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Development Of Light Rail Transit Framework

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Question:

Discuss about the Development of Light rail Transit Framework.
 
 

Answer:

Introduction

The light rail transit system is developed after making a detailed analysis on the current structure of the city and the problems faced by the people living in the city. The quality of the transportation can be improved with the development of the project and it can also reduce the clog in the city by covering most of the important areas in the city (Rakoczy et al. 2017). The light rail transition is quite similar with the trams but the capacity is increased and it have lower capital cost when compared with the heavy rails.

The report is prepared for adding details about the framework of the light rail transit and a conceptual design is created for analyzing the details. The area that is required to be covered is analyzed and a framework is proposed for the deployment of the light rail framework in Brisbane.

Background

The light rails are separated from the normal traffic and thus can reach the destination faster than the normal transit services. The light rail can run using the overhead electric line or diesel engine depending upon the capacity and the speed for which the system is designed. The busy routes are marked and the important areas that is required to be covered for avoiding congestion in the traffic are documented for the preparation of the report. Some recommendations are made that would help to increase the efficiency of the light rail system and reduce the time of travelling in the report.

Scope

The main scope of the project are as follows:

  • Installation of the overhead electricity lines
  • Layout of the track covering the important areas
  • Modelling of the LRT framework

Objectives

The main objectives of the project is to develop the light rail network are as follows;

  • To reduce the congestion on the road and increase the efficiency of the transportation system
  • To reduce the pollution in the city and increase the land use
  • To implement a ride strategy a priority strategy for the development

Needs of Definition

The meaning of the light rail framework is utilized for separating the light rail transport from alternate methods of transportation utilized as a part of the city. Essentially, the refinement envelops the way that link cars can simply work at low speeds on streets, while LRT vehicles can work like a propelled link car notwithstanding change over quickly to quick running when given their own specific right-of-way (Lijun et al. 2014). The inconvenience in making the capability between light rail and link car is presumably going to stay, with various continuing to consider LRT is essentially a super link auto. This refinement would end up being clearer in the going with section that looks chronicled headway from cable car to light rail transit.

 


For the development of the light rail framework the feasibility of the project is analyzed and a proper idea is fetched from the light rail project deployed in different countries. The history of light rail is studied for adding improvement in the project and increase the efficiency of the project (Winnett et al. 2016). The power sources used for running the vehicle is also evaluated for the preparation of the design of the light rail framework. The use of the underground tunnels for avoiding the congestion in the roadways are also analyzed for the deployment of the LRT system. The risk associated with the deployment of the light rail system is required to be listed and prioritized according to their severity (Ganiron Jr 2016). The risk mitigation plan is required to be developed for addressing the risk and securing the light rail network.

The specialized qualities that is required to be analyzed for the development of the light rail framework are:

  • The tracks are required to be designed such that the vibration is minimized and the journey is comfortable.
  • The tracks are required to be designed to smoothen the corners and reduce the terming radius to less than 25 meters (Seo, Golub and Kuby 2014)
  • The power of the motors are required to be increased for running in the steep slopes and increase the speed of communication
  • The track is required to be combined with the heavy rail tracks and the metro tracks for reducing the cost of the infrastructure
  • The light rails are required to run on a power supply of 600/750 volts and it can also run on 750/ 15 Kv power (Li et al.2015).
  • The noise of the light is required to be reduced and it is required to be ensured that the platforms and the coach have no gaps.
  • The passenger carrying capacity should be around 270 to 200 for meeting the current demand of the city and it should have the option to increase the space by attaching more compartment.
  • In the bustling lanes the LRT can keep running at a speed of 25 to 30 km/hr and the speed increments as the movement abatements and it can achieve a most extreme speed of 100 km/hr (Li, Lu and Lopez 2015). New advances can be connected to build the speed of transportation.

