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Desease: Bachelor’s Of Nursing

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Question:

Describe about infectious disease in bachelor’s of nursing?

 

Answer:

Measles also called as morbilli, rubeola or red measles, an extreme infectious disease caused by measles virus. Measles is mainly an infection which generally causes to children and this disease can be averted by vaccination. The symptoms of this disease include sore throat, cough, inflamed eyes, and fever, running nose and red rashes on the skin. Although the rates of death is falling of this disease but then also every year this disease kills more than 100,000 people and mostly children who are under the age of 5 years. As the vaccination rates is increasing, so the disease is not spreading widely.

Hepatitis B is a sort of liver infection. This type of disease mainly does not have any symptoms so this type of disease is not easily diagnosed. Hepatitis B can be both critical and chronic. This type of disease affects the liver so much that it leads to liver failure, liver cancer and also death. Hepatitis B can be easily spread through sex.  People are vaccinated at their young age to prevent them from this disease. The first stage of preventing yourself and others from this disease you have to keep yourself and everyone updated about the knowledge of these disease.

Measles is circulated mainly through breathing because it is an airborne disease. It mainly catches by sneezing and coughing, tissues when it is soiled with nose and contacted with hands. It enters within a person within 30 minutes after coming in contact with the effected person. In Australia during the time period of 1960’s almost everybody suffered from the disease in their childhood and for that people who born during that time in Australia are already immune to this disease. After the vaccination was introduced it started and the disease started affecting people of average age. The symptoms of this disease are cough and cold, fever, photophobia etc. The symptoms easily worsen the health of the person in 3-5 days (Maltezou, & Wicker, 2013).

By 2013, in Australia it is seen that there is interruption in spreading the disease. Mostly in Australia cases of these disease is import related. After 1997, in the year 2012 there was the largest outbreak of the disease and mostly it was imported from Thailand. Many people of this country got affected with this disease while coming back from Indonesia. In counties like Japan, Israel measles widely broke out after 2005 (Taddei, Ceccherini, Niccolai, Porchia, Boccalini, Levi, & Bechini, 2014).

World Health Organization had decided that by 2013 they will be eliminating the disease from all over the world by 2015. But in that year it suddenly broke out in countries like U.K and Germany and gave a threat to the eliminating plan. In England by the year 2013 the highest number of people got affected by the disease.

In USA the vaccination rates of measles is high but then also measles is a harmful childhood disease so it is advised to every parents that they should vaccine their children during the right moment and it might help in stop spreading the disease. In 2014, four children in a family got affected by measles and none of them were vaccinated and during that time measles was highly exposed in that country (Mathie, Huey, Jurgens, Welsch, DeVito, Talekar, & Porotto,2015).

Risk in managing the disease from spreading

To stop the disease from spreading certain steps need to be taken like- to vaccine the children at the right moment, not to bring your little born with the contact of measles affected people, not to bring a severely ill person  with the contact to affected person.

 

Risk of transferring the disease to Health Care Workers

Health care workers (HCW) should take certain preventions so that they do not get affected by measles. All the workers should be vaccinated so that they are not affected while taking care of those people who are suffering from this disease. HCW should have so much potential enough so that they can treat the infected person directly without getting infected himself. HCW should not share are same air with the infectious people not more than 2 hours at a stretch especially in a closed area. HCW who have got infected while serving should immediately be removed from the work for at least 4 days until the virus is omitted from his body (Thompson, Strebel, Dabbagh Cherian, & Cochi, 2013).

Hepatitis B is both critical and chronic. The critical case takes maximum 6 months to badly infect the affected person. Symptoms of this disease are nausea, vomiting etc. Patients suffering from disease suffers mental confusion, coma, gastrointestinal bleeding. If the person is suffering from hepatitis B or not can be known by testing HBsAg, anti- HBc, anti HBs. The symptoms take around 3 months to spread within the person. This disease is common in Australia and around 100,000 people are undiagnosed from this disease and around one- fifth of them are under treatment and this shows that a lot of responsibility needs to be taken.  All infants should be vaccinated with hepatitis B during the initial days of their birth (Sullivan, Carballo-Diéguez, Coates, Goodreau, McGowan, Sanders, & Sanchez, 2012).

In US, by 2009 more than 3000 cases are of acute hepatitis B. Mainly people getting affected by this disease are not reported .People getting infected by this disease by coming in simple contact is normally low because this is blood borne and sexually transmitted virus. Around 45% of people lives in highly effected area of HIV (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. 2011).

Risk of transferring the disease to Health Care Workers

While transferring blood from one person to another, health workers should keep in mind that those bloods are highly infectious. They should take barriers like using gloves, mask, goggles etc and immediately wash their hands and skin before coming in contact with any other bloody fluids (Heffron, Donnell, Rees, Celum, Mugo,  Were, & Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team.2012).

Risk in managing the disease from spreading

As HIV is spread mainly though sex so special care should be taken by using condoms so that it does not spread to any other person. When a person comes to know about his HIV then immediately he should contact with the doctor and gets treated and also motivate your partners to do so. Many drugs which is mainly given by injecting can transfer HIV. Drugs like cocaine, alcohol can lower your immune system and can infect a person by HIV (Yahaya, Jimoh, & Balogun, 2014).

Comparison and Contrast

Measles and Hepatitis B both the diseases are extremely infectious disease. A person can die if they are suffering from any one of these two. Both the diseases are very different from each other. There symptoms are totally different. Symptoms of measles are cough and cold, sore throat, whereas symptoms of hepatitis B are nausea and vomiting. Measles can be prevented by taking the vaccination and hepatitis B can be prevented by using condoms and consulting the doctor.

 

References

Maltezou, H. C., & Wicker, S. (2013). Measles in health-care settings.American journal of infection control41(7), 661-663. 

Taddei, C., Ceccherini, V., Niccolai, G., Porchia, B. R., Boccalini, S., Levi, M., ... & Bechini, A. (2014). Attitude toward immunization and risk perception of measles, rubella, mumps, varicella, and pertussis in health care workers working in 6 hospitals of Florence, Italy 2011. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics10(9), 2612-2622.

Mathieu, C., Huey, D., Jurgens, E., Welsch, J. C., DeVito, I., Talekar, A., ... & Porotto, M. (2015). Prevention of Measles Virus Infection by Intranasal Delivery of Fusion Inhibitor Peptides Journal of virology89(2), 1143-1155

Thompson, K. M., Strebel, P. M., Dabbagh, A., Cherian, T., & Cochi, S. L(2013) Enabling implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: Developing investment cases to achieve targets for measles and rubella prevention.Vaccine31, B149-B156.

Sullivan, P. S., Carballo-Diéguez, A., Coates, T., Goodreau, S. M., McGowan, I., Sanders, E. J & Sanchez, J. (2012) Successes and challenges of HIV prevention in men who have sex with men The Lancet380(9839), 388-399

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC (2011) Vital signs: HIV prevention through care and treatment--United States. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report60(47), 1618

Heffron, R., Donnell, D., Rees, H., Celum, C., Mugo, N., Were, E & Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study Team. (2012). Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet infectious diseases12(1), 19-26.

Yahaya, L. A., Jimoh, A. A. G., & Balogun, O. R. (2014) Factors hindering acceptance of HIV/AIDS voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) among youth in Kwara State, Nigeria African journal of reproductive health14(3), 159-164.

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