Since ages, racism has been a topic of prior concern and debate. Certain ethnic groups of the society have been facing racism from a long period of time. Racism basically is the belief of supremacy of one race over another one. This leads to creation of undue differentiation, injustice and prejudice to the lower or minor considered parts of the society. This project emphasizes on the subject of sociology, its concepts and benefits and how it helps in studying about the concepts of social relationships of humans. The research on racism has been given focus to in the project, where the historical as well the historical and the modern concepts have been included, instances of racism from the past have been provided and the laws against racism and anti-racism activities have been highlighted as well.
The study of institutions and human social relationships is known as sociology (Carr, Edward Hallett, 2018). The subject matter of sociology is diverse, which ranges from religion to crime, from state to family, from divisions of social class and race to the common culture’s shared beliefs, and from radical changes in the entire society to social stability. The unification of the study of such subjects of research is the purpose of understanding of sociology which focuses on analyzing how both consciousness and human actions are brought to shape by the surrounding social and cultural structures. It is an illuminating and exciting field of research and study that helps in analyzing and explaining the crucial matters of the personal lives, the world and the communities within which people reside. Sociology helps in investigating various aspect at the personal level (Sullivan, Michael, 2018). These include the social consequences and causes of things like gender and racial identity, romantic love, family conflicts, aging, abnormal behavior and religious faith and beliefs of people (Sullivan, Michael, 2018). At the level of the society, the investigations that sociology undertakes include matters of law and crime, wealth and poverty, education and schools, discrimination and prejudice, urban communities, business companies and social movements. Finally, sociology also examines various aspects at the global level as well. The studies include the phenomena of migration and population growth, peace and war, and development of the economy.
Prior emphasis is given by sociologists to the evidence analysis and cautious gathering of social lives for the development and enrichment of the understanding of people regarding the vital social processes. There are various ways and methods which are used by sociologists for research on the study of sociology. The daily life of groups is observed by the sociologists, who then undertake the conduct of surveys on a large scale. This is then followed by the interpretation of past documents, analyzing census data, studying video interactions, interviewing group participants, and finally conducting experiments in the laboratory. The sociology theories and methods of research help in yielding powerful knowledge and insights regarding the social processes that shape the social prospects and issues of the modern world and the lives of humans (Favell, Adrian, and Virginie Guiraudon, eds, 2011). With the help of better understanding and knowledge of these social processes, it becomes easier and clearer for people to understand the forces which shape the results and personal experiences of people. The ability of seeing and understanding such a connection between personal experiences of people and wide social forces. Such an ability is known as sociological imagination, according to C. Wright Mills (Young, 2011). This ability is highly valuable educational development for effective living and rewarding professional and personal lives inn a complex and changing society.
The belief in the supremacy of one race over another one, which usually leads to prejudice and discrimination towards the people on the basis of their ethnicity and religion (Boxill, Bernard R., 2013). Nowadays, usage of term “Racism” does not possess a single definition.
The ideology of racist practices usually includes the intention that the subdivision of human can be done into different groups that are distinct because of their social behaviors and their inborn capabilities, and also the idea that these people can be ranked as superior or inferior according to their races and ethnicities. There are several instances of racism from the history, which include South Africa’s apartheid regime, the Holocaust, segregation and slavery in the United States as well as South America’s slavery (Verwey, Cornel, and Michael Quayle, 2012) (Goldberg, David Theo, 2016). Racism has been a feature of the social organization of several colonial empires and states. The concepts of ethnicity and race are considered in the modern social science. However, both the terms hold a vast history of equality and uniformity in the literature of ancient social science as well as popular usage. Ethnicity and Race are often used as closely related and are traditionally attributed. For instance, the human groups’ division is on the basis of the qualities that are considered crucial or inborn for the group, like shared behavior or shared ancestry. Hence, racial discrimination and racism are usually used for describing any sort of discrimination or prejudice done on a cultural or an ethnic basis, without depending on the argument whether the differences are racial or not. A United Nations convention for racial discrimination stated that, there is no dissimilarity or variance between the terms “ethnic” and “racial” discrimination. It is further concluded by the convention that supremacy that is on the basis of racial distinction is morally deplorable, scientifically wrong, socially dangerous and unjustified, and be it theory or in practice, racial discrimination has no justification anywhere in the world (United Nations Human Rights, 2018). In several aspects of social life, racist ideology can be obvious and apparent. The presence of racism is in social practices, actions, or political systems as well, like the apartheid, which supports the detestation in practices or discrimination or then expression of preconceptions. Several social actions are related or associated to racism might include xenophobia, nativism, otherness, supremacism, hierarchical ranking, segregation, and other related social phenomena. There are various aspects of racism whose ideology can become apparent in many points of social life. These aspects mainly are, Aversive Racism, Color Blindness, Cultural, Institutional, Othering, Racial discrimination, Racial segregation, Supremacism, Symbolic/Modern racism and Subconscious biases (Van Dijk, 2015).
