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Dissertation Sample: Recruitment And Selection Process Of Public Sector In Bangladesh
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The study here deals with the effectiveness in the recruitment process of the overall public sector of the Bangladesh. The researcher for the matter of convenience has taken the case study of Bangladesh Public service commission recruitment process. The taking of the case study enabled the researcher to conduct a detail analysis about the recruitment procedure. And by analyzing the recruitment process of one company the researcher can get a clear view of the whole sector. The project highlights the general problems of the public sector and these problems not only exist in the public service commission but also in the other public sector organizations. The project analyses the total recruitment system of the country and the loopholes related to the existing system. The researcher here analyses the methods of recruitment, the flaws in the system, and the problems of the officials. The research also includes the collection of primary data as well as the secondary data from the various sources. The researcher in spite of different limitations took the interviews of the managers of different levels and tried to acknowledge the problems they are facing with the process of recruitment.
Chapter 1 of the study deals with the introduction about the topic and gives in brief the background history of 6the BPSC. According to the experts the research work on any material is not an easy job. The researcher always needs to study a lot of books, journals and even websites for the purpose of the completion of the research. The researcher here state in the problem statement that although the work was faced by a lot of limitations in regard of availability of any secondary material still the researcher succeeded in attaining a fruitful result. The topic was a very rare topic hence the researcher had a difficulty in finding both primary and secondary data. The researcher r at the very beginning mentioned the aims of the project or rather the aim of the research in conducting the study. Then the researcher specified the objectives of the project. The rest of the project is based on the objectives thus set by the researcher. In the objectives the researcher pointed out only the important objectives that are the evaluation of the influencing factors, the loopholes in the system, the effectiveness of the prevailing system and the applications of the theories which are mentioned in chapter 2. Then the researcher points out the research questions which are the basic of the questionnaire thus formed for the survey propose. Finally the researcher draws out the research structure. This enables the person reading the report to understand the items of the project I short without going into a detail study.
In the chapter 2 the researcher took the different theories and explained their social implication. In chapter 3 the researcher has mentioned the process in which he will conduct the research which includes the research methodology the concept of the research onion, the sample size, target of the research, the research philosophy, the technique in which the research will be followed. The researcher here has taken the help of the positivism philosophy for the purpose of the completion of the research. The approach adopted by the researcher is deductive and the research design used is descriptive because the researcher is familiar with the topic and he can conduct a survey in this respect. The researcher has taken the help of only the qualitative technique in the process of analysis and the sample size thus taken is only five mangers from among the officials of the public service commission. Since the sample size is less hence the researcher has adopted the qualitative technique as the means of analysis the data. The qualitative technique helped the researcher to get a view about the problems prevailing in the system. The researcher in this case deducted certain conclusions because he received a direct answer from the officials. He could record the responses and then with the help of certain secondary data he could analyze the present situation.
The researcher from the collected views of the mangers deduced certain conclusions and by using the secondary data recommended certain facts. The results of the study shows that the BPSC has a very lose organization structure where there is no segregation in the tasks of the employee. It lacks the most important department that is the HR department. Hence the commission is not able to recruit the manpower thus required. They are also not very certain about the type of employees they require and the process thus followed is also not efficient. But the biggest drawback of the system which was analyzed from the research was that the public service commission highly influenced by the present ruling party of the country as well as the government. The research shades a light upon the fact that not only the public service commission is affected by the government but also the other public sectors are also affected by the government. The political interference is the cause of the incapable recruitment on the part of the commission. The influence is very high on the selection methods.
The researcher in the course of the study has found different loopholes in the system and for the betterment of the system has also given certain suggestions at the end of the project. The researcher has tried to incorporate the theories of the recruitment process with the real scenario of the BPSC. The researcher noticed that the system of a country depend upon the public sector organizations but from the study it can be notified that all the public sector organizations are inefficient in respect of the workforce they use hence they should improve their human resource department and gear up to employ new persons.
This research study has been of great learning. The study has helped to gain knowledge about the prevailing systems of recruitment and establish a similarity between the theories and the present system. It has contributed in enhancing the knowledge and analytical skills. It was also necessary to overcome the limitations which came in the process of the study. However this project was successful because of the support of many persons. Firstly I would like to thank my supervisor ___________ who has given me an opportunity to do the project and also have guided me throughout the project. Special thanks to my academic guides for giving me in formations which I needed to complete the project. I am also thankful to my other classmates who helped me with the data collection part. Finally I would thank the officials of the BPSC who had helped me by giving their valuable opinions which is the primary need of this project. Without the support and guidance of these above mentioned people the project would not be completed.
Thanking you all
Table of Contents
1.2 Rationale of the research: 10
1.3 Problem statement: 11
1.4 Research aim.. 12
1.6 Research question. 12
1.7 Structure of the Research. 12
1.8 Summary. 14
Chapter 2: Literature review.. 15
2.1 Introduction. 15
2.2 Conceptual framework. 15
2.3 Objective factor theory. 16
2.4 Subjective factor theory. 17
2.5 Critical factor theory. 18
2.6 Human capital theory. 19
2.7 Resource based view of firms. 21
2.8 Factors influencing Recruitment process: 23
2.8.1 Internal factors. 23
2.8.2 External factors. 23
2.9 Gaps in the recruitment and selection process in the contemporary scenario. 25
2.10 Barriers in public sector recruitment: 26
2.11 Conclusion: 27
Chapter 3: Research methodology. 29
3.0 Introduction. 29
3.1 Methods outline. 29
3.2 Research Onion. 29
3.3 Research philosophy. 30
3.3.1 Justification and limitation for selecting positivism philosophy. 31
3.4 Research approach. 32
3.4.1 Justification and limitation for selecting the deductive approach. 32
3.5 Research design. 32
3.5.1 Justification and limitation for selecting the descriptive research design. 33
3.6 Sampling method. 33
3.7 Data collection methods. 34
3.8 Research methods. 34
3.9 Research ethics. 35
3.10 Research limitations. 35
3.11 Summary. 35
4.1 Introduction. 37
4.2 Qualitative questionnaire for the employees. 37
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation. 50
5.0 Introduction. 50
5.1 Objectives linking. 50
5.2 Recommendations. 52
5.3 Limitations of the study. 54
5.4 Future Scope of the research: 54
References. Error! Bookmark not defined.
List of Figures:
Figure 1: Structure of the Research. 13
Figure 2: Conceptual Framework. 16
Figure 3: Research Onion. 30
Figure 4: Research philosophy. 31
List of Tables
Table 1: Types of Recruitment and selection followed by Public service commission. 38
Table 3: Factors influencing the recruitment and selection process of BPSC.. 41
Table 4: problems relating to the availability of the correct candidate. 43
Table 5: Issues relating to the recruitment and selection procedure of BPSC.. 45
Table 6: suggestions regarding the improvement of the system.. 47
Chapter 1: Introduction
After the independence of Bangladesh in the year 1971 the public sector commission was formed as a legal body under the Bangladesh government to facilitate a systematic way of recruitment and selection of the individuals (https://www.ti-bangladesh.org, 2014). The main motive behind the establishment of the public service commission was to help the government recruit the skilled and capable employees for the higher posts which are vacant in the different public sector offices. The main aim of the commission was to facilitate different welfare policies for the recruitment purpose that would not only benefit the country but also benefit the employees and also to formulate policies to maintain discipline in the service sector of the country.
But a system in any country can never be flawless. Hence the BPSC over the passing years has faced a lot of criticisms. It is seen from the early researches that the system of recruitment followed by the government there is inefficient. Recruitment and selection of the right candidate for the right job is of utmost essential in any organization. So the PSC should try to reframe their recruitment process in order to gain advantage over other countries. This project deals with not only the problems faced by BPSC but also the general flaws present in the recruitment process of a system (https://www.colomboprocess.org, 2014).
