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Discussed In This Critique Is Shortcomings Observed In Accounting

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1.To what magnitude does the shortfalls in the PAT research application occasioned the ineffectiveness of PAT research program than forecast?

2.How does PAT research applied presently in accounting practice?




The underlying topic discussed in this critique is shortcomings observed in accounting practice which has fell short of the dominant cosmic positivist research program. The central purpose of this critique is to appraise censoriously the Paul V Dunmore’s “Half a Defense of Positive Accounting Research”. This will demonstrate the influence of inadequacies in practice in attaining the potential of the authoritative extensive positive accounting theory research program. The main thesis is that without satisfactory practice in PAT research program, the prospective dominant comprehensive positivist research program shall be unachievable (Christie 2007).

The author argues that the contemporary practice in PAT seem like very demonstrative of mounting the scientific purposes. The author additionally upheld that besides the inconsistencies accounting practice, “normal’ science grants a groundwork and a background anchored on Kuhn’s calamity in addition to uprising since it stays possible to discharge PAT to appreciate its anticipated potential. The analysis assumes the following structure to profligately capture the foremost argument acknowledged overhead.

It begins with an ephemeral summary of this article by concentrating principally on the leading argument as presented in the Paul’s article. It will include the aim, main findings and theoretical framework and significance of the study. The next section delves deeper into study question. This section will mainly determine the research question and hypothesis presented in the article. The discussion of hypothesis and the research question’s value as recognized in the article is also given in this section.  Section two will primarily determine if the research question and hypothesis clearly flow from the literature review.  The next section details the theoretical framework whereby the appreciation alongside discussion of the framework is presented besides the theoretical framework that informed this study. The next section provides a protracted discussion of limitation alongside implication. The deficiencies of theory alongside the methodological approach are detailed. It also look at whether the study has appreciated such weakness or limitations. Further, whether the researcher has drawn conclusions based on the assumed methodology is authenticated. This section further establishes whether the recognized limitations have impacted the significance and substance of the article in regards to accounting practices anchored on results established vis-à-vis the method of the study. In the final section, a brief conclusion and summary of the entire discussion is presented pointing out the significant facts as well as highlighting the entire critique’s limitation to the accounting practice.



The article being critiqued was written by Paul V Dunmore’s “Half a Defense of Positive Accounting Research”. The article fundamentally discusses the PAT research program as concocted by Watts and Zimmerman. This claim was staked by the Watts and Zimmerman to the Positive Accounting Theory (PAT) for their assumed theory. The scholar pursued the scrutiny of the positive methodology to the accounting research.

Paul viewed PAT research program as an important constituent of a wide-ranging well-informed project of scientific research. This program is pursued to understand the cause-effect relationship in the essential research world. Paul has successively viewed PAT in the broader viewpoint of research program which aims at developing causal intensification of the human behavior under accounting setting (Volovski et al. 2017).

The researcher has furthermore undertaken a scrutiny of epistemology in addition to ontology of PAT program.  Plentiful valuations surrounding statistical hypothesis logic while cursorily conforming to construction standard of Popper have moreover been recorded as mediocre. Paul has moreover recognized that besides the inclusive PAT program being hypothetically impressive, the insufficiencies in practice deter the apprehension of the program’s needed potential (Dunmore 2011).

The extensive happenstances hindering the PAT program have likewise been documented besides the casual creation of theoretical models that necessitates testing as well as unwarranted reliance on logic hypothesis testing (Roth, Suldo and Ferron 2017). Nonexistence of interest in statistical value of parameters together with insufficient replication to permit confidence in determining the reception have supplementary been recognized as shared incapacitations (Dunmore 2011).  Using theories as standards for investigating alongside assessing qualitative data rather than as intensifications for tests is an additionally shared challenge fronting PAT program. The researcher has additionally considered evidence from pertinent alongside trustworthy articles for the authentication of the views presented in this article (Christie 2007).

The researcher also appraised the broader well-informed project alongside the ontological as well as epistemological assumptions to comprehend both the implication as well as irregularities of positive accounting research. The appraisal uncovered serious shortcomings in the manner that PAT study is undertaken that hinders it from realizing evocative contribution to the inclusive project (Kim et al. 2017).

