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Data Collection And Data Analysis
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The small business organizations need to have adoption of the cloud computing practices to a significant level. With the adoption of cloud computing practices the small business organizations need to have consideration of some specific points that can even hinder the process of adoption and can support the adoption process. There are three kinds of factors that affect the process of cloud computing in this business. In this relation, the data collection in this chapter is done to explore various kinds of technological, organizational and environmental factors that affect the process of adoption of cloud computing for small business organizations. The data collected is also analyzed in order to determine which of the factors are more crucial and supportive for the cloud computing practices in the small business organization. For such purpose some direct quotes have been extracted that reflect the factors that affect the cloud computing process in the small business organizations. The analysis of each of the quote is done in terms of their specification and their positive and negative role towards adoption of cloud computing process.
Trial Ability of Cloud Services
Quote- “Disaster recovery for a small business does not have to entail a complex set of data replication services and high availability servers (Although those are important for larger midsize and enterprise businesses)” (Sullivan, 2009, p. 52).
The presented quote is the verbal description of the utility of cloud services for different IT professionals. With the help of this quote, Sullivan (2009) has tried to elaborate that Cloud Computing can be illustrated as the measure through which, different IT professionals working in the field can not only deal with their job related issues, but they can also help their concerning organizations to have effective IT data security. For example, data manipulation and hacking can be understood as one of the major issues faced by IT professionals. Owing to the unauthorized access of the data, there is a need of having effective responsive measure. In this regard, cloud computing can be understood as one of the most crucial and effective measures undertaken by professional for the purpose of keeping their data safe and confidential.
For Small sized business organization, this trial ability of cloud services can be proved quite crucial and helpful phenomena as it directly helps the business organizations to formulate distinct and well-informed strategies. In addition to this, effective storage of data on cloud services will be helpful for the company to take effective decisions, which can be considered quite crucial from the strategic perspective. In context to this, the lack of the effective cloud computing harms the validity and viability of the business decisions of the management. The lack of confidentiality within the business processes due to improper management of Cloud services can be proved quite critical and harmful for the business organizations in the long term as it can lead to disturb the competitive advantage of the business organization.
Quote- “Cloud Computing offers these small companies unique opportunity to lower their application development costs, reduce their development and time to market, extend the service offerings of other vendors and create new and novel solutions to customers” (Mahmood, & Hill, 2011, pp. 53).
Cloud computing is very beneficial for the small business because of its efficiency in the operations of the business. The cloud computing technology is effective for those small businesses who have very limited or inadequate resources and ineffective and limited resources and activities for conducting research and development and marketing activities for the development of the business (Mahmood, & Hill, 2011). For example cloud computing offers new solutions to the business to expand and target new market, provides new innovations to the customers and also it requires low cost of development and maintenance. The installation of cloud computing in the operation of small business helps the SME’s in saving the extra cost which are associated with the installation of new technologies. The extra costs are related to the purchasing of software, licensing and many more (Mahmood, & Hill, 2011). This feature is effective in generating high revenue in the SME’s.
Existing IT infrastructure
Quote- “Small business should be the first widespread adopters because of cost-saving measures. There organizational needs for occasional computing power, storage and services make the web applications ideal” (Shelly, & Vermaat, 2010, p. 484)
The above-mentioned line depicts that the current business environment is such where there are limited and scarce resources for producing goods and services. In such a business environment, various businesses opt for various ways for producing goods and services. The IT business mainly conducts its business through technological innovation, and works efficiently (Shelly and Vermaat, 2010). For the business to adopt cloud computing, it is necessary that the concerned business should be compatible enough for incorporating this technique, which leads to efficiency and innovation in the IT field. For example, a business that is interested in introducing the cloud computing technique in its operations should possess the compatibility with the new technique so that it is applied easily and smoothly in the business operations.
The main advantage of introducing the cloud computing technique in the business organization is that it is helpful in the technical advancement of the organization, which leads to efficiency in producing goods and services through limited and scarce resources. It helps in achieving cost efficiency, as by introducing this technique, companies can save on licensing fees and overhead charges, such as the cost of data storage, software updates can be eliminated. Moreover, public clouds help to provide services that are accessible from wherever the end user might be located.
The main disadvantage that can arise due to cloud computing is that small businesses, which cannot afford high-speed Internet connection, might come across certain problems. It also takes some time for the cloud to detect and identify a server fault and launch a new instance from an image snapshot. Another disadvantage offered by this technique is that it increases the vulnerability related to privacy and security issues.
