COVID 19 is an infectious disease that arose in 2020 and has affected many people globally. This disease has affected all age groups of people, and it has affected older people, young people and adults. Many healthcare workers have been affected because of the treatment of patients that have been affected by the coronavirus (Usher et al., 2020). COVID 19 has created anxiety among adults and older people, people felt stressed, and some of them have suffered from depression (Dong & Bouey, 2020). In extreme cases, individuals suffer from depression, tiredness, feeling guilty, and production deficiency. People who feel depressed have to contact a mental health professional, such as a psychologist, as an act of therapy (Omori et al., 2020). In this report, elderly group will be considered in adopting various strategies in preventing the disease. To recover from the stress and anxiety, most people started participating in physical and creative activities. This strategy was incorporated to help people coping with anxiety. Psychology behind the spread of COVID 19 has changed in most people, and they have been observed to have proper hand hygiene. Vaccination has been started to prevent further infection of the diseases. The people were against this vaccination and had shown their depreciation towards it. People have become more aware of the infection and accordingly they started wearing masks to cover the mouth and nose, so that virus particles could not enter the body (Dong & Bouey, 2020). This has also supported avoiding touching the hands near the nose and mouth. Many of psychological problems have been observed in the people in consideration of COVID 19. Socio-psychological ideas have been approached, such as behavioural responses and preventive measures. Theory of planned behavior will be be focused on this report. The theory of planned behaviour is used to determine and investigate the participants (elder adults) in pursuing support for COVID 19. The strategies that will include in the report will be control strategies, surpass strategies and mobilisation strategies.
Social psychology to real-world problems during COVID 19 Pandemic
Social psychology preventive methods was used by Soth Africa through behviorl responses to the COVID -19. Preventive behaviour is evolving over duration; the usefulness of face masks has surpassed handwashing as the considerable employed preventive measure. Other measures, for example, social distancing, evading close contact, evading big groups and remaining at home, have dropped. There is expanded risk perception with powerful concentration among the more increased income groups, the enlightened and elder people (Dong & Bouey, 2020).
New Coronavirus emerged in December 2019, and this has caused more deaths in almost all the countries as there were no vaccines present at that time and no medicine had shown any effect against the virus (Bekele et al., 2021). World Health Organization had declared this viral infection as a pandemic. They had suggested different prevention methods through the reduction of touching hands near the face, wearing masks, and maintaining social distancing. Social and behavioral science has provided various strategies to combat this pandemic. Pandemic has created threat and fear in humans (Bekele et al., 2021). Negative emotions in people have been observed, resulting in a feeling of helplessness and a sense of efficacy. Communication strategies have been changed because of the excessive or great feelings of anxiety and dread Telepathy and video conferencing, this has been observed during the pandemic in the UK (Bekele et al., 2021). The psychology behind washing the hands after coming from outside has become effective in combating or preventing the diseases (Tucho & Kumsa 2021). Earlier, people were not used to wearing masks, but when the Covid arose in 2020, the psychology behind wearing a mask was changed. The elderly do not find it comfortable and had denied to wear the mask all the time because of suffocation. Donald Trump initiated the anti-vaccination strategy (Germani & Biller-Andorno, 2021). In the USA, vaccination against corona has led to a drastic condition among the people of the USA (Madan et al., 2021). Most of the people in the USA started getting infected, and demises have been observed in large numbers. A good strategy was approached for vaccination to educate the older generation about the coronavirus and its impacts if the person does not get vaccinated.
Strategies to enhance the adoption of public health recommendations
World Health Organization has provided different strategies that can be implemented in responding to the COVID 19. The transmission and mortality can be reduced through the application of the different strategies. Mobilisation is one of the vital factors that have been found to be effective in preventing the covid cases as it focuses on respiratory etiquette and maintaining the social distancing (Dong & Bouey, 2020). Control is another strategy that will help in minimising the infection rate among the population have been followed by the Newzeland during pandemic (Bekele et al., 2021). Also, cases can be controlled through isolation and by preventing community transmission (Simsek & Kantarci, 2020). Appropriate care has been provided to the people who have been quarantined. Suppress is another strategy that has helped in controlling the infection rate; population-level social distancing has been effective in combatting the covid disease. Developing effective and safe vaccines has proved to be very useful in preventing infection. Different countries such as the United Kingdom, France and Russia have identified various approaches; this has been introduced through the individuals, communities, involvement of governments and private companies (Dong & Bouey, 2020). These had served many of the interventions in minimising the infection rates in various communities. The different behaviors include washing hands and isolating oneself from sick people at the individual level. The digital technologies such as telemedicine have been used by Saudi Arabia that empower the plan of various services, involvement of health care workers, and cooperation with people to maintain social distancing (Aguilar-Guerra & Reed, 2020). This has been involved in making people aware of the spreading of the infection, improvement in the health systems, and supporting contacts. The government has introduced different apps, such as NHS COVID-19 app, for the purpose of identification of people who are suffering from the coronavirus so that people who are not infected can protect themselves from the infection (Simsek & Kantarci, 2020). These apps will also help in determining the infected regions (Bekele et al., 2021). Coordination and planning have been very successful because of the involvement of government organisations such as health ministries, public works, social protection, education, and finance ministries (World Health Organization 2020). It has been observed that essential health services have been implemented to reduce mortality. Robust health systems have been introduced for recovering from the covid infection.
