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Literature review on Team and Groups

Describe about the Developing Management Capability for Entrepreneurship Relationships.

This report is based on different aspects and roles of managers he / she have to play in the organisation. Developing manager capabilities is the main area that organisation and individual as a manager shall focus on. This report discusses about team and group development in organisation. How team are formed, main aim behind developing so and how manager competencies come into play while team development and effectiveness. This report discuss about different aspect of team and key definition required to be understood. Another discussion point of this report is different diagnostic models that can be used for identifying team development and managing other competencies in a team. At last, personal development has been developed so as to make analysis of what competencies are required to be developed an how identified competencies can be developed.

One of the most important capabilities that managers of organisation shall possess is of managing people in the business organisation. Among many other features of organisation, team and groups present at work place is one of the core factor of success. Over the last few years teams and groups in the organisation has became most crucial factor in organisational structure. Many theories and models have been developed to manage people in terms of groups and teams in the business organisation. In order to understand these theories or models we need to understand what teams and groups are. Team can be defined as the collection of different individual having different set of skills and abilities (Wilson, 2009). They are formed together for a specific or some specific objectives to be achieved. Team is more of formal collection of individuals having different roles and responsibilities and each one of them is equalled important for achievement of ultimate objective. On the other hand groups in the business organisation can be formal or informal also. There is no specific target behind developing groups or there can be some informal targets behind them. Most peculiar point in group is that; group is also collection of different people having same characteristics and nature and can influence achievement of organisational goals (Whitelaw, 2015). In order to understand different aspects of team and groups exist within organisation and to possess managing capabilities following key terms shall be understood:

Human resource

Initial stage of groups and teams is individuals that part of human resource of the business organisation. Teams and groups are part of and group management is a process of HRM cluster. Managers are responsible for managing groups and teams within the business organisation and they are required to possess different team building capabilities and skills. Managing groups and team is with the scope of management human resource and managers require complete different skills in managing the same (Robbins, 2003). Teams and groups sometimes act as a symbol of organisation as they and their act represent particular organisation.

Group Development

Team Cognition

Team cognition can be defined as the process of developing and self-managing teams or groups within the organisation. Team cognition lead towards developing shared understanding among team or group members by influencing their behaviour. It is very much important for manager who is responsible for managing teams and groups to influence action and behaviour of each member. Manager is required to achieve synergy gain from the pool of different skills and abilities which exist in teams and groups of organisation. Manager developing cognition among teams is required to establish co-ordination among different members and this can be developed through explicit co-ordination or implicit co-ordination (Hällgren, 2010). Other key terms under team cognition is as under:

Team building- Manager has to undertake different steps for building effective team. Manager is required to arrange sequence of different activities that bring team members together.

Decision making process of team or groups- Most important aspect that manager has to develop in groups or teams are the decision making process with teams or groups. Therefore it required different set skill of manager in developing so.

Self Management- Manager has to develop capabilities of self-management among group member so that they are able to identify and respond to threats by their own (Burke et al., 2014).

Most important aspect of group or teams is their development under different circumstances. There are various well known development models that manager of business organisation can implement in order to develop effective group or team within organisation. Therefore another important skill or ability that manager shall possess is of developing groups and teams to achieve defined objectives (Wolfenden, 2015). Following are well know and used team development model that can be used by manager to develop group:

Five-Phase group-development model-

Forming- It is initial stage of developing team within business organisation under which team or group members are first meet and interact with each other in limited manner. At this period of time, roles and responsibilities, target objectives, team leader, manager, co-ordination performance, etc are decided. At this point manager, will be analysing behaviour of members for selecting effective steam leader.

Storming- This phase or stage also known as testing stage in steam development process. At this stage, different members proving themselves as an effective team leader or for securing particular position with the team. Many sub-groups will be formed at this stage, planning and plotting starts at this stage. Manager is required to control member’s activities or inflame those activities.