1.1 Background of the study
The concept of merit based recruitment was first introduced in China during the early years (Gatewood and Feild, 2011). This concept was later amended in various ways by various countries to suit their requirement. Bangladesh post independence with the view of creating an efficient human workforce in their country introduces the Public service commission. This helped the people of Bangladesh to secure a job for themselves without any biasness or any political influence. Braine (2010) suggests that of the the recruitment system in Bangladesh is still corrupt. At an early stage of recruitment the PSC had directly recruited the high level officials by taking their interviews and there was no examination process.
The project here is taken so as to conduct a thorough survey of the flaws of the recruitment process. Human work forces are the base of any organization so if the recruitment and selection process is faulty then the country will become corrupt. It is being reported that the BPSC’s system is somewhat lengthy and very time consuming. Paauwe and Boselie, (2010) suggested that the existing structure of recruitment is now being considered outdated. The selection through the process of mcq examination is a wrong method of detection because the questions in the mcq are not analytical based questions rather they are some mere theory which can be memorised by the candidates over the period of time. So the method fails to test the merit of the student. It is also noted that the prevailing reservation system has lowered the quality of the candidates being employed in this sector.
The candidates have reported that they are not provided with mark sheets after the exam and also they are harassed by the prevailing political parties. Although Bangladesh has gained independence but still the system is under the political pressure. The country is suffering from the need of a good human work force. The failure in the implementation of a sound recruitment process is reducing the growth rate of the country. Hence the main aim of the project is to study the barriers in the process and give some recommendations to amend it. So that BPSC can recruit quality employees and gain a competitive advantage over the other countries (https://www.colomboprocess.org 2014).
1.2 Rationale of the research:
The PSC is the one of the individual in Bangladesh. A numbers of researches have been done in these methods but they give only overviews on recruitment and selection process of Bangladesh PSC. The researcher focuses on this particular topic. Rational of the study is to critically analysis of the recruitment and selection process of Bangladesh public service commission. Bangladesh public service commission has recruit employees in government sectors through merit basis. But although there have many faults has been raised in BPSC that is why they fail to recruit right candidates in right place. Davidson (2010) focuses on the recruit and selection methods of BPSC. Rational of the research is to find out lacking of recruitment system of BPSC.
BPSC always concuss about the selection and recruitment planning. Systematic planning and recruitment will increase the efficiency of BPSC. BPSC follows manual process for select right people and right candidates. They use to take written examination of the applied candidate and who are passed the examination they are selected for next level of the process it could be another could of written examination or could be interview process. Throughout these processes can delay the selection process of employees in government sectors. In this study the researcher has focus on the implementation process of recruitment and selection of BPSC. Constitutional and legal mandates are one of the reasons for delay, the researcher also focus on this scenario and recommended how to improve the process of recruitment and selection of BPSC (https://www.ti-bangladesh.org, 2014).
1.3 Problem statement:
The researcher felt many problems on the time of research. The researcher faced problems to collected data from the government authority. As Bangladesh government follows bureaucratic managerial style, government employees were hesitated to provide data for the research. In this research statement the researcher also find out some difficulties to choose the research methods. There are many research methods and approaches for done the research (Marshall, 2010). But choosing appropriate method ids the difficult for the researcher because if the researcher choose any wrong methods then the researcher may not be get proper answer of the research study. So the researcher must be choose proper approaches first to complete the research to get accurate answers of the research questions and that must relating with the aims and objectives of the research.
Any research does not be completed to read two or three books and journals. The researcher has to be reads many books and journals to get deep idea of the research study. And this is the very uncommon topic, and few researches have been done on BPSC. Carroll and Taylor (2009) say that it is very difficult to find out proper journals, books and articles. Though, the researcher done the research basis on own ideas and reading some journals, books, articles and he also gets information from some websites. Another problems of the research study is selected proper questionnaires, questionnaires must be set on the basis of the research aims and objectives. So the researcher can get proper output from the data analysis of the research. In this questionnaires selection process is the most difficult because questions does not be hurt emotions of the person who gives answer of the questions (https://www.ti-bangladesh.org, 2014).
1.4 Research aim
This research aims to study the reliability of BPSC’s recruitment and selection method, the standard of the recruitment and selection process and the loopholes in the system. It also aims to introduce new ideas to develop the existing process by identifying the gaps within.
1.5 Research objective
- To study the effectiveness of the existing recruitment and selection system of BPSC.
- To identify the loopholes present in the system of recruitment adopted by BPSC.
- To assess the theoretical underpinnings of recruitment and selection process
- To evaluate the factors influencing the recruitment process of BPSC.
1.6 Research question
- How effective is the recruitment and selection system of BPSC?
- What are the loopholes which are present in the recruitment and selection system of BPSC?
- What theories influence the recruitment and selection process?
- What are the general factors that influence the recruitment and selection process of
1.7 Structure of the Research
To continue the research the researcher will follow a specific structure of the research. This research will consist five chapters.
In the Chapter 1: Introduction the researcher will introduce the research topic. In this chapter the researcher will describe the research aims and the objective. In this chapter the researcher will produce the background of the research topic. A set of research questions will also be provided. The rationale of the research will also be produced.
In the Chapter 2: Literature Review the researcher the researcher will go through the earlier published articles and the journals. Throughout this chapter the researcher will produce the understanding about the research topic and will produce his/her interpretation about the research topic.
The Chapter 3: Research Methodology will produce the selected research methodology. In this chapter the researcher will provide the research philosophy and the research approach. The justification for the selected research methodology and the other things will be presented here. The data collection method will also been justified here.
In the Chapter 4: Data findings and Interpretations the researcher will produce the results through data analysis. The analyzed data will be represented through the graphical and the pictorial format. This presentation will help the researcher to describe the analyzed outcome through a snap shot.
In the last chapter Conclusion and Recommendations the researcher will produce the outcome of the research and will also produce the probable beneficial outcome.
This chapter provides insight knowledge about the topic and the background of the study undertaken. It identifies the aims, objectives and the questions which would help in conducting the research. The chapter also includes the rational and purpose behind the study.
Chapter 2: Literature review
Literature review basically includes the summary of the previous theories that has been proposed by the renowned scholars on a particular topic. It is loosely based on the secondary data collected by the researchers. It includes the stated relevant theories about the topic in a listed way with arguments about the relevancy of those theories in context of the topic. Since the review contains only the published theories hence it may overlook any new experiments or new theories which have not yet gained much popularity. The main objective of the literature review is to present a compact argument about a topic without changing or adding anything new. The main aim of the researcher here is to improve the recruitment and selection system of BPSC by reducing the loopholes.
2.2 Conceptual framework
2.3 Objective factor theory
Nankervis (2010) stated that this theory of recruitment deals with the concept that the organization where an individual is willing to work depends upon certain normal factors. This theory is very relevant from the view point of the employee. The employee here considers the basic necessities before accepting or even applying for a particular job. The employee will generally consider the factors like the salary range, the location of the job, future growth prospective, job satisfaction, and also the nature of the job prescribed to him ( https://blogs.hbr.org,2014) The employer on the other hand also considers certain factors while employing the person. He may also consider the basic educational degrees and any special qualification would count more and positively a previous working experience. As the name suggests the potential employee here is concerned mainly with the objects. He would set certain objects in his mind and the job which matches with those objects, he will choose that job (Williamson, 2009).
