., 2015. Work and Cosmopolitanism at the Border: Indonesian Women Labour Migrants. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(12), pp.2041-2060.
Morgan, R., George, A., Ssali, S., Hawkins, K., Molyneux, S., & Theobald, S. (2016). How to do (or not to do)… gender analysis in health systems research. Health policy and planning, czw037.
Norström, F., Virtanen, P., Hammarström, A., Gustafsson, P. E., & Janlert, U. (2014). How does unemployment affect self-assessed health? A systematic review focusing on subgroup effects. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1310.
Roemling, C., & Qaim, M. (2012). Dual burden households and nutritional inequality in Indonesia (No. 13). GlobalFood Discussion Papers.
Vaezghasemi, M., Öhman, A., Eriksson, M., Hakimi, M., Weinehall, L., Kusnanto, H., & Ng, N. (2014). The effect of gender and social capital on the dual burden of malnutrition: a multilevel study in Indonesia. PloS one, 9(8), e103849.
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