Quote- “For small business, cloud computing can be a saving and reliability factors for relying on these technologies” (Aljawarneh, & Shadi, 2012).
As mentioned in the quote, cloud computing is a very effective technology for the small business as it provides different new features to the business with the installation of new technology. The cloud computing provides services at a low cost along with the technical assistance (Aljawarneh, & Shadi, 2012). For instance, cloud computing does not require any additional investment of the small business in infrastructure and hiring more IT professionals as it is compatible with the existing IT infrastructure. The major disadvantage of cloud computing over the existing IT infrastructure is related to the security which may be both from the external sources and internal sources as well. In the same manner, the other issue is related to the maintenance of the hardware which are used in the cloud computing (Aljawarneh, & Shadi, 2012). Both of these issues require the special attention of the experienced and skilled IT professionals.
Quote- “For Small and medium size enterprises, Cloud computing is very attractive. It offers scalability to cope with temporal high server loads” (Krcmar, Reussner & Rumpe, 2014, p. 177).
The above-mentioned quote of Christina reflects that the new technological initiative can lead to harm the confidentiality of the data. In this regard, the author has also reflected that automation of the data is not a reliable phenomenon. Moreover, it is also not necessary to have positive outcomes from the new technology. In this regard, it can be considered that cloud-computing regimes can also be affected by the confidentiality of data.
Quote- “Cloud computing vendors run very reliable networks. Often, cloud data is load-balanced between virtual systems and replicated between sites. However, even cloud provider expertise outages” (Sosinsky, 2010, pp. 29).
As per the views of the author in this quote, the providers of the cloud computing are also trying to manage the issue related to the load balancing in the cloud computing. The privacy of data is a very common and concerned issue for the companies who are using the services of cloud computing and also for the vendors who are providing the service of cloud computing (Sosinsky, 2010). According to the various concepts and discussions, there are different software and security measures which can be used by the organizations and vendors of cloud computing to solve issue related to the privacy of data on the cloud. For example, the measures are; the use of encryption of data which is transferred over the cloud which can be done by using the private key and the public key, installation of firewalls, storage of data at the secured systems, VLAn’s and many more (Sosinsky, 2010).
Quote- “SMEs appreciate the communication and interactions they share with customers since it increases customer satisfaction and better customer relationships, minimal maintenance cost and time, access to industry knowledge and experts, scalability and business continuity through data backups and disaster recovery as other key drivers of cloud computing adoption.” (Yeboah-Boateng, & Essandoh, 2014, pp. 16).
It is the activities that perform to regain the position of the company as it was before the disaster. It is performed to recover the functions of the organizations by applying the data recovery process. It is one of the major concerns of the users of cloud computing services. In traditional method at the time storing data the users are completely aware about its location and thus they can easily access it (Yeboah-Boateng, & Essandoh, 2014, pp. 16). In cloud computing the exchange of data takes laces in the virtual memory. Although it is the responsibility of the organization to keep the information at cloud but still in case of any failure organizations can perform recovery process to regain the original data.
The Disaster Recovery factor of TOE framework improves the adoption of cloud computing in small business as organizations can prepare a proper plan in case of any unknown disaster of data. The possibility of losing any personal or private data stored at cloud computing servers is high therefore it is very important for any organizations to prepare a backup or assets for data recovery by implementing various recovery processes. The process of adopting disaster recovery process is not only to duplicate the data servers but also to duplicate the complete configuration of the network such that the recovery can be preferred as quickly as possible. Disaster recovery plans can be applied from any location in order to recover the spoilt assets.
The only disadvantages of using disaster recover is that in case the recovery plans do not work properly then it can lead towards more problems. In addition to this, performing disaster recover is time consuming and it requires additional secondary sources (Yeboah-Boateng, & Essandoh, 2014, pp. 16). For example in case of urgent requirement of any lost data at the competitive edge and the organization do not properly implement the disaster recovery plans then it can affect their market positions and the relations with their customers.
Quote- “It is important to realize that disaster recovery planning isn’t just for large businesses. In fact, disasters such as fire or computer malfunction can cause a small company to go out of business if its data is not backed up” (Morley, 2014, pp. 200).
The author of this quote wants to explain that the small business organizations need to identify the ways which can be used by them at the time of disasters. There is a need to have a plan for any kind of disaster which may occur in the organization because of the use of cloud computing as this may occur in any kind of organization whether it is large or small (Morley, 2014).The disaster recovery plan should include all the required information for the implementation of plan in an effective manner. For example, there should be mentioned who is responsible for handling the recovery plan and the devices which can be used at the time of recovery. The devices may be computer devices, mobile devices and many more (Morley, 2014). There is a need of using the device which can be used to back up the data which is available on the cloud computing devices so that the business can be saved from the loss.
