Learning resources pertain to those resources which help the teachers make the students learn about the various concepts and methodologies of the subject. They comprise of guides for the students as well as for the teachers, experimentations in the labs, models, and movies, webcasts and podcasts, television shows, magazines and periodicals etc. (Buabeng-Andoh, 2012).
The purpose of the learning and teaching resources is to enlighten the students and to provide them with a source of the learning experience. They should be able to enable the interactions amongst the students and the teachers so that the different learning needs of the students can be met. So, in this report, the various aspects and application of the teaching and learning resources can be analyzed along with the strengths and weaknesses of the teacher in developing and applying these so that the students can broaden their learning experiences.
The purpose of resources in teaching and learning
The resources in teaching and learning methods can help the teachers in differentiating their instruction methods and engaging the students who need extra academic support beyond the core classroom teaching material. These are designed for addressing the reading, developmental, lingual and capability levels of the students along with qualitative and quantitative assessment guides for the teachers.They are accurate, based on proper evidence and object drove and designed to involve the needs of the students and teachers of the modern era. They are designed to adhere to the quality content and the prescribed standards which provide a meaningful educational experience for the students and teachers as well (Kukulska-Hulme, 2012).
The purpose of the resources in teaching and learning methods is to provide the student's range of materials with different levels of difficulty so that their learning strategies, generic skills, attitudes and values can be enhanced. They are designed to enhance the motivation of the students and their learning effectiveness as well. They lie within the contents of the syllabus and comprise of core elements of the syllabus. Their main aim is to encourage the self-access and independent learning of the students. They add reflection, peer and group assessments to the learning activities so that the learning of the students can be improved.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of specific resources in meeting individual learning needs in teaching and learning contexts
The teaching and learning methods are used by the teachers so that the learning processes can be facilitated. It is crucial for the teachers to select a suitable learning method so that the pupils can be engaged in the session and they can make the most of their learning experiences. The teaching methods vary depending upon the subject, its context and in the environment in which it is taught. For example, whether it is taught in the classes or at an outdoor site. The length of the sessions and the particular needs of the students should also be addressed in this regard( Tyner,2014) .
So, the effectiveness of the specific resources in meeting the individual needs of the students can be explained as under.
Meeting the individual needs of the learners
Making the students discuss in groups why a particular thing is important. For example, trees.
Through this method, the pupils can state their views and opinions on the topic.It suits the aural learning preferences of the students. Furthermore, questioning can be used to verify their understanding.
The peer assessment method can be used to make the groups build mini-habitats for animals and then to conduct show and tell sessions to explain the creations of one another.
This method suits a range of learning preferences of the students and the teachers can support or assist them if required.
The practical activities can be conducted in the class. For Example, the shelters can be built by the students using the natural material.
Using this method, the resources and the equipment can be adapted according to the different needs of the students and it helps the learners to learn from their classmates( Paily, 2013).
Analysis of the principles of resource design in teaching
The principles of resource design in teaching are the boundaries and the regulations which help the teachers to formulate suitable environment and situations within which the teachers and pupils can work and learn. There are two types of principles viz .non –negotiable and renegotiated. The renegotiated principles comprise of changing the break time from session to session while the latter cannot be changed like health and safety.
The principles can state the formulation of a teaching and learning plan for the students as well as for the students along with providing a justification of the selection of the teaching and learning approaches, assessment methods and resources so that the individual learning needs of the students can be met (Jaguszewski and Williams, 2013) .
The principles also comprise of communication with the learners for the assessment of their individual learning needs and to provide them with suitable feedbacks so as to meet their prioritized needs. The teachers should also be able to review the effectiveness of their own delivery of teaching and learning techniques.The teachers should also be able to identify the areas of improvement in their teaching techniques.
Furthermore, there are some more principles of resource design viz. respect, coordination, efficiency and sustainability. Respect refers that the teachers should honor the intentions, experiences and teaching expertise of each other which can assist them in accomplishing the teaching objectives through the leverage of resources. Coordination refers to coordination of roles, decision-making principles, process flow support and documentation. Small steps should be developed and early feedbacks should be given to make sure that the design assists in accomplishing the goals. The project should be sustainable and the energy and the resources should be focused to evaluate a resource though which the students can learn and it can be built upon and revised from time to time( Jin and Bridges,2014).
Analysis of how theories, principle and models of inclusive curriculum design can be used to inform resource development
An inclusive curriculum design is the one in which the entitlements of all the students can be anticipated, acknowledged and taken into account. It respects the diversified learning needs of the students and assists in their widening participation. It gives value to equality of opportunity and motivates all the students so that they can feel associated with the curriculum.
The principles of inclusive curriculum design identify that the effective practices of one group should be practiced by all groups. The inclusive principles should promote diversity and equality by inculcating the following aspects of the design processes (Sarkar, 2012).
The inclusive curriculum design should be open, versatile and responsive enough to the developing population of the pupils and to ever-changing situations. They should be adapted to the timetables and delivery formats so that s they may accommodate to the availability of the students. They should also motivate the staff and students to be accountable for the progress they have accomplished against equality of objectives and actions (Ferguson, 2012).
It should adopt anticipatory approach so that it can consider the entitlements of all the pupils in the formulation and delivery of the teaching methods along with considering the future and the present number of students and the whole student cycle ranging from admissions to induction and the course and beyond (Voogt, Fisser, Pareja, Tondeur and Braak, 2013).