Since this theory is stated from the view point of the employee, hence it is necessary to analyse the advantage and the disadvantage which the company will derive from this theory. One of the biggest advantage of the organisation is that they already know the mindset of the job seekers hence they can design their job profile accordingly. The organisations should hence improve revise their existing laws (Armstrong, 2009).
2.4 Subjective factor theory
According to Alan and Macklin (2010) this theory deals with basically the competency which the candidate must possess for the particular job. If a candidate is selected for the wrong job in which he has no ability to perform then this career growth will become stagnant. So the right man should be selected for the right job. The employers should allocate the correct job to the correct person. This even generates a comfort level in the employee and helps them to perform better than what is expected from them. Gatewood and Feild (2011) for eg : if a marketing manager is given the job of preparing a cost sheet then he would not be comfortable to do so because he may have very limited no even no knowledge of finance. Hence this job should be given to a finance manager who is an expert in this field. The compatibility of the employee with the organization is a very important criterion for selection of a company. Another instance that can be taken is that a management trainee should be appointed for market research analysis and not a normal graduate who would have no knowledge about the stream.
Lawson (2010) stated that the companies can fruitfully use this theory to generate productivity among the employees. Sometimes they try to train a novice person in order to suit a job specification. Human beings are learner but that doesn’t mean that they can be employed in any kind of jobs even if that job doesn’t suit their profile. The employee’s educational qualification speaks for his ability to perform the job.It is often noted that the government sector employees are not allocated with the proper job suiting to their abilities (Arthur, 2010).
The process of recruitment in the public sector mainly concerns the tests which are taken to assess the individual. But how is it possible to assess an individual’s ability by judging him through his marks? This is a very inappropriate process of recruitment. Neither the company derives any satisfaction from the employee and nor the employee derives any kind of job satisfaction.
Judge and Ferris (2010) sates that the theory has an advantage over the objective factor theory because here the employer has an option also. Since he is responsible for selecting the right candidate and also allocating the right man for the right pos, hence it is the company’s duty to choose the right resource and gain the benefit out of it.
2.5 Critical factor theory
At times the job seeker may be confused about the choice of his job. He may not be able to analyze which job he must apply for. This generally happens due to lack of suitable information (Terpstra and Rozell, 2009). For instance some companies may not have sufficient data about them on the internet in that case it becomes difficult on the part of the employee to take a firm decision. The employee may even not be able to take decision based on the above two theories. Then the employee will be able to take a final decision only after meeting the company officials directly. So the job seeker can use the opportunity which he gets during the interview (Davidson 2010). At that time he would be able to directly interact with the company officials, he would get a clear job specification, he would be able to negotiate the salary package. These interactions with the company officials will influence his final decision. So it is very important on the part of the companies to create a suitable and comfortable environment for the employee from the very initial stage.
Backhaus (2009) stated that the company in this respect faces certain disadvantages. If the company starts rely on the fact that every interview taken would get converted into a successful employment then the process will become time consuming as well as expensive. A suitable candidate will always aim for a reputed company (Hoye and Lievens, 2011). So for a startup company goodwill in the market is very important, they should employ attractive techniques of drawing the attention of the job seekers like promotion of their company through social media, they can float their offers with details over the different job portals available over the internet (Currie and Kerrin, 2010).
This would enable the job seeker to choose the suitable profile and apply for the same. There should not be such a situation where the candidate would have to postpone his decision till the time of interview. The company should have a clear and detailed website so as to allow an easy access to the users. A successful recruitment process depends upon two way compromise. So if the employer wants a productive employee then he would have to be a productive employer himself (Huselid 2009).
2.6 Human capital theory
Humans are the key factors of an organisation. Without the human factor an organisation is not possible to function. They are the backbone of the company. Hence it is of utmost importance that the company should have a strong labour power in order to function correctly. An efficient human resource acts as an added competitive advantage for the company(Huselid 2009).This theory deals with this concept that the human beings can increase the productivity of an organisation by using their abilities, skills, educational qualifications and experience. They can make significant contribution to the growth and success of the company. But for this concept to be successful it is the organisations duty to use efficient recruitment techniques and employ the right person for the right job. The most important focus of an organisation should be on the means of attracting, retaining and developing the skills of the labour force. Braine, M. (2010) says the organisations can use the intellect of the employees and groom them in their own way to suit the necessities of the organisation. Human beings are not machines they can be taught new ideas and they can also generate new ideas from their own intellect to help the company’s growth.
So the organisations should use this intellectual capital to the very fullest of their advantage. Since the employee is the one who possess the intellect hence he has the deciding power as to whether he wants to contribute to the growth of the company or not (https://www.forbes.com2014).Hence in this case if the employee is unsatisfied or is being exploited by the employer than the organization would tend to lose on the human capital. This theory considers the labor force as the biggest asset of an organization. Hence it can be stated that investment in recruitment and selection process will generate high returns in form of the quality labor force which the company will receive.
According to Byrne (2009) every company should try to incorporate this theory within their system. Basic logic states that investment without return is a loss but if the employee is worth investing then the company should pay attention to that fact. Generally people consider the investment on educational qualification of a child as an example of human capital investment. But Lawson, J. (2010) is of the opinion that it is not the actual human capital. Rather it is a part of it. The education would benefit the child in the future but in the present scenario it is not creating in value for the society.
Some of the public as well as the private sectors invest in training of the new entrants – this may be termed as an example of human capital. This training cost is incurred by the company but it is not a loss. It is a gain for both the parties. From the employers view point the training would enhance the ability of the employee and this knowledge and hence he can contribute to the productivity of the organisation. Again in the part of the employee it is an added advantage for him because he is not only deriving extra knowledge but also increasing his skills which would be useful for him in the future jobs (Wood and Payne 2010).
Sometimes it is noted that the employee is required to pay for the training he is supposed to undertake. He may agree on the investment part thinking that it would help him to earn more in the near future. And in this context the flaws of the theory can be noted. Compton and Nankervis (2011) stated that the theory is based on the non tangible concepts which cannot be measured. It can only be evaluated or predicted that it would be successful in the near future. It cannot be guaranteed that the future income will increase for the training being provided in the present situation. The individual may opt for some other job where the present skills won’t be necessary.
Money cannot buy everything – this well known proverb is being rightly said and it is very logical in this context (Arvey and Campion 2010). The company or the worker may investment a lot of money for the upliftment of the employee’s skill but it is not necessary that the individual would be able to grasp the technical knowledge. He may fail to reach the required standards of expectation. So the investment may go in vain.
Studies have suggested that though some of the variations in the skills are a result of the trainings but majority of the variations are for other uncertain purposes. This theory has received a lot of criticisms over the past years because of the uncertainty of the factors which are considered by the employers and the employees (Langan 2009). The experts have also criticised that the theory consists of the concept of individualism. The theory deals with the individual interests.
The employer may train the worker for his own company’s benefit irrespective of the fact whether the individual is capable enough to handle the pressure. Again in the other case the employee may opt for the training with the prospect of having future income gain. So both the parties shave different interests which may conflict at some point of time (https://humanresources.about.com2014). At times it may also happen that the employee after obtaining the work knowledge from the company officials may leave the company for a better future prospect.
In this scenario the company cannot stop the employee from taking any such decisions. The company here will suffer the loss for the expense they made in respect of that particular employee. It is often seen that in the public sectors the officials in spite of having good educational background is not able to perform. This results from the lack of proper training (Kunerth and Mosley 2011). The public sector administration is certain about the fact that whether the employee gets promotions or not, even if he gets better job offers then also the employee will retain this job. In the present employment scenario, securing a public sector job is a dream for the job seekers. By making the recruitment process difficult, the government has ensured that there should not be a high labour pool in this sector. Hence when an aspirer succeeds in getting the job from the millions of other competitors then the mere thought of leaving it would scare him to hell. Hence the employers here are least bothered about the improvement of the skills of the employees. This is the basic reason why the public sector productivity decreases (Marshall 2010).