Top Management Support and Involvement
Quote- “GOOEMP (Good Employee) is the explicit interpretation of one’s understanding of a situation or merely one’s idea about that situation” (Yeboah-Boateng, E.O., & Essandoh, K.A. 2014, pp. 15).
The above-mentioned quote reflects some crucial roles and responsibilities played by the top-level management in finding the long term and the most feasible solution of the issues faced by the business organization. In regard to this, from the perspective of the quote, it can be reflected the GOOEMP is the measure adopted by the organization to have intensive amount of information and data regarding individual’s perspectives regarding a specific and complex situation. For example, in order to address high degree of competition prevailing within the external marketplace, the business organization is required to undertake some crucial decisions in the long term. For these decisions, there is a need of effective and intensive amount of data and information from the ground level employees. However, for the purpose of using this information, the top level management is required to sort and analyze such information and set some specific assumptions regarding the existing trend of the marketplace. On the basis of such assumption, management can be able to reach on a specific decision regarding competitive direction of the organization. In this regard, with the help of this quote the authors have reflected that top-level management involvement leads to change one’s individual perception into the collective decisions in the favor of the organization in the long run.
The effective involvement of top-level management in decision-making process makes the decision related to adoption of cloud technology strategic. From the perspective of effective and universal applicability of a decision or a new technology within operational framework of the business organization, it is essential for the top-level management to have direct intervention in the decision-making regimes. Effective and explicit involvement of top-level management of the organization will be proved quite crucial for the long-term sustainability of the cloud services and technologies within organizational structure of the company. In contrast to this, in the absence of noticeable amount of concentration of top-level management on clouding related decisions restricts the span of clouding within the organizational becomes quite restricted which sometimes affects the quality and viability of strategic decisions undertaken by a business organization.
Quote- “Organizations need to define standards and workflow for authorizations. A strategy for the consumption and management of cloud services, including how the organization will deal with the semantic management, security and transactions need to be created” (Zhu, R., et al, 2010, pp. 253).
This quote describes that the support and involvement of top management regarding the implementation of cloud computing is very important and crucial as along with the support of top management, the support of all the employees is also required before the implementation of new technology in the SME’s (Zhu, et al, 2010). The implementation of cloud computing in the SME’s is beneficial for the organization as it will bring the efficiency in the operations and will also increase the efficiency of the employees. Before implementing the cloud computing, the top management needs to decide on different options. For example the decision needs to be taken regarding the maintenance of the new technology in the organization itself, or to buy it from the vendors as a service (Zhu, et al, 2010). The services provided by the cloud computing helps in bringing innovation in the employees which enhances their performance.
Resistance towards New Technologies
Quote- “Small firms are adaptable to change compared to large firms and are noted for adopting cloud services. Tan identifies cost, competence, employee resistance and organizational culture as key elements of an organization’s
technological readiness towards adoption.” (Yeboah-Boateng, E.O., & Essandoh, K.A. 2014, pp. 15).
With the help of above-mentioned quote, Kishor has explored the issue related to the resistance shown by employees towards the technology change shown by employees. With the help of the quote presented it can be reflected that for the purpose of having proper functioning of IT tools and techniques and taking intensive advantages, it is essential for the company to minimise the overall resistance and unwillingness of the employees regarding the adoption of the new technologies. The impression of this quote can be revealed in the context of the new and effective technologies, such as cloud computing. From the structural level, the perspective of clouding of technologies and equipment’s is quire complex, which sometimes presents issues in front of the employees as well as customers. In this regard, due to the complexities of the clouding services it becomes quite critical to be adopted. This dilemma can also be reflected with the help of the example of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which states that a technology can be implemented in the conditions when the perceived usefulness of the technologies, as well as, lack of high degree of complexities exists with the technologies. If the technology is quite complex to be used, it will be proved quite hard for the user to adopt the technologies.
In the context of the growth of small business organizations, it can be generalised that the less complicated structure of the cloud computing can be considered as one of the major requirements for the adoption of this technology. In this regard, it can be reflected that lack of the resistance shown by the employees helps the management to implement this technological measure in the most effective manner. Along with this, positive approach followed by the employees towards clouding services will enable them use such services and technologies in the most effective and efficient manner, so that adequate advantages of clouding services can be availed. In this way, it can be reflected that from the perspective of making the small business more lucrative and growth oriented, it is essential for the business organizations to make the perception of people within the organization positive towards cloud computing.