In 2001, racism was particularly banned by the European Union. It also went on banning some other forms of social prejudice and discrimination (Bleich, Erik, 2007). The ban was implemented in the European Union’s Charter of Fundamental Rights, whose legal effect would be limited to European Union’s institutions. According to the Charter’s Article 21, discrimination is prohibited on the grounds of color, race, belief, religion, political or other opinions, language, genetic features, social origin, belongingness to a minority group, disability, property, sexual or age orientation and nationality (Bleich, Erik, 2007).
Pygmies were hunted and eaten like game animals during the Congo Civil War that went on from 1998 to 2003. These pygmies were considered are subhuman by both the sides of the war and it was also the belief of some people that the meat of these pygmies could grant magical and supernatural powers. In 2003, there were several reports of cannibalism being carried out by rebels, as reported by the activists of the UN human rights.
In Nanjing, China, there were mass riots and demonstrations which went on from December 1988 to November 1989, nearly a year (Kristof, 1988). During 2008 Summer Olympics, the owners of the bars of central Beijing were order by the police for not serving the Mongolians or the black people (The Age, 2008). This was because the believed that these ethnic groups were associated with drug trafficking and illegal prostitution. In 2009, November, it was reported by The Guardian (a British newspaper) that Lou Jing, a person that had mixed African and Chinese parentage, had come out to be one of the most famous contestants of a talent show in China and had become a subject of massive debate due to the color of her skin (Vines, 2009). The attention of the media on Lou Jing gave rise to enormous debates about Chinese racism and racial differentiations (Chang, 2009). In late 1980s, around 70,000 black African Mauritanians were barred and thrown out of Mauritania. During the same period of time, in the Sudan, the black Africans that were captivated from the Civil war were enslaved and the female prisoners were sexually abused as well. The conflict of Darfur has also considered as a racial matter (Degomme, Olivier, and Debarati Guha-Sapir, 2010). Niger made an announcement in October 2006 that the around 150,000 of Arabs would be deported to Chad who lived in eastern Niger’s Diffa region (Gakunzi, David, 2018). During this incident, there was a demise of two girls who tried to escape from the Government force while it was collecting the Arabs for deportation, and there were reports of miscarriages of three women as well.
The concept of anti-racism includes the actions, beliefs, policies and movements which are established, adopted and developed for opposing racism. Usually, an egalitarian society is promoted by the concept of anti-racism where people are not discriminated or differentiated against, racially. The various common instances of anti-racist movements are the Anti-Apartheid movement and the civil rights movement (Vershbow, Michela E., 2010). Non-violent resistance is often considered and accepted as an aspect of the movements of anti-racism, whoever this was not the case previously. Affirmative action, racist speech bans and laws of hate crime, are also the instance of policies of the government that are intended for suppressing and ending racism.
It can be concluded that sociology is an important part of our society. Anyone who studies and researches about sociology, it has intellectual consequences. It is necessary for understanding how social systems work and the importance of human societies as well. Hence, sociology is very important as it focuses on the problems of individuals. Racism has been a concept of massive debate since historical times and has prevailed in the society since as long time. A massive part of the human age has suffered due to the concept of racism as they were tortured and abused physically and mentally. With time, racism started to diminish as people started becoming more literate and contemporary, and the Governments came up with rules and regulations, and even the people came up with social activities for protecting their human rights against racism.
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