While insulin forms the basis of diabetic treatment, the regimen, formulation and administration would vary by contexts of the passes. The administration may be through injection, inhalation or other form, but all work towards the tempo of insulin’ action (enactment) and diminishing of hypoglycemia and glucose variability (Tibaldi, 2012). The bolus insulin is a novel short-acting category of insulin which helps control of glycemic level by facilitating food absorption and insulin. The substances are absorbed quite rapidly than natural human insulin. Bolus usually requires greater basal insulin supply due to their shorter action duration. Again under this category different types of insulin have differential effects based on administration for type 1 diabetes. Similarly, Basal insulin includes longer functioning and intermediate functioning insulin. These types of insulin lower the level of blood glucose more gradually and stay longer than the rapid acting insulin. Under this category too different types of insulin have differential effects based on administration for type 2 diabetes. It is realized that in spite of the advances brought forward in terms of development of insulin, provision of better coverage of physiologic type of basal insulin and reduction of risk associated with hypoglycemia risk continues to exist (Tibaldi, 2012). Hence further research would be able to develop better strategy of insulin delivery to optimal level.
Before human insulin came to being, till 1980, diabetic treatment greatly depended on animal based insulin, mainly from cow and pigs. Currently use of human insulin has taken over animal insulin largely even if availability of animal insulin continues. In contrast to human based insulin, the porcine insulin, or pork insulin varies biochemically from the former by an additional residue of amino acid. The porcine insulin is often less soluble than human insulin, hence the latter is more rapidly absorbed. Bovine insulin which is prepared from cow greatly resembles with human insulin but varies by molecular structure with 3 residues of amino acid (Naik et al. 2011). While side effects from Insulin use in case of diabetics could be uncommon, some cases may lead to allergy. Few of them even cause severe and significant magnitude of risk towards health. Mild allergy resulting into itching, swelling or sustained kind of nausea added with vomit could also surface as side effect of insulin (Naik et al. 2011). Inhalable type of insulin is a sort of new development which came into being for a short time during 2006-07 and again a year back mainly in UK and USA. While it was considered useful for type 2 and to some extent type 1 diabetic treatment, it did not get better acceptance in many circle due to poor cost effectiveness (Sélam, 2008). Advances in recent days are increasingly emerging in use and formulation of insulin mainly in intensiveness of administration. Some of them are possibility of needle less injection and without pain delivery. New technology on inhaling devices of insulin that can help formulation in the form of fine particle based powder. These technologies ensure better delivery system in terms of maintaining release of optimal amount, flow rate and volume of insulin required by patients.
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