Trams are regarded as the ancestor of the light rail and it has the adaptability to keep running in the urban communities and congested zones and in addition the edges for performing like a speedier suburbanite. New examples in advancement are building up that could open up light rail systems to work with the versatility of transports (Bonotti et al. 2015).  For the achievement of the advancement of the light rail framework the tracks utilized is assessed and the innovation utilized for the improvement of the system, for example, the establishment of the overhead connections, establishment of the changeover for using the overwhelming tracks of the railroads and control of the diesel motor is dissected (Corman et al. 2017). The new advancement innovation are connected to the LRT structure expanding the effectiveness of the light rail framework and evacuating the hazard related with the light rail transportation.

System Operational Requirement

The tracks are required to be aligned according to the route and it is also required to be merged with the heavy rail and the metro rail for reducing the development cost. The voltage supply of from the overhead lines are required to be constant and the transformers are required to be installed at a regular distance for increasing the efficiency of the system. System development best practice is required to be followed for the development of the project and the quality of the equipment’s used for the development of the LRT framework should be maintained for the development of the project.

System Maintenance and Support

The tracks and the overhead lines of the LRT framework is required to be maintained for the avoiding errors in the light rail network. Regular maintenance reduces the risk of shutdown of the system and reliable technical equipment’s are required to be used for the development of the system. The energy efficiency of the devices are required to be maintained and the service are required to be available for supporting the LRT framework.

Technical performance Measures (TPMs)

The technical performance measures are determined for analysis of the reliability, maintenance and performance of the project. The system design is required to be created with the incorporation of different characteristics and attributes for the maintenance of the LRT framework.

Conceptual Design

The LRT framework is intended for Brisbane and the design of the framework is created for covering the primary areas of the city and in addition the business zones. The transport service is required to be improved in the suburbs and the congestion in the roads are avoided for the development of the LRT network. The capacity of the light rail is increased and is required to convey 30,000 to 40,000 travelers per day (Cartledge and Majestic 2015). The cost of deployment of the framework is required to be assessed for the preparation of the conceptual design and develop a cost effective solution for the avoiding the congestion in Brisbane.  The LRT framework is designed such that it can take less space in the city and provide significant benefits for the peoples living in the city and the environment (Boarnet et al. 2013). The land is required to be utilized productively for the improvement of a more advantageous road condition and encourage the developments of the people on foot in the city.

 


For the formation of an underground framework the travel organizers and the development cost of the underground passage is required to be considered. In the most swarmed roads there is a requirement for the usage of raised frameworks for dodging the activity issues and detachment of the whole track and exploit the driverless computerized framework (Cao and Schoner 2014). In addition the rail tracks can be shared for diminishing the cost of the advancement and spare space. The overwhelming rail and the metro rail tracks can be utilized by the LRT for entering the core of the urban regions and it can improve as a modular exchange medium.

Preliminary system design

A preliminary design is required to be created before the deployment of the project and the different phases involved in the development of the project is required to be analyzed. A functional analysis is required to be made for the preparation of the design and the main components required to be included in the design are listed for the development of the project. Various computational tools are used for the preparation of the design and the designers should have efficient knowledge for the preparation of the design.

Functional Analysis and allocation

The functional analysis is important for the development of the project and the outcome of the project is required to be analyzed. The conceptual design is used for analyzing the functionality of the system and the design is prepared according to the requirement of the commuters for avoiding congestion in the roadways and improve the transportation system.

Preliminary design criteria

For the preparation of the LRT framework the different standards that can be used for reducing the errors are analyzed and implemented. The ISO standards are required to be maintained for the implementation of the overhead cables and the electrical equipment used for running the light rail. The electrical drawings are also required to be designed maintaining the standards such that the electrical hazards are removed and the project becomes a success.

