Cyber bullying is an aggressive, intentional and repeated act carried out by an individual or by a group of people, who are using ICT (information and communication technology) as an instrument. In these cases victims are generally become unable to defend themselves or to terminate the act of bullying. Though cyber bullying is similar to traditional bullying to some extent, still power imbalance and repetition are not much easy to define in the case of cyber bullying. For example, once an embarrassing picture is uploaded, that can be viewed repeatedly, which can create a long humiliation.
Previous author developed existing literature to examine the impact and incidents of cyber bullying. In this scenario out of 12 items or research 4 items are pertained to the frequency of threatening SMS, emails via internet. Participants have responded on the same on a five point scale with the attributes of “once in a month”, “nearly every week”, “every few weeks”, “twice”, “only once” and “never”. Students are asked four questions, based on which the frequency was determined, whether they have sent any threatening message to any other students at their school in form of email, SMS, images via internet or mobile phones (Sakellariou, Carroll and Houghton, 2012). There were also asked questions are determined to the students who got threats in school days via mail, SMS or picture. They were provided four scale questions, such as- “I did not received threatening mail/ SMS/ picture/ chat line messages”; they are asked, whether they are “very upset”, “Fairly upset” and “little upset”; again one more questions was asked to students that how hurtful it was to receive such threats based on six point scale, such as, “I have not receive any threats/hurt regarding text/email image/ internet /message chatline”, “I am unable to compare”, “more threatening than face-to-face bullying”, “it is more or less same upsetting as face-to-face bullying”, “it was not upsetting at all”. The internal reliability was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha. As a very good reliability the overall alpha reading came up with .86, where range was .83 to .91 (Sakellariou, Carroll and Houghton, 2012).
Depending upon the assessed information, occurrence rate of cyber victimization and cyber bullying vary strongly. The definition of cyber bullying and the instrument on which assessment is conducted, the gender of the participants in the assessment, investigated age group, mobile phone and internet usage rate of the participants and issues faced by the participants (Rigby, 2007).
General statements about the occurrence of cyber bullying from the participants is a bit difficult to segregate the data as the use of information and communication technology become so intense and common since few years. The havoc use of mobile phones, instant messaging using internet increased the cyber bullying in so many forms as a most frequently used media for cyber bullying. With this research, it is found that the one-third students have experienced the cyber bullying (Barlett and Coyne, 2014).
Considering the age trend, it is reported that those who threats and the victim, both are more likely to increase form the range of 10 to 6 years. When it comes in the case of gender differences, it is reported that there is no gender differences and some findings conclude that girls to be victims and some time they become the perpetrator or the person behind the cyber bullying, there is also finding on boys, that shows more involvement in cyber victimization and cyber bullying (Benders, n.d.).
Cyber victimization comes up as a result of cyber bullying, where the victims are unable to defend themselves even experience such a situation, where they become helpless. According to this article 87% of the students accessed internet along with chat lines and 77.3% reported access to email, 89.9% student are using mobile telephone. It was also concluded that internet become the most common medium of cyber bullying. While 11.5% of participants experienced during their school years (Besag, 2010).
Now a day technology has made way accessible to the whole world in terms of possibilities to the students. Students now have all the access to gather data with at their finger tips. The possibilities for socializing and learning become endless and also the possibilities to harm the others become huge (Morrow and Downey, 2013). Though cyber bullying is similar to traditional bullying to some extent, still it is difficult when an embarrassing picture is uploaded, that can be viewed repeatedly, which can create a long humiliation. Strict rules are needed to be imposed in order to circulate the message throughout the school premises that the bullying behavior will not be accepted and can have consequences. In this scenario, Students and parents are also need to be part of the solution (Tettegah and Hunter, 2006). Students are needed to be advised that they should open up their problems to their parents. Students should learn the safe practice of internet and mobile phones. Even bullied students can advise younger students or less experienced to have safe practices on internet (US public-private partnership for cyber-security, 2010). Students who are new to the internet and mobile phones, they should have a manual form their school premises to have safe internet experience (Carpenter and Ferguson, 2009).
This Research took place to investigate the impact of engaging the cyber bullying. As per the internet-enhanced self-disclosure hypothesis online communication result in a deep intimate self-disclosure. Today’s havoc use of online communication no doubt has great impact while enhancing the quality of existing relationship, which in turn endorses the well being. The downside comes up when students provide their personal data and they make themselves vulnerable to experience cyber bullying (Cesaroni, Downing and Alvi, 2012).
Impacts of cyber bullying are of different forms. Impacts are moderated by the factors such as Social integration, effectiveness of the way to cope up with the adopted strategies, self blaming attribute or social acceptance. As a whole, cyber bullying is correlated with the psychosocial fact. Studies are directly getting affected with impact of the cyber bullying (McQuade, Colt and Meyer, 2009).