2.7 Resource based view of firms
This theory doesn’t hold much difference from the above theory (Marshall 2010). It is closely connected with the above theory. This theory states that if a company as a good and strong resource base then it gains an advantage over its competitors. The logical explanation behind this theory is that the human force which one company is employing is the most important resource base and it cannot be employed by another company at the same time.
So if the company has a very efficient work force then it would be an advantage of the company over its competitors (Parry and Wilson 2009). This is because the competing companies won’t be able to get substitutes of the work force already present in the other company. Work culture and internal relationships play a very important role in this case. The company should create certain emotional barriers so as to retain the professionalism within the organisations. If any personal relation arises within the organisation then immediately it affects the productivity of the employee as well as it hampers the working environment.
Paauwe and Boselie (2010) stated that for this theory to be fruitful the company should have a very sound system of recruitment and selection. The work force can be considered as a n useful resource only when it is of very good quality. Suppose a manager is a resource to an organisation only when the manager has huge qualitative as well as quantitative contributions in the company. The company can benefit from the skills of that manager and can make use of the new ideas to capture the market share.
But contradicting the above point it can be stated that not all resources have their own capability (Landy and Kohler 2009). The term resource from the view point of economics includes capital, land, materials, labour brand names, patents etc. So for a company to succeed all the resources have to be productive. But if we consider land, then it is a non living factor and hence it cannot be productive on its own. Hence all the resources have to co operate and work together to attain the total productivity. The company thus must first understand whether the human resource is valuable and rare. Only these two factors will help the company to gain a competitive advantage over the other companies (https://www.bizjournals.com, 2014).
Carroll and Taylor ( 2009) are of the opinion that the company’s primary emphasis should be on the recruitment process and not the future training prospects. Other factors like technology, land, financial support etc are readily available for the company. But a company will not get qualified personnel as and when required. Hence the HR department of any sector should prioritise the recruitment and selection procedure of the company. Brown et al (2009) are of the opinion that a new mind is always eager to learn and would grasp the situations easily. So rather than relying on the on- the- job training part the company should directly recruit the capable candidate. As stated earlier in the previous theory there can be many problems in training the employee.
2.8 Factors influencing Recruitment process
Fox et al. (2009) stated that the recruitment is a two way process where the decision depends on both the parties. Hence the factors which influence the recruitment process affect both the parties at the same time. The HR policy of the organisation classifies the factors into two broad categories:
2.8.1 Internal factors
Internal factors: the organisation‘s internal policies are responsible for the success of the recruitment process. In order to understand the internal environment factors of the topic it is necessary to get an idea about the important internal factors which have the highest effect on the recruitment process (Paauwe and Boselie, 2010).
Organisation’s size: the number of employees to be recruited as well as the employment expenses that can be incurred depends upon the size of the firm. Large sectors like the public sector doesn’t face the difficulties of recruiting expenses hence they can use web portals for advertisements, they can provide on- job trainings, they can make a detail recruitment structure. But in case of a small private sector company recruitment process is very simple as a complex process will be costly for them (Bingham and Davidson, 2009).
Policy regarding recruitment: To recruit the right candidate who is reliable for the job the companies generally rely on the sources which they get from the existing employees. But apart from those sources the companies should also recruit from external sources so as to avoid biasness (Judge and Ferris, 2010).
2.8.2 External factors
Goodwill of the organisation: Davidson (2010) opined that the higher the goodwill of the company the higher will be the reliability. So the company having good brand name in the market will attract large number of employee applications. Judge and Ferris (2010) for instance in this project the emphasis is on the public sector hence if their recruitment process is evaluated then it can be seen that they attract large pool of labour because of the fact that they have goodwill in the market. The job seekers are of the opinion that public sector jobs are secure and provide attractive perks.
Job description: a specific job description is required to be provided by the company so as to get suitable candidates. The nature of the job, the name of the post, the salary package and other factors like the perquisites, the location and the recruitment policies should be clearly mentioned in the different forms of advertisements (Paauwe and Boselie, 2010).
External factors: The following external factors also influence the process.
Demographic factors: the general demographic factors like the gender, age criteria, literacy level etc influences the process. Certain jobs require only the male candidates like the jobs involving field works or hardcore selling jobs. Again there is no age bar for joining the private sectors but there is a minimum age limit till which a person can apply for the public sector. In case of work experience and qualification, the private sector gives more emphasis on these compared to the public sector where the minimum qualification required is very low (Bingham and Davidson, 2009).
Increasing rate of unemployment: The vacancy over the globe is not increasing simultaneously with the increasing rate of unemployment. Hence the end result is that there are thousands of applicants for a particular job. Braine (2010) states that it made the process easy as well as difficult on the part of the recruiter. The recruiter can get an option to choose from amongst the applicants but also in this process he may miss a genuine talent.
Demand and supply factors: the process gets affected with the basic economic concept of demand and supply. If the demand for a particular skill is high in the market but the supply for the same is low then the process becomes difficult and vice versa (Williamson 2009).
Environmental factors: the legal, social and political factors will have profound influence on the process. Alan and Macklin (2010) states the caste system encourages employment opportunities in the backward classes. The change in the government will force the company to make amendments in the existing policies. The social structure of the country like if it is a male dominated society then the number of female employees will be less.
2.9 Gaps in the recruitment and selection process in the contemporary scenario
Finding and selecting the quality workforce forms the base of any company. Hence the gaps in the recruitment process should be identified as early as possible and should be mended for the well being of the company. The following gaps are noticed in the different sectors in the present day situation (Arthur, 2010).
Narrow mindset of the recruiter: in spite of technological advancement the final process of recruitment depends upon the human beings. The recruiter may sometimes nbe biased in his views. He may have been searching for particular quality in the candidate but on failing to find it he may reject the person (Byrne, 2009). The recruiter may not be in a calm emotional state when he is recruiting and thereby can take a wrong decision. He may reject a good employee and accept an inefficient one.
Job analysis: the most serious problem of recruitment is not being sure about the type of employee required for the specific job. The company before starting the process of recruitment should first be very clear about the job description and what they expect from the candidate. Otherwise the candidate will also not be able to figure out his work (https://www.bizjournals.com , 2014).
Political influence: it is one of the influencing factors but it is considered to be the biggest gap in the system. Marshall (2010) stated that the public sector is under the control of the government and hence it is seen that the least deserving candidates get through the examinations and are allocated the highest posts. Reservation system also acts as a gateway for less eligible candidates in this sector.
Internal Promotion: the company adopts this policy very frequently because it is a reliable source. But if the company doesn’t incorporate new human resource into the management then there would be no further growth for the company. Existing employees are an asset to the company that is true but new mind is required to face the growing competition ( Kunerth and Mosley, 2011).
2.10 Barriers in public sector recruitment
As per Huselid (2009) the vacancies in public sector had decreased 1n the year 2011 compared to in the year 2008. In spite of this fact the companies have reported that in the year 2011 the vacant posts were not filled. When there is such increasing rate of unemployment still prevailing all over the world then how is this scenario possible? A critical evaluation reveals that there are certain loopholes in the system. The number of employees required for the different grades are not available it seems. Apart from that there is also a problem of retention of employees in different posts. It has been reported that different officials have resigned from their jobs due various petty reasons (Arvey and Campion 2010).