 


The essential outline of the LRT relies upon the accompanying elements:

Commuters- The need of the people travelling to different region in the city are required to be considered for analyzing the service they demand and including it in the light rail transit (Ramos-Santiago and Brown 2016). There are different types of commuters using the LRT for different purpose and it is documented below:

  • Business, tourist, shopping reason for the short trek traveler
  • It is utilized by the suburb travelers as diversion and work
  • It is utilized by the understudies for attaining school or college on time
  • It is utilized by the sidestep travelers to move from street to rail or rail to ship
  • Used by patients and workers for maintaining a strategic distance from delay due to congestion on the road

Proposed Administration-The light rail is proposed at an interim of 2 – 3 minutes amid the pinnacle hours and at an interim of 7-8 minutes in the lean hours. It is required to give quicker and reliable transportation service to the travelers.

Management of traffic- To avoid traffic blockage and reduce the congestion in the city the traffic management is important and the management of the traffic can increase the efficiency of the light rail (Brown et al.2015). For the narrow roads a traffic diversion is required to be made for the accommodation of the increased number of vehicles in the city.

Figure 1: LRT Network

(Source: Created by author)

Ticketing framework- The commuters should avoid the queue for getting their tickets from the diverse outlets at an interim of 2 – 3 km and keen card can likewise be utilized by the clients (Brecher and Arthur 2014). The e ticketing framework is required to be conveyed and the server is required to be figured out for recording the points of interest.

Cost of deployment

Item

Cost in Millions

Cost Equivalent

 

French Francs

in A$

Acquisition of the land

149.40

$ 33.79m

Construction of the bridge

595.50

$134.68m

Construction of station

485.00

$109.93m

Construction of the  tracks

658.00

$149.15m

Installation of the control system

15.50

$3.41m

Configuration of the  control signals and communications

79.60

$18.00m

Setup of the power plant

82.80

$18.73m

Installation of overhead cables

33.50

$7.58m

Deployment of the car sets

235.00

$53.15m

SUB TOTAL

2334.3 set-up costs

$528.42m

A proper planning is required to be made for the deployment of the LRT and the course is required to be chosen to cover the most essential parts of the city like school, universities, doctor's facilities, work environment for profiting the clients to achieve their goal at a short interim of time. It is intended to interface all the roadways and the railroads for achieving the distinctive piece of the city in a less time (Currie and Delbosc 2013). For decreasing the movement the busiest piece of the city is additionally required to be secured and power is required to be provided for running the structure.

Detailed Design and Development

The light rail evolved from the trams and is used for urban transportation and works mainly on the primary design of the tramway. The capacity is increased and the speed is increased for the meeting the growing demands. The traditional type of tracks used for sharing the space in the roads and implementation of traffic signal control for avoiding congestion is also implemented for the development of the project. The speed of the vehicles and the frequency of the station are analyzed and documented for .the development of the project.

The report is prepared for including the new equipment’s for increasing the performance of the LRT system and it can be used for different purpose and are reliable when compared with the heavy rail transit.

Documentation

The documentation of the project is important for controlling the quality of the project and different tools are used for the creation of the schedule and estimation of the budget for the development of the project. The raw data are included in the project documentation for testing of the project.

 

Engineering tools and technologies

Analytical model and tools are used for the computation of the requirement of the project and CAD is used for creation of a 3D model. The schedule of the project is created and the project manager is assigned to monitor the progress of the project according to the created schedule.

Analytical Models and Modelling

For the evaluation of the conceptual modelling different analytical tools and models are used. The use of the models helps in increasing the efficiency of the development of the project and for the application of the analytical model in the project development the design, testing and support for logistics are considered. The possible options for that can be applied are also evaluated for linking the project development with the requirement.

Conclusion

From the above report it can be concluded that with the development of the LRT the transportation system of the system would be improved and it would help to develop a smart city. The people using the light rail for commuting different parts of the city can save a lot amount time and money. The traffic jams can be avoided with the increased use of the light rail transit because the light rail transit runs on separate track and underground route can also be used for communication. The challenges faced by the transportation industry can be resolved with the use of the light rail transportation. The landscape of the city can be changed and it also reduces the pollution in the city making a better place to live. The light rail is more secure than any other transportation and air pollution can be reduced to a great extent. The less congestion in the road also reduces the chances of accidents and the efficiency of the light rail can be increased by increasing the speed and covering the mostly populated areas, schools, workplace in the city.  

