1. An introduction to IoT and M2M communications including some examples of current or proposed IoT applications.
2. The key components in the Internet of Things (IoT) and M2M, and in particular the role of wireless technologies.
3. Key considerations in the design of wireless technologies for M2M communications.
4. A summary of the main wireless technologies used, proposed, or being developed for provided M2M communications.
5. A Technical overview of 802.11ah.
Technology has advanced at a rapid rate. With the proper integration of information technology in the lives of human beings, it has become possible to make the lives of human beings much easy. With the help of internet of things, it has become possible to send important data and essential files without the actual movement of human beings from one place (Wang and Zhang, 2012). The internet of things can be described as the interaction of machines and human beings. With the help of this study, the researcher will be able to study about the internet of things in a detailed way.
IoT is represented as the Internet of things that are generally evolved for the creation of the convergence of the multiple technologies that are required for the continuation of the wireless communication process. It is also known as the human centric internet and thus the things are also helpful for the proper communication of the process with the help of the internet (Andreev et al., 2015). The Internet of the things helps in indicating the challenges and the opportunities that are used for delivering the process that are used in the development of the technology.
The M2M communications defines to describe the networked devices that are used for delivering the network exchanges by the development of the networked services and thus it also helps in the development of the issues that are related to the actions created by the performance of the humans. The M2M communication is often used for the carrying out the process of the remote monitoring which is usually seen in the product restocking (Theoleyre and Pang, 2013). For example, the distributor can receive the message of a vending machine when a particular item or the product is running low. It also helps in providing the important aspects in the management of the warehouses, remote control, fleet management, telemedicine and the chain management. Thus, it shows the basic forms of the concept for the Io T i.e. the internet of things.
2. Key components of the IoT and M2M
The key components of the M2M is generally includes the sensors, RFID and a Wi-Fi or the cellular communication links that are categorised for the development of the proper process (Shih, Wei and Lin, 2016). It shows the improvement of the key components that are required for the proper integration of the software program services that are used for the networking interpretation of the devices and thus, the proper decision making system and the telemetry communication systems are raised by the help of the development of operational data.
The key components of the IoT cover the industrial applications that are crucial for the proper management of the devices. It also helps in providing different communications for the different interpretation of the data and the services. Thus the key components represent the communication system, hardware, software, backbone, cloud platform or the data broker, machine learning and the protocols (SeÌnac, Ott and Seneviratne, 2012). Thus it also helps in the proper enhancement of the platform that helps in the creation of the communication system. Thus these are the key component that are identified in the case of the IoT and the M2M communications that are helpful for carrying out the operations for the technological advancement.
Roles of IoT and M2M in Wireless Technology
The roles that are played by the case of the development of the technological systems also helps in showing the applications of the IoT and the M2M which are helpful for carrying out the process of the development of the categories (Minoli, 2013). It also helps in the proper enhancement of the hardware modules that are related to the hardware embedding process. The roles of the devices show the detailed information for the usage of the existing features that are required for the growth and the covering of the inherent features of the devices. It also helps in categorising the implementation factors that are essential for the development of the communication systems with the usage of the wireless technology. The roles also focuses on the wireless technology advancement, encryption technologies are used for the process of the data security, creation of the device server gateway and the technological usage which indicates the smart parking of the automobiles, smart home with the usage of the automatic ordering and the automatic tracking of the health records (Kim, Lee and Lee, 2014). It also helps in the tracking of the locations of the individual pieces of the inventory and it also helps in the improvement of the safety and the security controls.
3. Considerations for Designing the Wireless Technology for M2M Communication
The major factors that need to be considered at the time of implementing of internet of things are-
Data rate- the rate of data transfer is an important aspect of the internet of things. At the time of implementing of internet of things, it is necessary to understand and determine the rate of data transfer. The data transfer rate determines the speed of the connection (Hersent and Elloumi, 2012).
Power consumption- technology requires the consumption of electricity in order to run the different components of the internet. It is very much essential to take the rate of power consumption at the time of installing the systems. The systems should be designed n such a way that the rate of power consumption is minimal.
Data periodicity- data periodicity is the frequency at which data is transmitted from the source. In the data periodicity is the factor that determines the interval in which the data is transmitted
Data security- When there is an interaction between machine and machine, the data that is being transferred might get modified or stolen. So data security is very much essential.
Frequency band- The data is sent via electromagnetic waves. The frequency of the electromagnetic carrier waves is an important factor to be considered (Floerkemeier et al., 2008).
Portable or fixed- At the time of installing the setup, it is necessary to determine whether the setup for data interaction is potable or fixed
Real time or offline- The data retrieval can be of two types- real time or offline. The administrator should decide the most suitable data retrieval system
Dependence on other for QoS- It is very much essential to take into consideration the third party service providers who provide internet at the time of emergency.
4. Summary of the Main Wireless Technologies Proposed or Developed for Provided M2M Connections
The main proposed wireless technologies for the M2M connections are-
IEEE 802.15.4- This technology also called ZigBee is catching the trend among wireless service providers. The main feature of this technology is that the requirement of power is much less and the cost is also very less for the installing of the setup. This device has the capability to connect with multiple devices (Boswarthick, Elloumi and Hersent, 2012).
IEEE 802.11- Also known as the Wi-Fi, this technology is the most common wireless technology that is being implemented at the present times. With the help of this technology, it has become possible to connect to large number of devices without much problem. The cost of the device is quite low and the device is also power efficient
IEEE 802.15.1- Commonly known as Bluetooth, this device is also very popular. This device is a low range high speed data transfer device that is found in many mobile devices
IEEE 802.16- The Li-Max technology also commonly known as LTE is a widely used technology that has the maximum data transfer rate of 30-40 Mbps. This is the fastest mobile data connection that is existent in the world (Coleman and Westcott, 2012).
Li-Fi- The most recent developments in the fields of wireless communications is the Li-Fi. This also follows the same technology as that of the Wi-Fi using IEEE 802.11 technology. This is the fastest wireless connection existent in the world.00
5. Technical Overview of 802.11ah
The overview of the 802.11ah denotes the baseline design that creates the changes and the variations of the bandwidth. The range of the support is depicted as the support range of about 1kilometer radius. The mode speed of the environment is depicted as the 150kbps which depicts the double guard interval and also helps in the creation of the longer time period. The time period levels are depicted as the CCA levels that can be divided into two types that are Type 1-predominantly used for the sensors STA’s and the Type 2- predominantly used for the non-sensor STA’s (Aust, 2014). It shows the extended range of the Wi-Fi applications up to 11ah and thus the range can be fully described in creation to the variability of the areas. The features that are consisted by the 802.11ah MAC are the reduction of the active time Tx/Rx, increment of the standby time, reduction of the channel across the time with the process of the pseudo-scheduling and the grouping stations.
With the proper linking of internet and technology in the lives of human beings, the lives of humans have become not only easy but have also sped up. The internet of things has helped people to communicate and interact in a much easy and effective manner. This study has helped the researcher to understand the important components internet of things.
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