Discuss about the Depression and Disability Retirement.
There are many changes in lifestyle which the elderly population faces after retirement management.
- They enjoy ample time to enjoy without work. As they get retired they have no work to do baseless of the fact they want this change or not.
- After retirement they join a group of retired people who does not get any value from other parts of society.
- Some elderly people takes this retirement as an opportunity to get involved in hobbies or do some extra courses of study or travel and get involved with some NGO (Stenholm et al. 2016).
The retired people are divided in two groups. One group will take this retirement period as enjoyment because they have previously planned for their retirement and have no money related problem. They even have friends and family to spend time with. Other type of group involves those who did not plan for their retirement and have no money to spend in this period. They have no work to get involved and no social life to get involved. They then start missing their working days (Damman 2015)
These changes some time affect the psychological well being of retired people. They may feel that their children will not take care of them as they are retired and are getting burden in family. Some retired people do not want to stay with their children and want to lead an independent life till possible. Some may stay away in their own house away from their child so that they are not dependent on them (Zantinge et al. 2014). The relationship between the adult children and the elderly depends on the health condition and their choice of interest if matches. But the relationship hampers according to study if the elder suffer from some disease or mismatch of interests happen. The older people having good friend circle can spend ample time with them (Grotz et al. 2016).
Older people may have some problem related to the fear of loss of intelligence management. The people getting old will start losing their ability to grasp things; they will become a slow learner. They will start losing their memory power which will give difficulty in their social life. They will stop using the power of imagination and will work according to their experience of past. They will experience short term memory loss and they will have problem in recovering new names of people or places (Dufouil et al. 2014)
To increase their memory problem and general intelligence they need to get involved in certain activities. They have to develop hobbies which help in their time pass. They can learn some study related to computers which will help them to learn new thing and help them with doing normal work which they could have easily done in young age. They can do some reading activity to learn new things. To improve memory and reasoning ability they can solve puzzles riddles and crosswords (McDonald et al. 2015).
Major depression is the clinical manifestation of the mental disorder that can be symbolized by the characteristic low mood and lack of self-esteem, lack of interest in daily life, lack of energy, and a sense of pain and despair without any reason or provocation (Dufouil et al. 2014). Studies suggest that 60% of the total suicides occurring per year are due to major depression. Major depression affects both the personal and the professional life of the victim and based on the chronic impact of this mental disorder on the wellbeing and functionality of the victim suffer8ing through it, the disease is called true depression or clinical depression; individuals suffering from this kind of depression find themselves in need for therapeutic treatment (Paunio et al. 2015). The symptoms for major or clinical depression include:
- Abnormal sleep patterns, insomnia in extreme cases.
- Abnormally increased loss interest and pleasure in life (Paunio et al. 2015)
- Extreme irritability and agitation
- Extreme fatigue and lack of energy (Hyde et al. 2015)
- Unjustified aggressiveness and violence without any possible provocative trigger.
- Random bouts of panic attacks, and suicidal or self harming tendencies (Dufouil et al. 2014)
The causes of depression are not known clinically but some theories are found which explains its causes. It is said that it is due to change in chemistry of brain. Depression can also be caused by hormonal change some stress related to their life or some grief related to family condition. Genetics can also be causing factor of depression. It is not gender specific and can affect both men and women of all ages. The effect of depression in case of elderly is severe if this happens along with some illness like diabetes stroke or any heart related diseases. Early retirement also causes depression in elderly. In this case the elderly are treated for the disease but the depression remains untreated. Thus the disease gets treated living behind the depression management. But if diagnosed early then this depression can be treated easily (Hyde et al. 2015).
Some other symptoms of depression are sadness, guilt or aggressiveness. Problem in concentrating on things or problem in decision making. The depressed people feel problem like loss of energy, weight loss or gain and they experience changes in sleeping pattern and also problem in their sexual life (Paunio et al. 2015). Weakness in body, back pain or constipation is some more symptoms.
Damman, M., Henkens, K. and Kalmijn, M., 2015. Missing work after retirement: The role of life histories in the retirement adjustment process. The Gerontologist, 55(5), pp.802-813.
Dufouil, C., Pereira, E., Chêne, G., Glymour, M.M., Alpérovitch, A., Saubusse, E., Risse-Fleury, M., Heuls, B., Salord, J.C., Brieu, M.A. and Forette, F., 2014. Older age at retirement is associated with decreased risk of dementia. European journal of epidemiology, 29(5), pp.353-361.
Grotz, C., Meillon, C., Amieva, H., Stern, Y., Dartigues, J.F., Adam, S. and Letenneur, L., 2016. Why is later age at retirement beneficial for cognition? Results from a French population-based study. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 20(5), pp.514-519.
Hyde, M., Hanson, L.M., Chungkham, H.S., Leineweber, C. and Westerlund, H., 2015. The impact of involuntary exit from employment in later life on the risk of major depression and being prescribed anti-depressant medication. Aging & mental health, 19(5), pp.381-389.
McDonald, S., O’Brien, N., White, M. and Sniehotta, F.F., 2015. Changes in physical activity during the retirement transition management: a theory-based, qualitative interview study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), p.25.
Paunio, T., Korhonen, T., Hublin, C., Partinen, M., Koskenvuo, K., Koskenvuo, M. and Kaprio, J., 2015. Poor sleep predicts symptoms of depression and disability retirement due to depression. Journal of affective disorders, 172, pp.381-389.
Stenholm, S., Pulakka, A., Kawachi, I., Oksanen, T., Halonen, J.I., Aalto, V., Kivimäki, M. and Vahtera, J., 2016. Changes in physical activity during transition to retirement: a cohort study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), p.51.
Zantinge, E.M., van den Berg, M., Smit, H.A. and Picavet, H.S.J., 2014. Retirement and a healthy lifestyle: opportunity or pitfall? A narrative review of the literature. The European Journal of Public Health, 24(3), pp.433-439.