Recommendations

It is recommended that the following measures are required to be taken for the improvement of the light rail framework and increase the efficiency of the current transportation system.

Creation of a proper layout design- A layout of the city and the important areas required to be covered for avoiding the congestion is required to be created for the deployment of the light rail transit.

Addition of service- The schedule of the rails is required to be available to the commuters for increasing the efficiency of the system and use the light rail network efficiently.

Covering the main area- For meeting the needs of the commuters the rail network is required to be created covering the densely populated areas of the city and the main places like schools, hospitals and workplace. This would reduce the congestion in the streets to a significant level.

 

References

Boarnet, M.G., Hong, A., Lee, J., Wang, X., Houston, D. and Spears, S., 2013. The exposition light rail line study: a before and after study of the impact of new light rail transit service. Sol Price School of Public Policy, University of Southern California.

Bonotti, R., Rossetti, S., Tiboni, M. and Tira, M., 2015. Analysing Space-Time Accessibility Towards the Implementation of the Light Rail System: The Case Study of Brescia. Planning Practice & Research, 30(4), pp.424-442.

Brecher, A. and Arthur, D., 2014. Review and evaluation of wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric transit applications (No. FTA Report No. 0060).

Brown, B.B., Werner, C.M., Tribby, C.P., Miller, H.J. and Smith, K.R., 2015. Transit use, physical activity, and body mass index changes: objective measures associated with complete street light-rail construction. American journal of public health, 105(7), pp.1468-1474.

Cao, X.J. and Schoner, J., 2014. The influence of light rail transit on transit use: An exploration of station area residents along the Hiawatha line in Minneapolis. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 59, pp.134-143.

Cartledge, B.T. and Majestic, B.J., 2015. Metal concentrations and soluble iron speciation in fine particulate matter from light rail activity in the Denver-Metropolitan area. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 6(3), pp.495-502.

Corman, F., Kraijema, S., Godjevac, M. and Lodewijks, G., 2017. Optimizing preventive maintenance policy: A data-driven application for a light rail braking system. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability, p.1748006X17712662.

Currie, G. and Delbosc, A., 2013. Exploring comparative ridership drivers of bus rapid transit and light rail transit routes. Journal of Public Transportation, 16(2), p.3.

Ganiron Jr, T.U., 2016. Technological Evolution of Manila Light Rail Transit System. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 89, pp.9-16.

Li, H., Peng, J., Liu, W. and Huang, Z., 2015. Stationary Charging Station Design for Sustainable Urban Rail Systems: A Case Study at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. Sustainability, 7(1), pp.465-481.

Li, T., Lu, J. and López, L.M., 2015. Preface: Intelligent techniques for data science. International journal of intelligent systems.

Lijun, D., Kan, D., Leiting, Z., Lei, W. and Jie, C., 2014. Dual DSPs-FPGA structured traction control system for urban rail transit vehicle. Transactions of China Electrotechnical Society, 1, p.024.

Rakoczy, P., Wilson, N., Bruce, I. and Myers, S., 2017, April. Performance of Passenger Rail Vehicles Under Blast Conditions: Testing and Modeling. In 2017 Joint Rail Conference (pp. V001T02A002-V001T02A002). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Ramos-Santiago, L.E. and Brown, J., 2016. A comparative assessment of the factors associated with station-level streetcar versus light rail transit ridership in the United States. Urban studies, 53(5), pp.915-935.

Seo, K., Golub, A. and Kuby, M., 2014. Combined impacts of highways and light rail transit on residential property values: A spatial hedonic price model for Phoenix, Arizona. Journal of Transport Geography, 41, pp.53-62.

Winnett, J., Hoffrichter, A., Iraklis, A., McGordon, A., Hughes, D.J., Ridler, T. and Mallinson, N., 2016, November. Development of a very light rail vehicle. In Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Transport (pp. 1-12). Thomas Telford Ltd.

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