In contrast to this, this organisational factor (i.e. resistance to change) can also be perceived as one of the major aspects that can also inhibit the growth of business organizations. In regard to this, the high degree of resistance shown by employees of the business organizations can lead to harm the effectiveness of the new technology implemented within the operational framework of the company. An unwilling person cannot adopt or use any new technology in the most efficient manner and resistance shows the unwillingness of employees towards any change within organizational setting. Implementation of cloud services in the operations of the company can be considered as one of the strategic changes within organization, which can directly affect the decision-making regimes, planning, and operations of the company in the long run. The lack of desired support from the side of the employees harms the effectiveness of the business operations of the company. In this way, it can be revealed that high degree of resistance prevailing in the organization can lead to inhibit the growth of the organization in the long run.
Quote- “A small business can become more productive by using end user computing technology. However, deploying, managing, and supporting end user computing can be a complex undertaking for a small business” (Wang, & Wang, 2014, pp. 20).
In this quote, the authors want to depict that the small business organizations face different challenges for bringing a new technology in their system. It is the human nature that they resist any kind of changes in their working environment without knowing its advantage to them and their efficiency and productivity in the organizations. For example, the implementation of cloud computing in the small business organization brings the flexibility, productivity, mobility and many more to the employees. Despite of all these benefits, there is a resistance to change among the employees (Wang, & Wang, 2014). This resistance can cause a great loss to the organization. For this purpose the management of the SME’s need to analyze the situation at the organization, culture of the employees and possible challenges that may occur in the organization because of the change. The management needs to overcome all these issues for the implementation of cloud computing in an effective manner.
Quote- “I have no recollection of me putting that on the machine... i still have no recollection of entering that onto the computer... I’m well aware that that’s how an audit trail works... there’s no argument about that (Heathcote, 2004, pp. 242)”.
The presented quote of Heathcote (2004) has presented that there cloud computing can also be affected due to the cost structure of the organization. The operational cost of the organizations can be considered as one of the basic perspectives that define the strategic dimensions of the business organisation. In regard to this, it can be considered that all the measures that can lead to reduce the operational cost of the organization can be proved effective from the perspective of the growth of the organization. In regard to this, with the help of the quote, the author wants to explore that implication of cloud services can lead to reduce the cost of the operations of the company as cloud computing reduces the cost implied in the communication infrastructure of the company. In addition to this, the cloud computing also enhances the decision-making capabilities of the organization, which allows the management to take quick and effective decisions in the long run. This also allows the company to reduce opportunity cost in the operations. In this way, it can be considered that low operational cost will be proved as one of the major organizational factors that induce the small business organizations to take some effective and efficient decisions in the most effective manner.
From the perspective of the long-term growth of the small business organisations, it is essential for the management to have proper care of its financial resources. The shortage of final resources can also be considered as one of the major constraints in front of the business organization operating in small sectors. In this regard, effective deployment of the resources in a new technology can be proved as a critical and risky phenomenon. The requirement of the heavy investment of funds in the new technology can be proved as the factor that leads to affect the adoption of cloud computing by small-scale business organizations in the long run. In regard to this, the reduction in the implementation cost for cloud computing can be proved as a promoting factors for cloud services in the business world.
In contrast to this, highly expensive and cost occurring techniques for the cloud services can make the small scale business organizations unable to have effective infrastructure for the cloud computing. This will also restrict the organization to have effective cloud services and its advantages. This will lead to inhibit the growth of the company in the long run.
Quote- “Cloud computing can creatively empower traditional businesses. The current economic climate is encouraging the IT departments to evaluate cloud computing as a clear path to cost reduction” (Shen, & Yushi, 2013, pp. 20).
With this quote, the authors, Shen and Yushi have explained that cloud computing has helped the small business organizations in investing less cost to the information technology activities. Cloud computing offers services at a very cheaper rate and on the basis of real time to the SME’s which are using the services of cloud computing (Shen, & Yushi, 2013). For example, cloud computing has changed the way in which the various applications were used to designed and implemented in the organizations and also it requires less cost for its development and implementation. The implementation of cloud computing in the SME’s helps in reducing the operating cost which is required in performing the operational activities at the organizations. Along with this, the cloud computing requires a very simple technology which does not require the involvement of any high cost and thus it saves the extra cost of the company (Shen, & Yushi, 2013).