Paul foreshadowed that the present practice in accounting leaves PAT with considerable clumsiness to reach the envisioned scientific purposes. Though, Paul displayed self-confident that Kuhn’s illumination of the “normal” science competently fits the PAT research (Kim et al. 201).  The predictions of Kuhn’s story are clarified in brief based on Kuhnian crisis together with insurgence. It is believed that such a crux as well as insurgence is repressed to unlock the PAT accordingly achieving its jammed potential (Pandey et al. 2017).



The author has engaged many hypotheses besides research questions and clarified that he is never declared their truth, but somewhat just fact-finding for a “passionate deferment of amazement” to authorize their consistent conversation. Four hypotheses are highlighted by Paul and developed independently hesitantly, mindful that for plentiful of human being, they might have imagined outrageous and wicked and that seemingly an unwarranted fraction of humanity might bear to discern.


  1. There is a world of self-governing of fancy of people that was never created by persons and its activities are not subjected to the ambitions of folks control
  2. It was feasible for normal folks to get impartially dependable information around the events of the world via considerate reflection. This, nevertheless, not ever imply that folks will never once be mistaken the point they are witnessing, rather such comments are never exclusively unrelated to such a world
  3. The logical scrutiny bestows to use observations to attain a comprehension of such a world, and precisely of interconnection. This suggests that people pursue mental models that indeed map the procedure of causal that transpire in such a realm
  4. The proceedings of this world have practicalities that are unconventionally component of the world therefore suggesting that neither totally haphazard nor the results of the interruptions from alfresco world

Theoretical Framework

A theoretical framework assumed by Paul evolved from a positivist position of a displeased hypothetical physicist whose accounting research stayed positivist emphasizing either model testing/ building. The disapprovals of the author, consequently, dedicated the position of an individual discriminating that the study arrangement is amazing, however distressed by the unskilled and unfertile diversities that are currently practiced in accounting. Paul used this understanding to instinct both editors besides referees to prefer such arrangements to shove the modern arrangements towards the deliverance of PAT research to realize the wanted prospective.

The article’s theoretical substance, consequently, builds on the acknowledgment from the literature review on auditing that thoughtful shortages occur in the modern practice in accounting research thereby obstructing PAT research program from making a material effect to the broader project. This is predestined to founding positive accounting research as a deep-rooted social system to contribute to the scheme of scientific investigation (Fleischman et al. 2017). 

The framework is devoted on the awareness that favorable findings of Kuhn (1970) research would be desperate to stimulate elites to hold a more than ever operative model. The author additionally differentiates an amnesty offered by the info that ascended from the study by Fogarty and Markarian in 2007 that implied elites’ proportional deportment being diminishing. Thus, the author predictable imminent upcoming tragedy and the opportunity for the assumption of an additionally ever respected model.

Paul consecutively based his premise on suggesting proposals for actions by editor in chief as well as arbitrators to nudge the contemporary schemes in the direction of redeeming PAT investigation to hit its jam-packed potential. The author is informed by the acknowledgement that it is significant to appreciate the global Modus Operandi and later viewed it as undesirability that the connected to investigation watercourse is unfertile and ineffective, and, henceforth he has delivered definite proposals for advancement.


Limitation and Significance

The systematic review of available literature on auditing via the qualitative technique assumed in this investigation is devoted to certain limitations or inadequacies. A probability of carrying onward certain errors and liabilities made by preceding investigators into the modern study is high labels one of such limitations. Furthermore, the technique limits the building of fresh results since there is no chance to collect the primary data where secondary data is used which did not capture the differences professionally.

The author has moreover documented the absence of improved dimensions to document demanding theoretical models testing due to failed notions operationalization. The nonexistence of standardized trustworthy unshakable relationship-focused way to be adopted in each study’ measuring is additional limitation confessed. The recurrent dimension’s re-invention besides re-estimation of parameters with individual sample a study has additionally been recognized as the shortcoming to PAT research from achieving its teeming prospective.