Psychology of hand hygiene in an elderly group of people during a pandemic
Before the arrival of the new coronavirus, people were not aware of washing their hands frequently to avoid infections. In the era of the Corona pandemic, most of the younger people have become more aware of hand hygiene; they have started using hand sanitisers and hand washing. The elderly were not much aware of this; most of the time did not follow to maintain hand hygiene. They start believing that it is a myth to wash hands frequently; they only consider that hand washing should be done after going to the toilet (Lotfinejadet al., 2020). Public health intervention for hand hygiene had been introduced so that people can become aware of the spread of covid and how recommendation can be prevented them through the virus. Hand washing was popularised because of the approach followed by various countries, such as in the United Kingdom, this intervention came to be effective, and the reduction in cases has been observed (Simsek & Kantarci, 2020). Elderly were educated about hand hygiene so that a good practice for hand hygiene can be followed (Singhal, 2020). On more psychology developed in older adults that usage of soaps and hand sanitisers will make hands very rough and dry, and they have to pay more for the hand sanitisers. Elderly find difficulty in getting their hands frequently washed (Culp, 2020). The style of thinking differs from person to person because laziness and distance of the bathroom have affected the rate of washing hands in older adults and various psychological factors discourage them from washing their hands frequently. With a better understanding of washing hands practices, such people can be educated in becoming more hygienic ). (Yang, 2020). The delay between the arrival of symptoms of infection in five to six days has created a myth, and this has made it very difficult to understand the situation of infections (Ran et al., 2020). One optimism can be followed that if one person sees another person washing their hands, this will make another person wash their hands.
Figure 1: Hand washing tips
Anti-vaccination psychology in older adults concerning the coronavirus
The COVID 19 pandemic has been very challenging for a variety of health care sectors, and it has resulted from various casualties worldwide. Vaccination has been a very important tool that supports getting a vaccination and saving oneself from infection. The young generation was observed to be more willing to get vaccinated, but the older adults have been found not willing to get vaccinated against the coronavirus. Older people have been observed to be afraid of the post-vaccination responses. The immune responses after vaccination enhance the circulation of various defensive immune cells. An increase in body temperature or fever has created fear among older adults. Vaccination of covid has many side effects, and this has created fear among older adults (Pullan & Dey 2021). The side effects of the vaccination are fever, pain in the body, swelling at the area of vaccination, headaches, nausea, and chills during the infection. Side effects are observed in the first initial days of vaccination, and it has also been observed that some people died of the vaccination or a myth has been developed in older adults due to high fever death of an individual has to take place (Hotez 2020). In extreme cases, various side effects have been observed, such as allergic reactions. Fever, headache, exhaustion, and discomfort at the injection area were the most typically noted side effects, and prevailing, most side effects were gentle to moderate. Trust-building activities concerning vaccines and immunisation can help in promoting awareness concerning corona infections. A strong program or workshop (Global Brain Health Clinical Exchange Platform Virtual Workshop) has been planned for spreading awareness of COVID infections (Prieto Curiel & González Ramírez, 2021). Good communication can pertain to the older people with the vaccination, and it also provides a foundation with the help of strategies and various plans (Bekele et al., 2021). Older people distrust the vaccination because of the vaccine reactions, some of the events that are concerned with the vaccination; many media reports have shown the worst reports, social media rumors, and replacement of vaccines with some of the new products (Prieto Curiel & González Ramírez, 2021). Various factors enhance the negative impact, such as uncertainty concerning the events, bad emotion, anxiety and fear, high media attention, and some political misuse. Few modifying factors will motivate older adults to develop trust toward the vaccination. Social norms and behavior have some of relations with the behaviour. These are described because of how the people behave, and a group of people can help make the adults aware of the vaccination and its importance when the vaccination among the adults can be aware through providing the education (Prieto Curiel & González Ramírez, 2021). It has also been observed that a lower level of education or lack of knowledge creates uncertainty, and the unwillingness to get vaccinated has developed some of the uncertainty.
Face mask-wearing behavior
People started wearing masks during the pandemic. It has been effective in preventing infection from various other microbes. Various kinds of masks are available that help in preventing the entry of pathogens (Bekele et al., 2021). Comparing the two countries that are 83 per cent of Canadians and sixty-seven percent of Americans wear a mask. Anti-masker protesters had suggested that wearing the mask will affect some portion of the face; this portion will not receive proper light and air (Lawrence et al., 2020). A study also reported that werning a mask has created much of problems or health issues among older people. Older adults have been observed to fall sick and have shown unhealthy behavior (Lupton et al., 2020). Many of the pseudoscientific arguments have been that wearing a mask depends or relies on the motivated reasoning that affects the brain sorts of information. Various conversations have been made with older adults, the anti-maskers by researchers that it is the deepest category of arguments. Some older people have been found to experience negative feelings and affirm personal freedom; some people ask the older people; for example, one can ask to wear the mask so that another person can talk effectively (Bekele et al., 2021). Negative attitudes have been observed concerning the anti-maskers. Psychological explanations here people believe their freedom to behave how they wish to live.