Meaning of Team and Team Leader

Norming- Norming is the word which is derived from the word norms, which means rules or standards. Therefore at this stage, loud sounds of individual members of the team will comes to an end and managerial capabilities of manager starts. At this of team development, manager has to develop some rules of interaction, behaviour, rules for communication and rules for interacting with each other. Under this stage of team development, manager is required to develop group cohesiveness among different members of the group (Quinn et al., 2015). Group cohesiveness is the development of united and “we” feeling among team members. Group cohesiveness develops the feeling of motivation and inspiration to achieve organisational objectives and manager shall possess such capability or skill.

Performing- At this stage developed team starts working as a team, within organisational structure. Each member in the group is required to perform its own role and is responsible individually. At this stage of team development, communication process and communication channels are important activity that manager has to develop.

Adjourning- This is the conclusion stage in the team development which means, at this stage all objectives of team or group has been achieved and team is no longer required by organisation. At this stage, group ceases to exist and comes to an end. Individual role of each member in the organisations starts from this point (Quinn et al., 2015).

One of the most important aspects of team or group is its team or group leader that leads team to achieve defined objectives. Team leader shall possess required skills and ability that enables him / her to lead effectively. Following are some characteristic of team:

Team leader is the path finder and becomes common activity

After development of team accountability is of team and not of individual member

Own set of rules and objectives that are to be achieved

More focus is on problem solving activities rather of performing activity

Individual effectiveness is not measured any more but steam performance, team cohesiveness and team achievement is measured (Whetten and Cameron, 2011).

In this section of report, different diagnosis tools have been applied so as to identify personal ability and skills to be a competent manager. These tools are made and used to analyse self in terms of capabilities and skills that are required for different management aspects (Yakhlef, 2010). In this report, since team and group development has been under as development of manager capability. In this case, following are some models and theories that shall be used to analyse personal skill and capabilities:

Under Turknett Leadership Character Model a diagnostic tool, there are different activities that are undertaken in order to analyse personal capabilities as manager. This model or diagnostic tool is based on leadership character of manager and it assesses different leadership aspects in individual (Goleman et al., 2004). This tool is base on survey of self and feedback that you get. Main elements of this tool are;

  • Custom Organizational Effectiveness Surveys
  • Leadership character 360
  • Retention index of manager
  • 360 degree feedback
  • Follow-up 360
  • Team characteristics survey

This model is based on personality of individual and these personalities are then compared with roles of the individual in organisation. This model is introduced in 1950 and is treated as personality scale for managers of organisation (Antoncic et al., 2015). Following are five key characteristics of personalities:

  • Openness- Proves strength of mine.
  • Conscientiousness- I as a manager possess moderate level of conscientiousness which means level of care during work.
  • Extraversion / Introversion- This proves to be strength for me as I am socially very active.
  • Agreeableness- This proves weakness for me which means I am lacking at empathy level.
  • Natural reaction- Weakness

(Giluk, 2009)

This tool supports assessment of level of emotional and social competency in developing manager. This model is based on coaching and mentoring manager of organisation in terms of social and emotional intelligence (Bansal and Hingorani, 2013). This tool also serves succession programme for leaders or manger of the organisation. Following are four assessment criteria under this tool:

  • Self-Awareness
  • Social Awareness
  • Self-management
  • Relationship Management



Main strength is academic achievements and requirements of job are achieved under such academic qualification.

Distraction is the main weakness that I need to overcome. There are certain points of time when I get distracted easily from my target.

Critical thinking is another skill that I possess and every manager shall posses while solving problem.  

It is difficult for me to take decisions at last moment or decision making capability under pressure is missing.

Flexibility and easy adaptability is the strength that I possess. Working in a team requires such capabilities.

Initiating any process or any work capability is lacking in me. That means I am lacking in terms of leadership characteristic.

Empathy level is slower side therefore it is difficult for me understand issue at ground level of others. Therefore lacks as a team performer.