Quote- “A business grows in economic performance and economic results.” (Swaim, 2011, pp.7)
The following line depicts that a business will flourish when its economic performance is better than its competitors, which means that the cost of production should be low as compared to its competitors and at the same time the level of production should be high compared to other players in the market.
The level of investment activity also determines the growth of the business, as efficient utilisation of resources shall take place, which means using the scarce resources by using efficient production skills. All these factors lead to efficient environment formation as consumers, producers and other stakeholders of the small business form part of the environment that is directly affected by the business growth of the small business. For example Google back up functions on the basis of cloud computing which gives a competitive advantage to company as by using this technology of virtual memory it gains an edge over above its competitors.
Various benefits involved of cloud computing in the field of competiveness is that since it is a source of virtual memory that is why it offers more and more competition in the small business which is beneficial to the customers as competition tends to lowers the cost of the technology and thus consumers have easy accessibility to it (Harding, 2011). Another benefit offered by cloud computing is that when a company wants to launch a new business then the speed offered by cloud computing provides a competitive advantage to the company over others. Thus it is a kind of additional licence for the small business to gain competitive advantage.
Regarding the drawbacks of cloud computing from the competitiveness perspective it has been seen that although it helps the business to grow but still there are some issues like subscription expenses which form an explicit part of the business but limits its accessibility for the small businesses due to limited capital accessibility. It was also seen that due to outsourcing of major part of IT support, business at times tend to lose IT competencies.
Quote- “Small businesses (companies with fewer than 100 employees) and midsize players (companies with 100 to 1,000 employees) stand to gain much from the promise of cloud computing technologies” (Knox, Agnew, & Mccarthy, 2014, pp. 152).
As per this quote, the cloud computing is a technology which allows the small and medium sized business enterprises to gain competitiveness in the market by employing different features. The SME’s can have access to different kinds of effective resources which are unswerving and scalable for these organizations. For example, the effective services are; computing, interaction among the employees, customers and vendors, storage and many more (Knox, Agnew, & Mccarthy, 2014). In addition to this, cloud computing increases the capabilities of the SME’s in the IT field. The involvement of cloud computing techniques in the organizations increases the productivity of the employees, enhances the manufacturing activities which ultimately help the SME’s in becoming competitive in the international economy (Knox, Agnew, & Mccarthy, 2014). Despite of all these benefits, the major disadvantage which occurs because of the deployment of cloud computing is that the labors lose their jobs because of the involvement of the technology.
Quote- “These define various laws that govern the operation and activities of the company. They affect the demand of the products and cost of production to a great extent. Various laws covered may include consumer law, employment laws, internal relations law, health and safety laws (becomes very important for industries such as mining, petroleum, chemical), etc.” (Mohapatra & Lokhande, 2014, pp. 3).
Every organization follows some laws and rules for their proper functioning. These laws have huge impact on the demand of the product and production cost. There are many sections of laws like consumer law, employment laws, internal relations law, and health and safety laws. All these laws are important and significant for the organization. Adaptation of cloud computing by any organizations is greatly affected by the laws (Mohapatra & Lokhande, 2014). The laws related to privacy of data and authority laws have increased nowadays. Although it is difficult to follow the laws of cloud computing but still the organizations have to properly and carefully obey these laws. For example the laws of what make up the laws of export of data are complicated to be implemented and followed.
Before implementing the cloud computing, the organizations must take legal guidance of all the aspects, as it will help them to follow these rules. Mainly for industries like heath care or financial sector, or the sector that consists of personal information must focus on these laws. These laws will be beneficial for the organizations that want to maintain the privacy of data (Speed, 2011). Sometimes organizations prefer the service provide of clod that provide services to a certain geographical region. In many circumstances it can lead to many issues like in case of nay problem occurring cloud then what will happen, what incase the customers wan to perform the exchange with foreign companies, who will b responsible for any damage of data in cloud. Legal factors deal with the concepts of data jurisdictions, data confidentiality and security risks of data stored at cloud. These legal laws also help the customers to trust the organization for the security and privacy of data. Thus it is important for organization to study the impact of the legal aspects of the cloud computing.
Quote- “Public policy issues in cloud computing deal with the need for increased privacy in a cloud environment where data is subject to trans border data flows and storage and/or archival in other jurisdiction” (Pour, & Mehdi, 2013, pp. 166).