Armstrong (2009) have spotted out that the public sector is facing different barriers in recruiting the right candidate for right posts. The reports say that for certain different posts like the posts of the surveyor, civil engineer, health and safety officers, architects – the administration is facing difficulty in finding the right candidate with the right qualification. The officials have reported that the candidates are not having the required educational qualification. Hence these posts tend to remain vacant for the rest of the year.
To provide a solution to this the government has tried to incorporate the training process to train the existing employees so that they can do the job (https://humanresources.about.com2014). They are trying to provide them with specialised training facilities so as to make them suitable for the scarce posts. This problem has forced the government sector to take the services of the already retired persons for some special jobs. Hence it can be said that the quantity may be unlimited but the quality of the personnel is decreasing day by day.
Another problem which the public sector is dealing with is that the already existing employees are very casual in the workplace. Since their risk of losing a job is very low hence they are very casual in their approach (https://www.forbes.com, 2014). The recruitment and selection process here has a big flaw in the part of the recruiters. The recruiters need to ask the candidates the right questions so as to judge them truly. But they fail in doing so. They are advertising the job vacancies through print and social media and are able to attract a large pool of students but not the right ones.
The system of recruitment in the banking sector s and the PSC‘s are very time consuming (Langan 2009). Only clearing the entrance examination is not enough for the candidate. The interview may be scheduled after a year’s gap. In some instances it is also seen that the candidate clearing the interview may get the joining offer after two more years (Gatewood and Feild 2011). In the general posts like the clerical post there may be fewer vacancies as compared to the number of eligible candidates. Hence when it comes to allocating the posts the officials face a big difficulty in doing so and are forced to keep the candidates on hold.
Huselid (2009) reported that lately due to job uncertainty many private sector employees are shifting from this sector to the public sectors. Initially this shift was regarded as a successful leap. But then it was found that the private sector employees are more concerned about the profit or wealth maximization rather than the job quality improvement. Hence this recruitment decision turned out to be a disaster. This turned out to be advantageous only in some cases like in areas of media and communication involvements of private sector employees were fruitful (https://smallbusiness.chron.com, 2014).
The main problem of recruiting occurs at the senior levels where the employers are in need skilled people with good work experience and also having specialized knowledge in that field. Alan and Macklin (2010) states that this problem has arisen in the present day because of the strict government policies. The government has reduced the pay scales and in some companies and have discarded the pension scheme. Hence the jobs are becoming less attractive to people with good specialized skills and long work experience. These people expect high pay according to their ability hence they opt for the private sector jobs (Brown et al. 2009).
The above mentioned theories outline the basic needs on the part of both the employer and the employee to recruit and retain a job. In the present day scenario if the HR department of the public sector follows the theories in the practical way then they can gain some benefit out of it. The number of unemployed people is high and the employers have a huge pool of candidates to recruit from, so to solve the recruitment problems they should be very objective about their requirements.
The public sector employees should free themselves from the biasness like the reservation system and the political pressures. The attractiveness of the job is also very necessary for the job seekers so changing the existing policies from time to time might be of help. The reports say that with the passage of time the rate of unemployment is increasing. Majority people are not getting jobs in the public sectors because of the difficulty in the entrance exams and those who are being employed in the private concerns are not satisfied with the job. Hence if both the sectors can mend their flaws then the overall rate if unemployment can be reduced.
Chapter 3: Research methodology
A research is an integral part for completing a project successfully. The methodology classifies the different scientific methods to be used in a particular project. This puts light on the topic on which the project is based. The methodology in this project points out the approach of the research, the philosophy behind the study, proper sampling and data collection methods, the total sample size and also the techniques undertaken by the researcher to conduct the survey.
3.1 Methods outline
Hair and Money (2011) states that the methodologies used by the researcher. As per the topic the researcher found it relevant to accept the positivism philosophy and continue the research with the deductive research approach using a descriptive research design. The researcher will take the help of both primary and secondary data to analyze the situations. The primary data would be collected through the process of interviewing the different target respondents and for the secondary data the researcher will take the help of the internet based information and the existing theories about recruitment and selection. Cameron (2009) confirms that the data collected from various sources and the conclusions thus derived are ethical, logical, reliable and valid in the context of the topic.
3.2 Research OnionSaunders et al (2009) proposed the concept of research onion which gives a step by step explanation of how the researcher should conduct the research methodology. This helps the researcher to recognize the priority tasks and conduct the research in a systematic way. This reduces the flaws of the research process. The major six peels of the onion in chronological order are research philosophies, approaches, strategies, choices, time horizons and finally the core concept of techniques.
Magilvy and Thomas (2009) are of the opinion that the layers of the onion should be revised and arranged for a flawless research process because according to them collection of data and analyzing the data which falls under the last layer that is the technique part should come first. But the others are of the opinion that although data analyzing is the most important part of a research but still the researcher should first recognize the philosophies and the approaches he is going to incorporate before doing the data analysis. This would help the researcher to analyze the data easily and quickly (Harrison and Reilly, 2011).
3.3 Research philosophy
The first stage of the research onion is the research philosophy. It deals with the concept of how the researcher perceives the surroundings. The researchers’ perceptions will create the base of the way the study will be conducted (Truscott et al. 2010). It includes the knowledge that is included in the study.
The research philosophy is basically of three types namely the positivism, realism and interpretive. The philosophy of positivism deals with the verification of the information which is actually observed by the researcher. In this approach the researcher doesn’t depend upon the any unobservable factors. The realism approach on the other hand deals only with the prevailing theories related to the topic and encourages the researcher to conduct the research based on the historical data and personal intuition. Interpretive philosophy involves interpretation of human factors and the role of human in the society (Kimber and Lipton, 2009).
3.3.1 Justification and limitation for selecting positivism philosophy
According to Crouch and Pearce (2012) positivism is the process of conducting a research based on the observation and experiments conducted regarding the project. Being a positive thinker the researcher has chosen the positivism approach because it is more realistic. He can collect data from both the primary and the secondary sources to analyze the recruitment and selection process of BPSC. The only drawback of this philosophy is that it doesn’t take into account the human behaviours and also limits the findings because the philosophy is based on the observations and not on the imaginations of the researcher (Baker et al 2009). The researchers’ deductions become limited for this purpose. If the researcher uses the other two philosophies then he could have avoided this flaw. But this philosophy enables him to keep the research close to reality. This philosophy is based on the facts that are available and observable and not on some facts which are completely imaginative in nature (Brannen, 2009).
3.4 Research approach
Research approach outlines the method in which the researcher will conduct the research. It is generally of two types the deductive research approach and the inductive research approach (Ellis and Levy, 2009). The deductive approach is the mostly used approach where the conclusions are derived from the data which is collected by the researcher. This is the traditional method of research. Whereas in case of the inductive approach the researcher takes the views from the respondents and with the help of the existing theories he derives at a conclusion which can also lead to the discovery of a new concept.
3.4.1 Justification and limitation for selecting the deductive approach
The following theory is selected because the researcher is evaluating the current recruitment and selection scenario of BPSC and hence taking direct feedbacks from the students and the officials would generate a clear picture about its problems (Toloie-Eshlaghy, 2011). If he had selected the inductive approach then he would have to deal with the theoretical part of the study. The approach here will fail to highlight the present prevailing problems. If the researcher was required to suggest a new theory in respect of the study then he would have taken the help of the inductive approach. The approach here will help the researcher to present the collected data in a statistical manner. However this approach may overlook certain qualitative factors (Bottomley and Doyle, 2009).