Additional limitation in the theory assumed in this study is the lack of theoretical models that are tremendously specified and, therefore, it is vulnerable to permit thorough testing. Paul has documented these limitations by suggesting the need for better theoretical models. This proposal arises from the background of the developing luxurious models from analytical research that are not ever admissible to be test due to their inacceptable development together with concentration on controllability hinged on concepts that  are never meritoriously distinct hypothetically to permit operationalization (Watts and Zimmerman 2012).

Paul has positively drawn hypothetical implications from the study which are defensible systematically. This is because the limits have been acknowledged from the systematic review of the previous auditing literature that have in turn molded the basis for proposing enhancements to allow positive research to meet its chockfull potential.  The recommended need for ever-changing focus away from the testing hypotheses towards estimating parameters afterwards being informed by the attentiveness of testing hypothesis from the previous reviewed studies (Pandey et al. 2017).

The precincts have meaningfully censoriously biased the insinuation of the study even though they have concomitantly unreservedly disadvantaged the contribution of the article to the accounting practice. This is caused by the awkwardness in methodology together with theories in the article that did not avail chance that present dependable results, nevertheless, the accounting is better going forward by suggesting recommendation that are indispensable to describe subsequent study to sanction PAT study to recognize  its jam-packed package.



The author has exhumed that models that are tremendously stated and, hence, remarkably defenseless, besides being undertaken extremely as thorough testing subjects are required. Paul has further accredited that deplorable progress is ongoing in positive accounting research as a conventional upshot of using ad hoc quantitative models which are debilitated to meagre statements of the predictable sign of a connection between two factors (Volovski et al. 2017).



Baiman, S., 2010. Agency research in managerial accounting: A second look. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 15(4), pp.341-371.

Bertomeu, J., Darrough, M. and Xue, W., 2017. Optimal conservatism with earnings manipulation. Contemporary Accounting Research, 34(1), pp.252-284.

Christie, A.A., 2007. On cross-sectional analysis in accounting research. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 9(3), pp.231-258.

Dillard, J. and Vinnari, E., 2017. A case study of critique: Critical perspectives on critical accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 43, pp.88-109.

Dunmore, P.V., 2011. Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research. Available at SSRN 1955419.

Dunmore, P.V., 2011. Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research.

Faff, R.W., Carrick, R., Chen, A., Escobar, M., Khong, B.X.M., Nguyen, B.H. and Tunny, W., 2017. Fantasy Pitching III: UQ Summer Research Scholars–the Role of'Money'in the 21st Century.

Fleischman, G.M., Stephenson, T., Walker, K.B. and Cook, K.A., 2017. Factors that Influence Accounting Faculty Career Satisfaction: Comparisons by Program Prestige and Tenure Status. Accounting Horizons.

Franco, A. and Roach, S.S., 2017. Factors That Determine Accounting Anxiety Among Users of English as a Second Language Within an International MBA Program. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 16(1).

Kim, H.J., Min, A., Im, S.A., Jang, H., Lee, K.H., Lau, A., Lee, M., Kim, S., Yang, Y., Kim, J. and Kim, T.Y., 2017. Anti?tumor activity of the ATR inhibitor AZD6738 in HER2 positive breast cancer cells. International Journal of Cancer, 140(1), pp.109-119.

Pandey, S.K., Pandey, S., Breslin, R.A. and Broadus, E.D., 2017. Public Service Motivation Research Program: Key Challenges and Future Prospects.

Roth, R.A., Suldo, S.M. and Ferron, J.M., 2017. Improving Middle School Students' Subjective Well-Being: Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention Targeting Small Groups of Youth. School Psychology Review.

Volovski, M., Murillo-Hoyos, J., Saeed, T.U. and Labi, S., 2017. Estimation of Routine Maintenance Expenditures for Highway Pavement Segments: Accounting for Heterogeneity Using Random-Effects Models. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, p.04017006.

Watts, R.L. and Zimmerman, J.L., 2010. Positive accounting theory: a ten year perspective. Accounting review, pp.131-156.

Watts, R.L. and Zimmerman, J.L., 2012. Positive accounting theory.

Williams, P.F., 2009. The logic of positive accounting research. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 14(5), pp.455-468.


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