(Jessie, 2014)

Based on above diagnostic tools and personal strength and weakness, there are some areas that requires improvement in order to be a successful and competent manager. Following are personal development plan that I need to follow:

The purpose of Learning

Present abilities

Abilities or skills which are required

Opportunities for development

Criteria for achievement



Proof of acquired skills

Efficient Team Performer  

Flexibility and adaptive to change that makes team player in an organisation.

I need to develop empathy social competency so that I can understand what other team member’s issues are and   problem are i.e. at emotional and social ground.

Empathy social competency can be achieved by undertaking different programme. Emotional and Social Competency Inventory is one of the effective programmes that I shall undergo.

Development of ability to understand team member and their nature or issue on social and emotional level (Price, 2012).

It is 3 months programme.

When I became best team player in team and take all team members together at empathic level. When start feeling problem of tem member as of mine.  

To be a Efficient team leader

At present, I have acquired skills and capabilities of effective communication, flexibility, critical thinking and many other skills that a leader shall possess.

Ability to take decision under pressure or at the last moment. Therefore skill or capability of decision making is required to be developed.

Undergoing, Turknett Leadership Character Model is the opportunity for development.  

When I am able to take right decisions under pressure.

3 months are required

When I start contributing my skill and capabilities in decision making process.

(Grainger, 2014)


It can be concluded that, managers are key personnel of the business organisation that supports organisation at different levels. Skill or competencies of managing others in the organisation is required by manager in them so that direction can be provided to them. It can be concluded that team and group plays important role in achievement of organisational objectives in terms of problem solving approach. Competencies in the manager can be developed by different set of models or tool that tests competencies of manager at different levels. Most effective diagnostic tool is The Big five diagnostic tool that measures personality competencies of managers. Personal development plan shall be developed so that different aspects of manager can be achieved or developed.


Antoncic, B., Bratkovic, K., & Singh, T. 2015. The Big Five Personality–Entrepreneurship Relationship: Evidence from Slovenia. Journal of Small Business Management, 53 (3), 819 - 841.

Bansal, I., & Hingorani, P. 2013. Mapping Emotional Competencies of Mahatma Gandhi: A Biographical Analysis Approach. Journal of Human Values, 19 (2), 133 - 145.

Burke, A.E., Benson, B., Englander, R., Carraccio, C. & Hicks, P.J. 2014, "Domain of competence: Practice-based learning and improvement”, Academic pediatrics, vol. 14, no. 2 Supply, pp. S38-S54.

Giluk, T. L. 2009. Mindfulness, Big Five personality, and affect: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 47 (8), 805 - 811.

Goleman D.,Boyatzis, R.E. &McKee, A. (2004), Primal leadership: learning to lead with emotional intelligence, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Mass.

Grainger, A. 2014. Your personal development plan. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants, 8 (1), 6-18.

Hällgren, M. (2010) “Groupthink in temporary organizations” International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 3(1): pp. 94-110

Jessie, E. 2014. Modifying Defining Issues Test (DIT) as a tool for assessing secondary students’ social–emotional competencies. Asia Pacific Education Review, 15 (2), 247 - 256.

Price, B. 2012, "Key principles in assessing students' practice-based learning", Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain): 1987), vol. 26, no. 49, pp. 49.

Quinn, Faerman, Thompson, McGrath & St. Bright, D. (2015). Becoming a Master Manager: A competing values based approach, 6th ed., Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, N.J

Robbins, S.P. (2003), Organisational Behaviour, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River

Whetten, D.A. and Cameron, K.S. (2011) Developing Management Skills, 8th ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Whitelaw, D. 2015, "Training", Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 816.

Wilson, D.G.  (2009), “Leading teams to effective decisions: the vital role of framing” Development and Learning in Organizations, 23(2): pp 6-8

Wolfenden, F. 2015, "Learning in Landscapes of Practice: Boundaries, Identity and Knowledge ability in Practice-Based Learning", Journal of Interactive Media in Education, vol. 2015, no. 1.

Yakhlef, A., Företagsekonomiska institutional, Stockholms universitet & Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten 2010, "The three facets of knowledge: A critique of the practice-based learning theory”, Research Policy, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 39-46.

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