Figure 2: Antimasker, negative effect of COVID 19
Source : https://www.ksat.com/news/2020/05/06/the-psychology-behind-why-some-people-wont-wear-masks/
Social distancing and Social isolation
Social distancing and social isolation during the pandemic have affected older people, increasing the risk for impairment. Researchers have found that social isolation has created loneliness, and it also affects the well-being of older people (Williams et al., 2020). The psychological perspective behind social isolation is that older people have been observed to be less involved in physical activities and social activities. Social distancing and social isolation deprived the older adults of direct interactions through social interaction; this has disturbed the social health of eh older adults and deteriorated their quality of life. The psychology of older people has been changed by physical distancing, and it is designed to reduce the transmission between the people. Mental health and cognitive functioning have been affected because of these impairments. Older adults refuse to follow the social solution, as they will feel alone and affect social interaction.
Usage of Digital tools in the prevention of infection
Telehealth has its advantages as the practitioners can inspect the patients' necessities from their homes. They can observe some of the symptoms that can provoke allergies and other disorders. Telehealth is also utilised to regale mental health problems and in counselling (Haleem et al. 2021). Telehealth has been observed to be most practical during the spread of communicable diseases; this has enhanced the health of diverse people, particularly those who get chronically ill or immunocompromised. It has delivered many advantages to physicians as nicely as patients because of its lower costs, the costs get reduced, and it also preserves time for patients and doctors. Elderly people with disabilities have been observed to have great access to the use of telehealth (Haleem et al. 2021).
Obtaining a COVID-19 vaccination is a safer way to build protection than getting sick with COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccination aids in protecting through the development of antibody response without having the understanding of the sickness (Lawrence et al., 2020). Vaccination has been mandatory across the globe; this is because to prevent the infection and to get the body immunised. The vaccines have been developed through various stages. The Covid 19 specific vaccination are usually regulated through the help of Government health care organisations such as the American Medical Association (Lawrence et al., 2020).
Theory of planned behaviour
The theory of planned behaviour has become one of the effective theories, and it has promoted preventive health behaviour. This theory generally regulates behaviour through the intentions and behaviour of older adults (Grimes, 2021). The theory of planned behaviour is used to identify and examine the participants (older adults) in seeking help for COVID 19. This theory has been very useful in predicting the behaviour of people in several of the healthy behaviour. The aim of this theory is to identify the intention of the older adults towards the COVID 19 (Gupta & Dhamija, 2020). Family, friends, and relatives are the important parts that help in social influencing; the family members usually help older adults educate them about the infection rate and different kinds of activities that can prevent the infections in the future. COVID 19 knowledge as a tool help in getting the knowledge of sign and symptoms of the infection such as cough, fever, red eyes and itchy skin. Behavioural control, intentions and attitudes are the psychological perceptions that will encourage older adults to frequent hand washing and maintain social distancing (Gupta & Dhamija, 2020). The risk is associated with social distancing and social isolation, but not with hand washing.
The target audience is older people, and home care service providers will help the older people persuade them in for hand washing, wearing the mask, and maintaining the social distancing for the prevention of COVID 19 (Manikandan, 2020). Preventive behaviour and some of the interventive strategies help in avoiding the infection of COVID 19 (Bakhtiar et al., 2020). Various barriers that hinder the use of masks, social distancing and hand hygiene can be identified, and these barriers can be removed through planned interventions to get the responses. Behavioural intentions and social pressures have had a great impact on the health of older adults. Use of social and behavioural science has been effective in reducing the infection rate. Emotions usually push risk perceptions, periodically more so than accurate knowledge. An emotional response to a difficult concern can impact believing in two stages. First, the emotion’s differentia (for example, positive versus negative) concentrates individuals on harmonious knowledge (for example, negative information when feeling negative) (Gupta & Dhamija, 2020). For example, smokers disclosed to more adverse emotional fitness warnings encountered more antagonistic emotions toward warnings and smoking, expended more time reviewing warnings and placed more risks, with ensuing consequences on risk perception and retiring intentions (Manikandan, 2020).. As damaging sentiments advance, individuals may depend on negative announcements about COVID-19 more than other details to construct decisions (Manikandan, 2020).
The psychological perspective in older adults concerning the prevention of infection of COVID 19 has had a great impact on their behaviour. Psychological changes such as avoiding hand washing, not wearing masks in public places and not maintaining social distancing have been often observed. Many older adults have adopted hand washing because of the behaviour or habit when these people see other people washing their hands. Various interventions such as seminars and involvement of the family members in educating the older adults about the infection have been observed to be effective in maintaining hand hygiene. Seminars and workshops help make these people aware of providing the knowledge. Various studies have shown that older adults have started hand washing frequently when they get educated by families and friends. Face masking has been very problematic for older adults; they have found it difficult to put on the face; it has been observed these people deny because of their rights 'my body my choice'. Older adults' psychological perspectives can be changed through education and awareness. The health care workers of COVID support several of the activities that could help them make them aware of the infection rates.
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