Evaluation of the sources that inform resource development
A teacher has to play the role of a resource developer. A resource developer is a person which can be referred to as a person who is accountable for evaluating the various resources which can satisfy the learning needs of the students and assist them in accomplishing their full potential in the learning activity (Tess,2013).
Thus the teachers are the important resources who comprehend the educational capabilities and utilize the resources to develop an organized teaching environment. It is the duty of the teachers to evaluate and plan the resources which assist the learners to improve their learning capabilities through development of the various methods rather than designing a ‘one size fit all ‘types of resources.
Technology is another type of source which can evaluate and inform the resource development. The use of Power Point slides, e – books, worksheets, podcasts and word documents can bring so many benefits in the learning environment. They addresses to the flexibility of the learning needs and they are updated accordingly to analyze the ever changing needs of the students (Beetham and Sharpe, 2013) .
E-books can prove to be useful for the students as they have the feature of the audio speaker when they are attached with the kindle. Worksheets can be downloaded from the internet and they can meet the needs of the tutors and students as well.
Gender and multiculturalism are yet other factors which inform resource development. The female and male students require different methods of learning and they may have different educational needs. In an environment with gender-specific needs, the various characteristics are supported and provided by suitable and equal resources (Anderson, 2016).
Design resources including emerging technology
The various technologies which have the potential for improving higher education and enhancing the learning of the students can be explained as under. E-textbooks offer the chance to increase the value of the written text by attaching hyperlinks to the additional sources. They comprise of other textbooks or readings, audio feeds, videos and slide presentations. They help the students by linking them to the real world data thereby empowering them with data so that they can explore graphical software packages and statistical tests ( Oxford, 2016) .
Computerized Grading applies to the techniques of machine learning and artificial intelligence so that the probability of allotting grades to a particular assignment by a teacher can be analyzed statistically. Simulation technology can be used as a learning tool in higher education with the help of activities such as role-playing and technology-based simulation. So, it’s role is to actively involve the students in the learning processes and to allow the students to practice the skills and implement their knowledge.
Gamification is yet another mode of new technology which can help the students to learn with the help of games. It is referred to the use of game theory and practices in the field of e-learning. It forms the basis of the concept that the students will accomplish greater success if their learning is based on gaming concepts such as competitions, incentives and attainment of objectives(Dabbagh and Kitsantas,2012).
Employment of resources
There are various ways through which the teachers can employ the learning and teaching resources in addressing the learning needs of the students. The first one is accessibility to the study materials by the students with the help of audio and video sources. With the help of the guidance of the teachers, the students can now access those study materials which were available only to the experts since they were too complicated to be reproduced in the classrooms or too expensive for the students to purchase (Moore, 2013).
The day to day administration of the classrooms such as providing copies of the curriculum to the students, assigning and discussing the sections and getting the news related to the course can be dealt with by the tutors with the help of a home page of the course, the electronic discussion groups and email lists. These tools can assist the students to engage with each other and understand the various aspects of the course( Benson,2013).
The students can perform the assignments and exercises in publishing, assembling and building along with their classmates with the help of new techniques of learning. Through the use of web archive, the course itself can be made as an ongoing and intellectual collaborative construction.
Analysis of the ways in which resources can be adapted to enable the inclusive approach
If the students are confronted with the difficulty in learning then the teachers should teach the difficult vocabulary and concepts in advance and they should state the objectives and provide a reason for listening to the study material . They should also teach the mental activities related to listening such as questioning, reviews and mental note making( Bradshaw and Hultquist, 2016) .
They should provide online study guides and techniques for studying and the script of the film and online lectures to the students. During the time of imparting the study lessons to the students, they can provide visuals through the board and can use flash cards. They can even advise the students to close their eyes and visualize the information in their minds. They can also provide the online written reports and artistic creation of the study materials. They can create chart, graphs and tables to make the students understand the learning concepts.
For the students who face difficulties in writing, the alternative forms of reports like oral reports and tape-recorded reports can be accepted by the teachers. The students can make photographic essays through the image tools to represent their learning skills to the teachers(Beetham and Sharpe, 2013).
Identification of the core areas of strengths and areas requiring improvement in developing and using resources
As per Badi, Isfahani, Rouhollahi and Khalili (2016), the core areas of strengths in developing and using the resources are that these resources are student-oriented and create a sense of trust in their abilities. These methods enable the teachers to encourage the students to learn and make them believe in themselves.
These methods have enabled an organized approach in higher education. They enable the teachers to apply a systematic and holistic view and encourage them to know the general application of issues and teach interdisciplinary topics to the students.
The weakness pertaining to developing and adopting the modern teaching methods are sometimes they fail to motivate the students because they lack the skills to access these modern methods of education. It creates lack of interest and motivation amongst the students.
Another weakness is that there is a need for student-oriented teaching techniques but sometimes they are not feasible as per the requirement of the teaching curriculum and large volume of teaching materials and resources. As per Oliva (2016) thus the barriers faced by the students can range from facilities, curriculum, policies, cultures, teaching methodologies and seating arrangements of the students.
Hence to conclude, it can be said that in order to allow a better learning approach amongst the students, the teachers should present the learning content in several forms such as textual and visual content, auditory and tactile content, hands-on exercise, theoretical discussions and media dense content etc.
In order to enable the learning environment to adapt the learning necessities of the students, it is crucial to know the needs of the students. The resource delivery systems should enable each tutor and their support team to recognize the learning needs of the students and to record them in a learning profile. SO, the use of various modern teaching methods should be used wisely by the tutors to adapt to the learning needs of the students.
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