3.5 Research design
Lodico and Spaulding (2010) opined that research design is the blueprint of the research process because it outlines what are the methods of data collection, interments used for data collection and the analyzing techniques. Generally two types of research designs are used one is exploratory and the other is descriptive design. The exploratory method is used for the study where the problem is not identified. When the researcher has no clear idea about the topic of the research, he takes help of the exploratory research technique. In this technique he analyses the literature part related to the topic and takes the help of the past data to conduct the research work. Descriptive design points out the aims, objectives and the research questions clearly and on the basis of that the research can collect the quantitative data and analyze it (Lodico and Spaulding, 2010).
3.5.1 Justification and limitation for selecting the descriptive research design
The researcher here is required to deal with the current problems prevailing in the recruitment and selection process of the BPSC. So he has a clearly defined problem hence he will positively select the descriptive research design. This design will enable him to frame out a questionnaire as per the requirement of the study and then through the process of interview he can collect the required data and reach to conclusions (Bolton and Lemon, 2009). This design enables the researcher to make an in depth analysis of the collected data. However this design overlooks the qualitative aspect of the study. It doesn’t try to gain knowledge about whether the results are true or not. It doesn’t improve the findings of the project. And it doesn’t establish any new theories related to the study. In case if the researcher would not have been familiar with the subject and he required any guidance about the matter then he could have taken the help of exploratory design.
3.6 Sampling method
The researcher here incorporates the probability sampling and the non probability sampling. The researcher for the purpose of detail findings has taken a total sample size of 5 respondents comprising of officials of the BPSC. In case of probability sampling the respondents are selected in a random way that is the researcher cannot give any explanation as to why he had selected the respondent, the researcher should only keep in mind that fact that the respondent should be a part of the total sample population. And in non probability sampling the opposite is followed where the researcher has to select the respondents based on some judgment. This is also called the judgment sampling (Crowther and Lancaster, 2012).
In this project the researcher has applied the probability sampling in case of the students to be interviewed and non probability in case of the officials of BPSC. In case of the students selected as the respondents the researcher used the simple probability technique and in case of the officials the researcher selected them as per his personal choice. Here he interview on a purposive basis. Dev et al (2009) concluded that the drawback of random sampling is that in this method the researcher can select the respondents either equally or unequally. And in case of non probability sampling the researcher may face the difficulty that error can’t be determined. In this case since the researcher is using non probability for a very small part of the total sample size hence it is advantageous on his part.
3.7 Data collection methods
The data which is collected by the researcher is of two types – primary data and secondary data. Primary data signifies the original data collected by the researcher separately for each project through the distribution of questionnaire to the sample respondents. The data thus collected represents the actual views of the respondents. The major drawback of the primary data is that the respondents at times are not co operative enough and the process is time consuming (Jiang et al 2010). The secondary data is the data collected by the researcher from the past sources like from the books, magazines, journals and the internet. It saves the time and the cost of the data collection.
Here the primary data is collected through the process of taking interviews by distributing the pre prepared questionnaires containing the questions which describes the aim of the study. The researcher conducted his interview among the students and the officials so as to collect the primary data. The secondary data here include the different sites, books and journal from which the researcher has taken the help about the different concepts relating to the study.
3.8 Research methods
The method used is the qualitative method Onwuegbuzie et al (2009). The researcher here uses both methods to analyze his data. In common terms quantitative method includes the representation of the data in a statistical and graphical format. And the qualitative method includes the explanation of the statistical data which is analyzed. The quantitative method is generally applied on the primary data only and the qualitative method is applied on the secondary materials (Reijmersdal et al 2009).
The researcher here uses the quantitative technique on the results obtained from the interviews. He represents the respondent’s answers in a statistical manner thereby implementing them in the graphical structure. And the qualitative technique is used for the purpose of analyzing the stated theories.
3.9 Research ethics
The ethics regarding the research describes the legal aspect of the research work and how authentic is the project. The project thus undertaken should be completed keeping in mind the moral and legal values of the society (Kimber and Lipton 2009). The researcher here confirms that the research was completed keeping in mind the acceptable and the unacceptable part of the society. All the data primary as well as secondary collected were used only for the purpose of the study. The sources from where the data was collected as reliable and correct. The researcher confirms that there was no incorporation of biasness in the answers of the respondents. The secondary data thus collected is also genuine and has been interpreted in easy language so as derive fruitful result. The researcher had strictly abided by the norms provided by the university.
3.10 Research limitations
In the following research paper the researcher has faced certain barriers in the process of conducting the research process (Cameron, 2009). These hindrances have resulted in not getting a full correct result from the analysis. The researcher being a student had limited financial access and also limited time to complete the project. Hence the sample size thus taken is very small. And the small sample size doesn’t allow the researcher to conduct an in depth analysis. Secondly the researcher also had limited knowledge about the use of different statistical tools. Hence there may be a difference in the results of the project.
The researcher has conducted the survey and prepared the report by using a pre determined methodology. This has enabled the researcher to conduct the research in a systematic way and less time consuming manner. The laws and the ethics are followed in the project and the results thus derived are free from any kind of biasness. The report will thus serve the purpose of the study.
Chapter: 4 Data analysis and Interpretations
This chapter deals with the primary data which has been collected by the researcher by the process of conducting interviews. The researcher for the purpose of an unbiased answer has taken the views of the different levels of the managers and officials present in the various departments of Bangladesh public service commission. The researcher has conducted the interviews of 5 officers of the Bangladesh Public service commission. The questionnaire thus produced was of qualitative nature where the researcher took the views of the respondents and recorded them. The respondents were interviewed with the help of the survey questionnaires and the answers thus received were analysed with the help of various statistical tools. The rest of the data relating to the theoretical parts of the study were collected from secondary sources and hence they were interpreted by the researcher according to the researchers’ knowledge and understanding.
4.2 Qualitative questionnaire for the employees
Q1) What are the types of recruitment and selection methods that are followed by the Public service commission?
Two managers stated that majority recruitment takes place through the process of direct recruitment that is by taking examinations of external candidates.
Two other managers are of the opinion that recruitment also takes place through the process of promotion
One manger stated that the in certain cases the recruitment occurs through internal transfers
Table 1: Types of Recruitment and selection followed by Public service commission
The researcher on the basis of the information available from the officials reached a certain conclusion. Hence it can be stated that the Public service commission of Bangladesh is filling the posts by using three methods of recruitment. Out of which two are internal recruitment and only one is devised for the external recruitment. Since the commission is recruiting less number of fresh candidates hence the system is not being improved and it is also leading to the increase in the rate of unemployment. Since the tenure of service of the employees are high in case of the government sectors hence the methods of internal promotion and the transfers will lead to a decrease in the number of vacant posts.
Q2. How effective do you think are the methods of recruitment and selection which are followed by the BPSC?
The first manager is of the opinion that the direct recruitment system is effective enough and it helps to find qualified candidates.
The second manager is however disagrees to this point and states that the direct recruitment system has some flaws and cannot judge the correct qualified candidate.
The third manger says that the promotion is fruitful on the part of the employee but it should not be a mean of recruiting.
The fourth manager also says that direct recruitment is not able to extract the correct talent.
The fifth manager adds that the direct recruitment and promotions are effective but at times the transfers are not a very effective means of recruitment.
Table 2: Effectiveness of the methods of recruitment and selection followed by the BPSC
When asked about the effectiveness of the recruitment process prevailing in the BPSC the officials gave the above views. From the above views it is very clear that the officials are concerned only about their own welfare and are not very concerned about the welfare of the office. The first officer stated that the direct recruitment process is a sound and effective process of recruitment. But the second and the fourth manger disagrees to that point According to them direct recruitment may be the popular way of recruiting for all government sectors but the system is not able to find the correct qualified candidate for the correct job.
