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Department Of The Spatial Information

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Questions:

1. Discuss the requirements for remote administration, resource management and SLA management. It may be useful to consider Morad and Dalbhanjan’s operational checklists for DSI’s OSDS. This section should be no more than two to three pages in length.

2. Discuss briefly how you will consider application resilience, backup and disaster recovery for your chosen provider in relation to OSDS. This section should be no more than two to three pages in length.
 
 

Answers:

Introduction

The Department of the Spatial Information (DSI) is the department of the state government that functions to provide proper as well as appropriate spatial information to the various government departments. The main functions of the DSI are to give spatial information to the public as well as government. Therefore, in order to give spatial information, DSI develops web services that used to deliver information using developed applications. This suite of web services, as well as applications for the DSI, is the Online Spatial Delivery System. With the use of this system, DSI makes their business processes more efficient as well as fast by providing information to the public services as well as government departments. DSI chooses Amazon Web Services cloud vendor for assessing the management requirements as well as provisions of the Service Level Agreement (SLA).

This report reflects on the use of Online Spatial Delivery System by the DSI. It discusses the requirements for the remote administration, SLA as well as resource management. It consists of the Morad and Dalbhanjan’s operational checklists for the Online Spatial Delivery System of DSI. It summarizes the use of application resilience, disaster recovery as well as a backup for the chosen cloud provider. Finally, the guidelines of SLA assess the chosen cloud provider which helps to overcome with the SLA issues of DSI.

1.0 Requirements of remote administration, SLA and resource management in DSI’s Online Spatial Delivery System

DSI involved into a number of new projects to develop its business functionality by increasing the demand for spatial data (Rajarajeswari & Aramudhan, 2014). The Executive Management of the DSI proposes to support their new Online Spatial Delivery System program by increasing the internal DSI capacity of the data centre in order to host as well as support their new proposed system. In order to provide more spatial information to the public as well as government, DSI requires developing their web infrastructure as well as supporting services (Barz & Bassett, 2016). Therefore, the organization requires increasing in the data centre as well as bandwidth available to DSI. DSI desires to mitigate the Online Spatial Delivery System to the Amazon, cloud provider. It allows the organization to expand the data into internal maintenance system (Benslimane et al. 2014). It also helps to move the completed data to the cloud based delivery system for the purpose of publication.

Requirement of remote administration: In order to work the new delivery system of DSI efficiently, there is a requirement of refresh the client side spatial system with new data baseline. In order to do so, remote maintenance services are required to synchronize the data against the system database (Rajarajeswari & Aramudhan, 2014). Once the new baseline is established, then the remote administration services maintain the synchronicity of the data of client against the master data by upgrading the data bundles.

Requirement of Service Level Agreement (SLA): SLA codifies the particular parameters and gives remedies for failure of the system requirements. It gives detailed system infrastructure for Online Spatial Delivery System for DSI as well as security standards that should be maintained by the service provider (Kracheel, Bronzi, & Kazemi, 2014). It also consists of the rights in order to audit their compliance. The most vital functions of SLA are to ensure that the cloud meets the system requirements of the DSI. In order to develop the SLA within DSI, the following criteria are being established such as:

  • Encryption of the stored as well as transmitted data
  • Disaster recovery expectations
  • Location of the data and access to the data

Requirement of resource management: Before the implementation of Online Spatial Delivery System in DSI, it is required to evaluate the software as well as hardware requirements for the system (Sampaio & Barbosa, 2016). While evaluation of the software resources, it includes performance, licensing and functionality. In the spatial information system software, the activities are command driven, and it requires the users to type the command in the system in order to execute the tasks (Almutairi et al. 2012). The software vendors are providing recommended specifications for the hardware in their websites. Even this system is compatible with the operating system used by the council such as UNIX, Windows, and Linux, etc. 

 

1.1 Morad and Dalbhanjan’s operational checklists for Online Spatial Delivery System of DSI

Amazon web services (AWS) uses the Morad and Dalbhanjan’s operational checklists to implement the delivery system for DSI that provides with a suite of infrastructure services that used to deploy their applications (Benslimane et al. 2014). The operational checklists used to evaluate if the system should give benefits to the DSI.

Operational checklist items

Description

Security and Access Management

Has DSI developed the security strategy to manage AWS, operating systems, data access as well as the network?

Application high availability/ Resilience

Does the AWS solution exceed the system’s high availability as well as requirements of resilience?

Application Disaster Recovery/ Backup

Does the AWS solution exceed the system’s disaster recovery as well as requirements of backup?

Configure and change

Does DSI have both configurations as well as change management for the resources for ASW?

Asset Management

Does DSI have identification strategy as well as tracking the resources of ASW?

Release and Deployment Management

Has DSI determined to integrate application releases as well as deployments to configuration strategy?

Monitoring and incident management

Has DSI configured monitoring tools to ASW resources into incident management processes?

Billing and account governance

Has DSI developed billing and account management?