There are such cases where victims of cyber bullying experiences power imbalance. As the interactions based on technology can take place any time, victims become helpless if their threats remain anonymous even there is no other option to escape from the cyber bullying (von Marees and Petermann, 2012). From the aspect of distinguishing the cyber bulling, it can be said ambiguous, as the cyber bullies are hidden behind their cell or computer screen and physically far away. The fact of distance makes the cyber bullies able to remain hidden and to aggress against their victims (Cyber-security, 2014).
In the second article it was found that some concluded thoughts of different researchers, which will expand my analysis for a better understanding.
In 2009, Katzer, Belschak and Fetchenhauer indentified a strong connection between conventional victimization between the cyber victimization and school. In schools cyber victims are generally victim of chat room bullying.
In 2011, Hinduja and Patchin made it evident that those students, who have experienced negative emotions and stress full life events are more in numbers of those who participate in cyber bullying.
In 2012, a finding by Kowalski supports the correlation between the youth and the cyber bullying. In this scenario, he stated the fact that if the youth keep involving to the traditional bullying at the school level, then the risk is greater to be involved in the cyber bullying (von Marees and Petermann, 2012).
With above discussion of two articles it is needed for the administration and teachers to be aware that it needs to take care seriously irrespective of the place of occurrence of bullying. Wherever bullying occurs, such as school bus, play ground, bathroom or the so called use of internet and mobile phones, teachers and administration need to accentuate that it is not tattling. Students and parents are also need to be part of the solution (Mark and Ratliffe, 2011). Students are needed to be advised that they should open up their problems to their parents. Students should learn the safe practice of internet and mobile phones (ì´ìˆ˜ê²½ and Insoo Oh, 2012). Even bullied students can advise younger students or less experienced to have safe practices on internet (Unger, 2011). Students who are new to the internet and mobile phones, they should have a manual form their school premises to have safe internet experience. Strict rules are needed to be imposed in order to circulate the message throughout the school premises that the bullying behavior will not be accepted and can have consequences (Editorial: Cyber-bullying versus online privacy, 2007).
Today’s havoc use of online communication no doubt has great impact while enhancing the quality of existing relationship, which in turn endorses the well being. The downside comes up when students provide their personal data and they make themselves vulnerable to experience cyber bullying. Strict rules are needed to be imposed in order to circulate the message throughout the school premises that the bullying behavior will not be accepted and can have consequences. In this scenario, Students and parents are also need to be part of the solution. Students are needed to be advised that they should open up their problems to their parents. Students should learn the safe practice of internet and mobile phones.
Barlett, C. and Coyne, S. (2014). A meta-analysis of sex differences in cyber-bullying behavior: The moderating role of age. Aggressive Behavior, 40(5), pp.474-488.
Benders, D. (n.d.). School Climate and Cyber-Bullying. SSRN Journal.
Besag, V. (2010). Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 15(2), pp.127-127.
Carpenter, D. and Ferguson, C. (2009). The everything parent's guide to dealing with bullies. Avon, Mass.: Adams Media.
Cesaroni, C., Downing, S. and Alvi, S. (2012). Bullying Enters the 21st Century? Turning a Critical Eye to Cyber-bullying Research. Youth Justice, 12(3), pp.199-211.
Cyber-security. (2014). Network Security, 2014(1), p.4.
Editorial: Cyber-bullying versus online privacy. (2007). New Scientist, 195(2613), p.5.
Mark, L. and Ratliffe, K. (2011). Cyber Worlds: New Playgrounds for Bullying. Computers in the Schools, 28(2), pp.92-116.
McQuade, S., Colt, J. and Meyer, N. (2009). Cyber bullying. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers.
Morrow, A. and Downey, C. (2013). Perceptions of adolescent bullying: Attributions of blame and responsibility in cases of cyber-bullying. Scand J Psychol, 54(6), pp.536-540.
Rigby, K. (2007). Bullying in schools and what to do about it. Camberwell, Vic.: ACER.
Sakellariou, T., Carroll, A. and Houghton, S. (2012). Rates of cyber victimization and bullying among male Australian primary and high school students. School Psychology International, 33(5), pp.533-549.
Tettegah, S. and Hunter, R. (2006). Technology and education. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.
Unger, W. (2011). Cyber Security. Strategie und Sicherheit, 2011(1).
US public-private partnership for cyber-security. (2010). Network Security, 2010(12), p.20.
von Marees, N. and Petermann, F. (2012). Cyberbullying: An increasing challenge for schools. School Psychology International, 33(5), pp.467-476.
ìÂ´ìˆ˜ê²½, and Insoo Oh, (2012). Comparative Analysis of Factors Influencing on Off-line Bullying and Cyber-bullying. Asian Journal of Education, 13(2), pp.137-161.
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