The researchers from the secondary sources have tried to analyse the views of the mangers regarding the effectiveness of the direct recruitment system. Direct recruitment process is the process of conducting competitive examinations which are generally done for recruitment at the entry level. For this procedure the PSC has to first determine the number of vacancies which are available. Rather they have to first realize the total manpower need of the organization. Then on the basis of that they will float the advertisement and on receiving the applications they will analyze it on the basis of the eligibility criteria and then shortlist the candidates for the purpose of written examination
But the officers in charge are of the opinion that a common written examination which is being conducted year over year in the same pattern is not the suitable way to judge the ability of the candidates. The researcher has analysed this problem and is of the opinion that the since the pattern of the written examination is same hence any person can learn the questions and pass the examination. The examination doesn’t involve any use of the analytical skills on the part of the candidate.
The third manger rightly sates that the promotional method may be useful in case of the existing employee but it is not successful in appointing any new talent in the organisation. In BPSC promotion is based on three factors namely on the merit basis, on the level of seniority and if the employee abides by the rules and regulations of the organisation. But the researchers as well as the officials are of the opinion that promotion on the basis of the seniority and rules abiding doesn’t make a professional qualified enough for a given post.
Then finally according to the fifth manger the transfers are also not an effective means of recruiting the candidate. The BPSC officials are of the opinion that the transfer in the BPSC doesn’t takes place according to the general norms of transfers. They have suggested that the transfers should take place at least at an interval of three years. If the officials are very frequently transferred from one place to another then they will face the difficulty in adjusting with the new place as well as the new job specification. It is not possible on the part of the company as well as the employee to receive training about a new job every year. This reduces his capability.
Q3. What are the general factors which affect the recruitment and selection process of the BPSC?
The first manager is of the opinion that the BPSC recruitment is influenced by the political interference. He also states that the commission is not financially independent.
The second manger adds that the internal policies are not flawless. There are problems in the method of conducting the exams and also correction of the papers. The commission also not able to attract new candidates.
The third manger is of the opinion that the recruitment process is affected by the mistake of the officials present within the organisation and their lack of accountability process.
The fourth manager agreeing to the point of the third manger says that the demographic factor like the gender discrimination affects the recruitment process.
The fifth manger added another factor to the already existing factors. He said that effect of the quota system is high on the recruitment process.
Table 3: Factors influencing the recruitment and selection process of BPSC
The first manager has pointed out a very valid and commonly found factor influencing the recruitment process. It has been always noted that the PSC is partially under the control of the ruling party, although the commission claims that it is an independent body. But that is not the reality. The researcher from his sources as well as from the interviews of the officials has come to conclusion that the government interference within the committee has resulted in making the recruitment process corrupt.iot is a known fact that the Bangladesh recruiting system is influenced by the political pressure of the prevailing party. The top commission officials are mainly the people referred by the political parties. Hence it can’t be said that they are highly qualified for the posts. Similarly at the time of fresh recruitment the officials give opportunity to only the candidates who are preferred by the political parties.
He also stated that the PSC is under the funding of the government and hence is under the pressure to follow the norms set by the government.
The second manger is of the opinion that the internal policies itself is not efficient enough to induce a sound process of recruitment. The sources reveal that the there has been irregularities in the examination process. The manager is of the opinion that there have been certain instances in the previous years of examination where the question papers have been leaked or the candidates have been caught copying illegally in the examination hall. Even the merit list which is prepared at the end of the examination is reported to contain the names of various failed candidates. Apart from this point the manger also mentioned that over the years because of the corrupt process the commission has lost the faith of the students. Hence now a day’s most of the talented candidates are leaving their own country for employment opportunity in some other countries. And the commission in spite of having sufficient vacancies is not able to attract new candidates.
The view of the third manager is somewhat similar to that of the second manger. He is of the opinion that the lack of accountability on the part of the employees is a big factor influencing the recruitment process. The manager here stated that the committee faces different problems at the time of conducting the examination. The inadequate number of staffs stops from segregating the work load. The machines used for the printing of the question papers are less in number. This delays the work of the officials. The office equipments like the storage facility or introduction of computerised system of keeping the records are not present in the organisation. This hampers the work process of the officials as well as the documents the examination papers, the applications of the candidate’s stands a chance of getting lost. Since the officials are not accountable to anyone hence they don’t try to fix these flaws.
The BPSC has a reservation for the number of female candidates they can recruit. The fourth manager is of the opinion that this demographic factor influences the process. Only one fourth of the total recruit every year is female candidate. This is because the Bangladesh government doesn’t create a favourable situation for the female section of the country to avail any employment opportunity. So in case of recruiting if it is found that the majority numbers of female candidates are qualified for the posts even then the commission has no authority to appoint them. Hence the commission misses out on a range of good employees.
According to the fifth manager not only the gender discrimination but also the prevailing quota system has been influencing the recruitment process. Although the commission is not in favour of recruiting the candidates for the top level posts by quota discrimination but still quota discrimination is an inseparable part of the government decree. According to the prevailing government allocation at least 55% is reserved for the quotas like the handicapped, freedom fighters, district quotas etc. They are given the jobs not only merit basis but on the reservation basis. The manger here feels that this reduces the opportunity of appointing a more capable employee. The officials have reported that the 1uoat for the freedom fighters is very high in percentage to the other quotas. And in comparison to the number of vacancies available under this quota there are less number of candidates, among them majority of the candidates are not qualified for the given posts, but still the commission is forced to appoint them.
Q4. What are the problems relating to the availability of the correct candidate?
The first manger is of the opinion that the selection committee do not get the required candidate because they don’t provide the correct job specification. They also have no official website to advertise the vacancies.
The second manager says that the reservation system makes it difficult on the part of the commission to get the eligible candidates.
The third manager is of the opinion that for the higher posts like for class 1 officers the candidates who are applying doesn’t have the required educational qualification.
The fourth manager however states that the screening process of the system is responsible for the unavailability of the right candidate.
The fifth manager reports that the mass selection of the candidates results in wrong recruitment. And the consideration of only the examination performance limits the availability of the good candidates.
Table 4: problems relating to the availability of the correct candidate
When asked about the reasons of not getting the qualified candidates for the recruitment process the officials gave the above answers. The first manger gave a primary point in this context. According to the officer the commission has no official website where they can advertise their vacancies. Since the higher authorities and the board members are not accountable to any higher officials hence they pay no attention prevailing problems. Due to the lack of an official website the commission is not able to attract qualified candidates from all over the country. Only newspaper advertisements and announcements are not enough to attract the highly qualified professionals. He also adds that the company official fails to give proper job description or job specification. The advertisement given by the commission gives a very vague description about what the candidate needs to do in the job. Hence all the candidates are not able to interpret the requirement and hence some of the eligible candidates may fail to apply.
The second manager says that the reservation system makes it difficult to get the eligible candidates. The commission even though conducts the examination still at time of selection has to first select the candidates referred by the political parties then the candidates under the quota system. Now the percentage for selecting the candidates under the quota system is high but the number of candidates available under that quota is very low. Hence the commission to fill the seats under the quota even selects the candidates who have scored the least marks in the examination. Hence the less eligible candidates get selected for the high posts of officials.
The third manger is of the opinion that the candidates who are applying for the posts of high or first class officer’s don’t possess the required academic qualification. Hence the posts tend to remain vacant for the rest of the tenure or the posts are filled by applicants recommended by the political parties. The managers here are of the opinion that the work load of those posts at times gets divided between the other officers of some other posts. Hence the whole system of administration is ineffective. For those posts the commission requires the candidates to have various specialized degrees like the masters or the engineering degrees but the educational system of the country is also ineffective in providing the suitable technical knowledge to the candidates which are required for the job.