2.0 Discussion of considering the application resilience, backup and disaster recovery for chosen provider based to Online Spatial Delivery System

DSI has successfully operated their cloud applications on the Amazon Web Services. The application resilience, disaster recovery as well as backup increase the deployment as well as free operations of the organization (Ferwerda, Herendeen, & Mousseau, 2015). These three strategic considerations are considered for existing as well as new application deployments on the AWS. DSI invests time as well as resources for assessing the operational willingness of the applications before launching higher rate of satisfaction of the organization (Chinneck, Litoiu, & Woodside, 2014). The following are the operational strategies that provide best practices that DSI considers while developing an Online Spatial Delivery System for their organization. The three operational strategies are as follows:

Application Resilience: The chosen cloud provider for DSI, Amazon Web Services provides an infrastructure that builds blocks in order to help DSI to meet their organizational requirements cost effectively (Wu & Buyya, 2012). Effective application resilience consists of redundancy, various availability zones, load balancing, monitoring, recovery as well as auto scaling within the region. The following are the AWS that DSI considers while leveraging for application resilience:

  1. Running on various Amazon EC2 instances in various availability zones
  2. Auto-scaling for automation instance recovery (Chang et al. 2014).
  3. Elastic load balancing to balance load across various availability zones (Epstein & Khan, 2014).
  4. Leveraging of synchronized data replication technologies such as database mirroring
  5. Multi-AZ Amazon Radio Data System used for various availability zones managed databases

Backup: While loading large amount of data, the automated backups of ASW is used. This automated backup disables point-to-time recovery of the loaded data. The backup strategy of ASW consists of backup of the file data, database as well as machine images. Backing up the data for database contrasts from the web as well as application layers (Yang et al. 2015). Overall, databases contain a large number of business information in database-particular arrangements that must be held and secured at all times. In these cases, it is required to influence effective information development methods, such as snapshots to build backups that are fast, space efficient as well as reliable. 

  1. Amazon RDS creates storage volume snapshot for the DB instance
  2. DB snapshots are the user-initiated backups. The database backups are storing by the Amazon RDS (Epstein & Khan, 2014).
  3. Using of EBS snapshot copy across the various regions
  4. Amazon EC2 instance used to run the database (Narula & Jain, 2015).
  5. Amazon Glacier is used to achieve the data

Disaster Recovery: Each of the application requires disaster recovery requirements that require to recovery point as well as time objectives. The disaster recovery restricts the physical proximity among both primary as well as disaster recovery sites (Nogueira, Medhi, & Doverspike, 2014). Effective disaster recovery strategy includes regional redundancy, global traffic management, and monitoring as well as region-to-region recovery. The following are the techniques of ASW that should be considered as part of the disaster recovery strategy:

  1. Storing of data and addition instances in various AWS regions
  2. Use of Amazon Glacier in order to achieve the data (Rose & Krausmann, 2013).
  3. Leveraging of Amazon S3 versioning in order to provide protection for storing the data
  4. Leveraging of asynchronous data replication technologies such as database log shipping (Wei et al. 2015).
  5. Taking of periodic Amazon snapshots as well as any third party tools for quick recovery from the loss of data 
 

3.0 Using of Erl’s SLA guidelines in order to assess SLA for chosen provider

Amazon service level agreement is the policy leading the use of Amazon elastic compute cloud (Amazon EC2) below the terms as well as conditions of the Amazon Web Services customer agreement. It utilizes industrially sensible effort to formulate Amazon EC2 each accessible with a Monthly Uptime Percentage of no less than 99.95%, for every situation amid any month-to-month charging cycle. In the occasion, Amazon EC2 does not assemble the Service Commitment; it will be capable to obtain a Service Credit. Amazon web services cloud compliance enables the customers to know the robust controls at AWS in order to continue both securities as well as data protection within the cloud. Amazon’s service level agreement at various levels is categorized as follows:

Customer based SLA: Amazon web services make an agreement with the customers group (Colman-Meixner et al. 2015). This agreement is done between the supplier as well as finance department for the services such as payroll system, finance system as well as a billing system. 

Service based SLA: It is an agreement for all the clients using the services that are provided by the service providers.

Corporate level SLA: It covers all the SLA issues that are accurate to each of the customers through the organization (Newcombe et al. 2015). The issues are less volatile as well as updating is required. 

Customer level SLA: It covers the SLA issues that are relevant to the customer groups. It is mainly for meeting the customer's requirements (Azevedo et al. 2014). Data privacy is the top priority for AWS as they are delivering cloud services to millions of customers such as governmental and public services.

Service level SLA: It covers all the SLA issues that are specific to the services such as customer groups (Janiesch & Niemann, 2012). Monitoring, as well as reporting on the cloud performance, is based on the experience of the end user ability in order to consume the resources.

AWS provides their customers to manage access to the content. They are providing a set of access, secure logging features as well as encryption techniques to help them secured their data. AWS Cloud Trail helps the customers to access the data. AWS develops a security assurance program using the global privacy as well as data protection techniques to help their customers establish a secured control environment. These security controls are validated by the third party independent assessments. Security by Design is the security assurance advance that used to formalize the AWS account design. It also automates the security controls as well as streamlines the auditing. AWS Security by Design is used to plan for the security as well as consistence abilities for all periods of security by permitting the client to outline everything inside the AWS client environment. It authorizes logging, trust connections, encryption implementation, and mandatory approved machine pictures. Security by Design empowers clients to computerize the front-end structure of an AWS account, dependably coding security and consistence into AWS accounts, making the resistance of IT controls a thing of past times. 

