Describe about the Dimensions and Antecedents of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)?
While executing any study with considering organizational citizenship behaviour or OCB as the study area, it is very essential to understand the concept in details. It is noted that OCB is a specific thought of discretionary behaviour of individual people, which is not related with the job description. Rather, it implies the personal choices of people (Almenara DiÌaz de Pezo, 2013). Various researchers have identified that the concept of OCB revolves around three major aspects:
1] It goes away from the fundamental prerequisite of job;
2] To a large extent discretionary in nature; and
3] Provide benefits towards the organization;
Throughout this study, the researcher is intended to evaluate various past studies related to OCB to obtain a clear idea about it along with the gap exists in their studies.
Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
Mohammad et al. (2011) designed the study in order to measure the dimension of the OCB (Organisational Citizenship Behaviour). Apart from that, this study also analysed the facts that relates with the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. This study has explored that the intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction are very much essential aspect of predicting the organisational citizenship behaviour. Throughout this study, the author tried to assess the relation between organisational citizenship behaviour and satisfaction from job. The researcher of this study investigated the effect of two dimension of job satisfaction, intrinsic and extrinsic. Apart from that, this study analyses and investigated the two dimension of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour that are OCBI and OCBO. In order to analyse the information, researcher used social exchange theory in this particular journals (Akinbode, 2011). The norms and forms of social exchange theory explain the analogy maintenance balance between the organisation and their employees. Through this journal, it has been identified that Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is one of the formal reward system process. OCB allows the management or the CEO of the organisation in the business industry to aggregate as well as to promote the functioning that effective for the organisation. Apart from that, Alabak, Peker and Booth (2015) generalized tat OCB is one of the processes that generates success for organisation through engaging employees in one relationship. On the other hand, Almenara DiÌaz de Pezo (2013) argued that Organisational behaviour directed the employees towards individual. Organisational citizenship behaviour allows the employees in performing individual work within the workplace of a business organisation. Moreover, Organisation Citizenship Behaviour helps in identifying the problems that relates with the organisational growth and effectiveness. Furthermore, researcher discussed that Organisational Citizenship Behaviour also directed the employees, operational process towards, and organisation’s own perspective such as develop the product based on the supply. Organisational Citizenship Behaviour helps in befitting the actions of an organisation particularly. From the point of view of job satisfaction of the employees within the workplace of the organisation in business industry, organisational citizenship behaviour is contributing several factors in both physically and mentally to the employees. CHEN et al. (2012) cited that Organisational Citizenship Behaviour contributed several methods towards the employees in terms of generating benefit for their well being.
For this particular case study, researcher selected the probability sampling method in order to select the respondents during collection of primary data. 60 staffs including librarian of the University of Kebangsaan Malaysia was selected for the interview in terms of gathering primary data. Researcher develops 79 questionnaires for the respondents that closely related to the chosen topic. The questions are prepared in the bilingual model. Data were collected through the interviews an survey. Researcher conducted the face to face interviews for collecting information in this case study. For analysing data, researcher used the quantitative data analysis technique. Through the questionnaires, it has been measured that within the organisational process, value of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is much important and effective factor regarding satisfaction of job for the employees. This study proved the high internal consistency is the most valuable aspects of job satisfaction of the employees in any industry. The researcher of these journals indicated that intrinsic job satisfaction of employees is positively and significantly related with the Organisational Citizenship behaviour Christ et al. (2003). On the other hand, this study also identified that job satisfaction of extrinsic is also closely attached with the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour.
Evaluation of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour
In this particular article, the researcher mainly evaluated the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour in some organisation in the Zimbabwe region (Chiboiwa et al. 2011). The analyst of this study represented that job satisfaction level have to be high from the point of view of employees of the organisation in terms of generating organisational success in current and sustain the organisation in future. Employees and the customers are key aspects of business. Therefore, job satisfaction of employees allowed the organisation in satisfying their customer and increase profitability. Through the entire study, researcher represented that job satisfaction of employees within the workplace of organisation especially in the business environment in order to achieve the organisational goals. Intrinsic and extrinsic is the two important factor of organisational citizenship behaviour that allows the organisation in motivating their staffs and satisfied them in their current role of job. It has been also identified that motivation and satisfaction of employees are the key terms of generating higher consistency and production in organisation. Apart from that, Harris (2012) opined that dimensions of the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour are the effective methodology of satisfied employees in their role of work within workplace. Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is the key aspects of the employment and satisfying them in their work.
In order to analyse the effectiveness of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, researcher used quantitative data analysis method in this particular study. Through the questionnaires, researcher administered more than 1202 employees from different organisation in the region of Zimbabwe. Therefore, researcher measured that Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is the effective process of engagement employees with the organisation. Random sampling was used for measuring the population of this study. Moreover, researcher through the random sampling procedure selected the respondents in a proper way. Moreover, the result was positive.
However, researcher for this studies unable to understand the process of working of the dimensions of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour regarding job satisfaction. The population of this study provides bias information in order to save their job in their respected organisation where they working currently Hooi (2012). Apart from that, the working condition with the employees for this study was very poor that make unable to gather appropriate information for conducting suitable study.
For future work based on this topic, researcher have to engaged more staffs through proper norms and forms and motivate them in providing right information that will be effective and efficient for successful conduction of study.
Organisational Behaviour for the environment
In order to improve the environmental practice, organisation has to provide better job satisfaction to their employees (Boiral and Paillé 2012). Apart from that, job satisfaction of employees also allows in clear performance of the organisation in business environment. Researcher conducts this study because the effectiveness and role as well as responsibilities of the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour still remain unexplored. Therefore, this study analysed the formal management system for the organisation in business environment in terms of providing better job satisfaction such as energy efficiency process, recycling of waste materials, sorting the working time, etc (Kazemipour and Mohd Amin, 2012). The main objective that followed by the researcher in this case study was to identify as well as validate the instrument of measuring process of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour.
The method that used in this article by the researcher is mainly for the studying for the effectiveness and validating the efficiency of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. In order to validate the efficiency of the measurement instrument of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour, researcher used the several step such as analysed the data using deductive research approach. Deductive research approach helps in identifying the effectiveness of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour because it first gather information and then hypothesis of gather data for generating a suitable outcome. Researcher constructed the post positivism research philosophy in this research study for constructing the correspondence and operational procedure for the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour measurement instrument (Teh and Sun, 2012). Therefore, more than 1200 staffs of different organisation in the business environment was selected by the analyst of this research due to collecting of primary data that very much effective (Toga, Khayundi and Mjoli, 2014). Random as well as probability sampling method have been used by the researcher in terms of selecting the respondent for interview (Tsai and Wu, 2010). Through the quantitative data analysis technique, researcher was conducted the data analysis part and generates suitable research for this study.
The main limitation for this study was that, researcher does not get enough time for gathering information and analysis that data properly. Therefore, all the information of this particular study is unable to provide appropriate idea. The key measurement of this particular study was that generate the job satisfaction for the employees in business organisation.
For future research, need to gather information more from the several part of the region throughout the world and conduct an analysis with appropriate tools such as SPSS. This can allow the researcher in identifying the role of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour for the environment properly.
Through the above discussion, it has been seen that intrinsic and extrinsic are the two main dimensions of the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. Both the dimensions allow management or CEO of business organisation or educational industry in satisfying job of heir employee. However, from the above discussion it has been also identified that job satisfaction and appropriate measurement of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour is the key aspects of developing business and maintain the formal duties and responsibilities towards goals and objectives of organisation.
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