This quote depicts that there are various rules and regulations and legal requirements which are need to be fulfilled by the SME’s regarding the implementation and use of cloud computing technology. The organizations need to be compiled with the rules regarding the privacy of data which is shared over the cloud which is accessed by different levels of employees at the organizations. The privacy of data can be breached easily because data is shared on different servers and it is very difficult to employ a fixed process for transferring and tracking of data (Pour, & Mehdi, 2013). The other requirement is related to the jurisdiction of the location where the data travels. For example, Google follows the requirement according to the Federal Information Security Management Act which states that the users of Google cloud need to specify the location where data moves and the location where the data of Google Apps is stored.
Collaboration with partners
Quote- “It is a formal relationship that involves exchanging information, altering activities, sharing resources, and enhancing the capacity of another organisations for mutual benefit and to achieve a common purpose. There are substantial time commitment, very high level of trust, and extensive area of common turf. There is also full sharing of resources, risks, rewards and responsibilities (Horton, Prain & Thiele, 2009, pp. 18)”.
From the above quote, the author wants to reflect that there are different aspects of the formal relationship with the suppliers of the new technology, which can also affect the sharing and effective usage of resources. For the purpose of adopting effective technologies such as cloud computing, there is a need of having relationship with suppliers of such technologies. If there is a formal and positive relation with suppliers, the company can also implement the technology in the most efficient manner.
From the perspective of growth of the small businesses, positive relation with external suppliers of technologies is quite essential, as it will help the organization to have long-term benefits. This can be proved quite essential for the company to make long-term relationship with suppliers. In contrast to this, the absence of the positive relationship with suppliers can harm the ability of the company to have required technologies at required cost and time. This can directly results into the inhibition of the sustainable growth and long-term success of the business organization.
Quote- “Although cloud computing is not without concerns around security, stability and data ownership, at its best it allows businesses to unshackle day-to-day operations from the local data centre” (Vagadia, 2011, pp. 32).
In this quote, the author wants to explain that the services provided by the cloud computing technology do not require any special kind of software, so, the small business organizations need to purchase any new software and implement them for availing the services of cloud computing. Along with this, the cloud computing technology needs not to employ any kind of physical or tangible infrastructure. For example, the small business organizations do not require servers for the transfer of files and e-mails and also it does not require any kind of special storage systems (Vagadia, 2011). The cloud computing technology consists of browser and it is available anytime and anywhere. This feature along with the availability of effective browsers, the businesses can easily make collaboration with different business partners and with employs who are working in different departments in all around the world. These features help in enhancing the capabilities and performance of the business.
Aljawarneh, & Shadi. (2012). Cloud Computing Advancements in Design, Implementation, and Technologies. IGI Global. Pp. 114.
Knox, P., Agnew, J. A., & Mccarthy, L. (2014). The Geography of the World Economy 6th ed. London: Routledge. Pp. 152.
Krcmar, H., Reussner, R. & Rumpe, B. (2014). Trusted Cloud Computing. Springer.
Mahmood, Z., & Hill, R. (2011). Cloud Computing for Enterprise Architectures. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. Pp. 53.
Morley, D. (2014). Understanding Computers in a Changing Society 6th ed. London: Cengage Learning.
Pour, K., & Mehdi. (2013). Managing Information Resources and Technology: Emerging Applications and Theories: Emerging Applications and Theories. IGI Global.
Shelly, G., & Vermaat, M. (2010). Discovering Computers - Fundamentals 2011 Edition. (7th ed.). Cengage Learning. Pp. 484.
Shen., & Yushi. (2013). Enabling the New Era of Cloud Computing: Data Security, Transfer, and Management: Data Security, Transfer, and Management Advances in Systems Analysis, Software Engineering, and High Performance Computing. IGI Global. Pp. 20.
Sosinsky, B. (2010). Cloud Computing Bible. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Sullivan, D. (2009). The Shortcut Guide to Availability, Continuity, and Disaster Recovery. Realtimepublishers.com.
Vagadia, B. (2011). Strategic Outsourcing: The Alchemy to Business Transformation in a Globally Converged World. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.
Wang, S., & Wang, H. (2014). Information Technology for Small Business: A Comprehensive Guide of Applications of End User Computing, Social Media, Cloud Computing, and Open Source Software to Business Process, Decision Making, and Outreaching for Students in Business Programs and Small Business Owners. Universal-Publishers. Pp. 20.
Yeboah-Boateng, E.O., & Essandoh, K.A. 2014. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Computing by Small and Medium Enterprises in Developing Economies. International Journal of Emerging Science and Engineering (IJESE), 2(4).
Zhu, R., et al. (2010). Information Computing and Applications. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. Pp. 253-256.
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