 

Conclusion

It is concluded that the Department of the Spatial Information (DSI) proposes to implement the Online Spatial Delivery System for increasing the demand for the spatial data. The Executive Management of the organization proposes to support this system implementation so that they can successfully implement it. Therefore, the management supports the implementation for increasing the infrastructure of the web as well as supports the services in the department. By increasing the DSI data centre, it supports as well as hosts the new implementation of the Online Spatial Delivery System. The chosen cloud provider for the DSI is Amazon Web Services.

The executive management of the DSI decides that they are required with two of assessments such as technical management as well as service level agreement. The risks that DSI identifies are the security issues that are required to overcome with security assurance program. Remote support administrations are required to synchronize the information against the framework database. The most vital functions of SLA are to ensure that the cloud meets the system requirements of the DSI. It likewise comprises of the rights with a specific end goal to review their consistency. The most indispensable elements of SLA are to guarantee that the cloud meets with the framework necessities of the DSI. DSI contributes time and in addition assets for evaluating the operational ability of the applications before dispatching higher rate of the fulfillment of the association.  

 

References

 Almutairi, A., Sarfraz, M., Basalamah, S., Aref, W., & Ghafoor, A. (2012). A distributed access control architecture for cloud computing. IEEE software,29(2), 36.

Azevedo, L. G., Diirr, T., Baião, F., & Santoro, F. (2014). A Business Model for Managing SOA Initiatives. iSys-Revista Brasileira de Sistemas de Informação, 7(1), 4-33.

Barz, H. W., & Bassett, G. A. (2016). Multimedia Networks: Protocols, Design and Applications. John Wiley & Sons.

Benslimane, Y., Plaisent, M., Bernard, P., & Bahli, B. (2014, December). Key Challenges and Opportunities in Cloud Computing and Implications on Service Requirements: Evidence from a Systematic Literature Review. InCloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), 2014 IEEE 6th International Conference on (pp. 114-121). IEEE.

Chang, S. E., McDaniels, T., Fox, J., Dhariwal, R., & Longstaff, H. (2014). Toward Disaster‐Resilient Cities: Characterizing Resilience of Infrastructure Systems with Expert Judgments. Risk Analysis, 34(3), 416-434.

Chinneck, J., Litoiu, M., & Woodside, M. (2014, March). Real-time multi-cloud management needs application awareness. In Proceedings of the 5th ACM/SPEC international conference on Performance engineering (pp. 293-296). ACM.

Colman-Meixner, C., Develder, C., Tornatore, M., & Mukherjee, B. (2015). A Survey on Resiliency Techniques in Cloud Computing Infrastructures and Applications.

Epstein, B., & Khan, D. C. (2014). Application impact analysis: A risk-based approach to business continuity and disaster recovery. Journal of business continuity & emergency planning, 7(3), 230-237.

Ferwerda, P., Herendeen, J., & Mousseau, R. P. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,129,104. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Janiesch, C., & Niemann, M. (2012). Supporting USDL by a Governance Framework. In Handbook of Service Description (pp. 415-444). Springer US.

Kracheel, M., Bronzi, W., & Kazemi, H. (2014). A Wearable Revolution: Is the smartwatch the next small big thing?. IT ONE Magazine 2014,7(December), 18-19.

Narula, S., & Jain, A. (2015, February). Cloud Computing Security: Amazon Web Service. In Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies (ACCT), 2015 Fifth International Conference on (pp. 501-505). IEEE.

Newcombe, C., Rath, T., Zhang, F., Munteanu, B., Brooker, M., & Deardeuff, M. (2015). How Amazon web services uses formal methods.Communications of the ACM, 58(4), 66-73.

Nogueira, M., Medhi, D., & Doverspike, R. (2014). Disaster resilience in communication networks [Guest Editorial]. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 52(10), 44-45.

Rajarajeswari, C. & Aramudhan, M. (2014). Ranking Model for SLA Resource Provisioning Management. International Journal Of Cloud Applications And Computing, 4(3), 68-80.

Rose, A., & Krausmann, E. (2013). An economic framework for the development of a resilience index for business recovery. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 5, 73-83.

Sampaio, A. M., & Barbosa, J. G. (2016). Energy-Efficient and SLA-Based Resource Management in Cloud Data Centers. Advances in Computers.

Wei, F., Ouyang, C., & Barros, A. (2015, June). Discovering Behavioural Interfaces for Overloaded Web Services. In Services (SERVICES), 2015 IEEE World Congress on (pp. 286-293). IEEE.

Wu, L., & Buyya, R. (2012). Service Level Agreement (SLA) in utility computing systems. IGI Global.

Yang, H., Zhang, J., Zhao, Y., Ji, Y., Han, J., Lin, Y., & Lee, Y. (2015). CSO: cross stratum optimization for optical as a service. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 53(8), 130-139.

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