Describe the literature review on current privacy challenges facing the ICT professional?
In the present western societies, there are many people who are employed in gathering, handling, as well as distributing the data than in any other field (Rupp and Smith 2004). There are millions of computers that inhabit the earth and there are many miles of optical fibers, wireless links for the people, computers and huge array of data that handle devices together (Rupp and Smith 2004). Present society is the true society of information system, as it’s the time of information age (Cornish 2004). The actual question before us is whether this type of society created is demanded by the people (Rupp and Smith 2004). It’s the question that needs to be mainly concern with those in the ICT community, as they are in forefront of creating a new society.
There are various challenges that are faced in the information age (Rupp and Smith 2004). These issues stem through the nature of the information (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). Information is considered as the means by which the minds are expanded and enhanced with the capacity for achieving the goals that often result through the input for others mind (Rupp and Smith 2004). Therefore, information creates the intellectual capital through which human beings tries to craft the lives and even supports in securing the dignity (Benjamin 1991).
Present Privacy Issues Faced by ICT Professional
What kind of information is needed for the purpose of divulge about oneself and in what kind of conditions (Haag and Donald 2003). Another question which is raised is that what kind of information needs to be completely kept to oneself? These are few questions that are concern with the privacy (Haag and Donald 2003). In present time, there are many cautious citizens that raise these questions (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). Privacy could be defined as the single life condition, which is characterized through exclusion through the publicity (Haag and Donald 2003). This concept follows from right to the left. Haag and Donald (2003) mentions that this kind of privacy perception set the course for passing the laws of privacy in USA for around 90 years (Haag and Donald 2003). As such it’s noted that privacy needs to be regarded as the natural right that offers the base for all kind of legal rights (Haag and Donald 2003).
The privacy right is therefore protected through the private law. The legal privacy right is constitutionally protected in many societies in democracy (Haag and Donald 2003). This kind of constitutional rights are expressed in various legislative forms (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). The example includes the USA privacy act of 1974; England data protection act and South Africa Open Democracy Act of 1996 (Haag and Donald 2003). In the year 1994, Australia has accepted the Privacy charter, which includes 18 principles of privacy that explains the right of citizen that concern with personal privacy, which is impacted through handling of information through the state (Haag and Donald 2003). It’s noted that organization for economic and development and coordination also accepts in 1980 about the guidelines related to the privacy protection and trans-border personal data flow (Haag and Donald 2003).
There are two forces, which create threat on the privacy, one of the increase in information technology through increasing the communication, retrieval, surveillance, storage, as well as computers (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). Another one relates to the insidious threat that enhances the information value in the process of decision making (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). Information is considered as increasingly valuable to the policy makers that also covert if acquiring invades the others privacy (Branscomb 1994).
The major concern for the ICT professionals is the data protection, data privacy and the safety (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). It’s noted that each day all over the world people are visiting the websites, which keep record of the information about them (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). It is most likely that in the next time, one can be in the library duty, and members of the public might visit the sites, which needs demand and registration that also passes over the personal details about ones before accessing it (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). It is also expected that there are many people that follow the little concept about rights under the law section and the same is used to which the data might be put (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). Therefore, it is significant that the staff in the public library need to be aware about the issues associated to the protection of data (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). Protection of data depicts the inherent tensions that lies among the rights of each individual towards keeping the information about themselves privately stored and the needs of the government and companies need to maintain the information about the individuals in order to facilitate the commerce as well as provision of services or try to prevent the crime (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006).
Privacy concerns are also related to the internet (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). From the survey with users, privacy over the internet has come out as the major concern (Haag and Donald 2003). Fears related to the misuse of the ICT professional personal information is referred as the issues for the net users and it is quite evident that supporting for the privacy laws is enacted in Australia (Haag and Donald 2003). Especially the cookie technology use that holds potential to disclose the information related to the unsuspecting the webs users is referred as the subject of criticism (Haag and Donald 2003). The question is that, why it’s important as well as desirable to stand on the shoulders of customers, when they try to access the websites; therefore, it’s a good idea to follow the instructions for them on what to do if the request of information on websites is made before the user’s access it (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006).
It is quite certain that not every site that needs the request for information about their visitors are good; rather it is significant that the customers should understand exactly what happens when one passes the details on internet (Haag and Donald 2003). There are very few people that will most likely to read about the lengthy information that are offered by the websites that states that what they will actually do with the data and even websites as football club needs that visitors should do the registrations before they are permitted to view the website material (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). The best idea is that to put the posters strategy that is packed around the area of computers in the library that includes the highlights about the issues of privacy (Haag and Donald 2003). There are certain points that need to be informed to the customers such as, personal data is valuable, and it should not be passed carelessly on any website (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006). If any website requires the information about them, before accessing, understand the reason behind it (Haag and Donald 2003). If the user feels that the request is of no reason, then they should complain about the site provider (10 ethical issues confronting IT managers 2006).
Along with privacy issues, ethical issues are another challenge for the OCT professionals (Haag and Donald 2003). The main ethical issues includes, deciding about category of personal as well as private information, which the professional is entitled to collect, and this is the main question for the professional (Haag and Donald 2003). Ethical issues also occur in case of confidential treatment of this kind of information (Haag and Donald 2003). These issues include specification about the information gained through the interview reference (Haag and Donald 2003). According to Haag and Donald (2003) the main issues of ethics in this context is can the personal information that is collected through the interview could be used for the purpose that is different from that which is mainly gathered; therefore, is it correct from ethical point of view to re-use that data for exploring the formulated strategy for one user for the other user, or it would be relevant to discuss about its nature related to particular query with other users (Haag and Donald 2003). The information accuracy issue might occur if the ICT professional is working over the user personal details that might directly create influence on person’s life, for example medical details.
It’s viewed from the above discussion that there are various privacy as well as ethical issues that affect the use of ICT along with the ICT professionals, working in IT and learning centers. It is important that staff require to be aware about all these issues even before assisting the customers, because the ignorance put in these areas is not actually the recipe for the poor service, and it cannot be potential costly for the It firms, as they are more liable for the legal breach.
Cornish, G. 2004. Copyright: interpreting the law for libraries, archives and information services, Fourth edn. London: Facet Publishing.
Rupp, W. T. and Smith, A. D. 2004. Exploring the Impacts of P2P Networks on the Entertainment Industry. Information Management & Computer Security, 12 (1), pp. 102–16.
Haag, M.C. and Donald, J.M. 2003. Security Privacy and Ethical issues, Hutchson Series for Computers, 4thEdition Information Systems for information Age. New York: McGraw Hill.
10 ethical issues confronting IT managers. 2006. [Online]. Available at: https://www.techrepublic.com/article/10-ethical-issues-confronting-it-managers/ [Accessed on: 21st March 2015].
Benjamin, L.M. 1991. Privacy, computers and personal information: Towards equality and equity in an information age. Communications and the Law, 13 (2), pp. 3-16.
Branscomb, A.W. 1994. Who Owns Information?: From Privacy to Private Access. New York: Basic Books. A division of Harper Collins Publishers.