The fourth manager however states that the screening process of the examination is responsible for the non availability of the candidates. The entry level examinations which include only multiple choice questions to test the basic knowledge of the candidate and the descriptive essay questions which test the writing skill of the candidate is not a fair mean to judge the ability of the candidate. These exams don’t test the specialised knowledge of the candidate. Hence when the candidate is selected on the basis of these examinations he has to be providing with rigorous training to make him capable to do the job.
Q5.What are the major issues in the present process of recruitment and selection of the BPSC?
The first manger was of the opinion that the recruitment process is not very transparent in nature. He also said that the candidates who are recruited should be given due training in the induction period.
The second manager added that the problems not only prevail in the recruitment section but also in the retention process. The officials are not given equal respects.
The third officer notified that the methods followed by the recruitment committee are not very relevant. He also adds that the job specifications given by the recruitment department is not correct. And creates a problem in the process if recruitment.
The fourth manger states that the commission has no means to attract those talented candidates. They have no access to the mass work force. The officer also pointed out a very minor issue which is actually highly responsible for the recruitment problems. He said that the commission doesn’t have a specific HR department and hence it has no idea about the methodical recruitment process.
The fifth manager is of the opinion that the there is no knowledgeable staff in the commission who would understand the legal prospective of the recruitment process. He also states that there is no effective feedback system to understand the problems of the applicants.
Table 5: Issues relating to the recruitment and selection procedure of BPSC
According to the first manger the recruitment process is not very transparent and thus the recruitment of the candidates is not successful. This can be analyzed from the above interpretations where the researcher has noted that the system has a lot of flaws. Like the officers are not accountable to any higher authority, the selection is based on the biasness of the selection committee as well as influenced by the political pressure. The candidates are not given their mark sheets. The committee publishes the results after a very long time. And the merit list is not according to the passing percentage of the candidates. So the candidates who have given the exams are not sure about their selection.
He also mentioned that the recruited candidates should be given due training during the induction or probation period. But it is noted that at times there are no training period at all. Rather the employee is made to do the new job as and when he is recruited. This reduces the productivity of the employee. And even it creates problem for the whole organization to carry on the smooth process of work.
The second officer added that there are even problems in the retention of the employees within the organization. The employees who are very randomly transferred are facing difficulty with their job retention. And the employees within the organization are also not given due respect according to the posts they are working for. The officers who are recruited through the process of recommendation by the political parties are given more importance than the persons who are recruited in the basis of the merit.
The third officer states that the methods followed by the commission are not the relevant methods of recruitment. Recruitment through the process of transfers and promotions are not the ethical ways of recruiting any person. Only the direct method of recruiting is the ethical way of recruiting the persons. He further added that the existing high level officers are not sure about the job specifications. In spite of the high number of vacancies present in the sector due to the lack of correct specification the capable candidates are not getting selected. Since the applicants are not sure about the description of the job hence they are not willing to apply for them same .already there is a dearth in the availability of the skilled candidates and now because of the lack of the job specification the less number of talented employees also don’t apply for the job.
Q6. What suggestions can you give regarding the improvement of the current system?
According to the first manager the commission can take the help of different sources like employment agencies, job fairs and even the camp using to reach out to the mass candidates. The commission should also include the test like the personality test to judge the candidates.
The second manger is of the opinion that the commsiion should be sure about the type of candidate they want to re cruit for the job.
He also said that to increase the retention level the commission should introduce different incentive schemes for all employees.
The third manger suggested that the commission to get the right candidate with the right ability can try to recruit from the internal sources rather than relying on the external sources. The commission can also try to conduct certain awareness programmes to attract the applicants. He gave emphasis on the fact that the BPSC should try to be an independent body free from the government pressure.
The fourth manager stated that the recruitment examination should be made short, and cost effective. To attract talented candidates the PSC can revise its standards by increasing the eligibility criteria.
The fifth manager said that in spite of the examination system the commission can drop out the candidates on the basis of their past academic records.
Table 6: suggestions regarding the improvement of the system
The first manger gave a very fruitful decision regarding the recruitment processes improvement. According to him the commission can take the help of the different educational fairs, consulting agencies to get the right quality of candidates. These agencies will make an initial screening in this respect and send the qualified candidates for the final process. Through the job fairs the commission can create high mass awareness among the different categories if applicants so as to attract a high number of employees. He also adds that to get candidates with specialized knowledge the commission should try the process of campus recruitment from the various management and engineering colleges.
Another suggestion given by him is that the commission should try to incorporate the various personality tests and pschycomatric tests so as to judge the quality of the candidates correctly. These tests will help the authority to remove the incapable applicants.
The second manger suggested that the commission should be at first sure about the type of talent or knowledge they require of the purpose of the job. For this he commission can take the help of different software so as to record the details of the existing employees along with their educational qualifications. This would enable the commission to understand which type of employees do the company has and what type of employees they need in the future.
He also mentioned that recruitment and retention of the present employee are related factors. If the commission can retain the present employees fruitfully then they would have no requirement for the recruiting thee new ones. For the purpose of retention the managers are of the opinion that the commission should provide certain bonus, work incentives and also do a yearly performance appraisal. The commission should also pay due respect to all the employees irrespective of their posts. It is noted that the BPSC officials get respect only if they are referred by the political party.
According to the third manger the commission can recruit from internal references rather than taking candidates from the external sources. The existing company officials should be given a chance to refer a certain percentage of the total employees thus recruited every year. Those candidates will have a good academic 1ualification and will also be trustworthy.
The manger is also of the opinion that the commission can also create certain awareness programmers about the Public service commission. They can conduct short term internship programs fir the students. The students by participating in that program can understand the workings and the procedures of the commission and can be interested to apply for a full time job.
But the most important point given by the manger is that the commission should regulate as an independent body. Government interference is creating the major problems in only the recruitment process but also in the internal management of the system.
The fourth manager said that the written examination process should be made short and cost effective. The government should provide the commission with more staffs who relating to the recruitment department. They should be provided with modern class technologies and even the necessary basic machine like the Xerox machines for the preparation of the question papers. The tasks should be allocated among the different individuals so as to make it less time consuming.
He also adds that the BPSC committee should revise the eligibility standards for the basic posts of recruitment. The existing criterion of basic graduation attracts a huge pool of candidates but the qualities of those candidates are not suitable for the mentioned posts. Hence the criteria should be increased in order to reduce the quantity and increase the quality.
The fifth manager agreeing to the above points only added to the points of the fourth manger that apart from increasing the criteria the commission should also screen the candidates on the basis of their past academic records. In case the candidate may have fulfilled the criteria then in the next step of screening the commission should judge the candidates on the basis of the percentage of marks obtained by him throughout his career.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation
The conclusion of any report is the basic summery of the concepts, the analysis and the understanding of the researcher. Every conclusion has some key elements. The conclusion of study indicates what knowledge the researcher has gained from conducting the study. This chapter here deals with the summarization of the aims of the researcher. The researcher aimed to evaluate the process of the recruitment and selection in the public sector of Bangladesh. For that purpose the researcher adopted the case discussion of the Bangladesh Public service commission. The researcher through the process of surveys and from the secondary data sources has deducted certain conclusions about the effectiveness of the system. The researcher has also tried to incorporate the prevailing theories of recruitment and selection in the prospect of the case study. The chapter here represents the combinations of the existing theories in relevance with the analysis made by the researcher. The researcher has also presented some of his views in the form of recommendations at the end of this chapter. These recommendations are based on the deductions thus made by the researcher.
5.1 Objectives linking
The researcher here has tried to link the objectives which were mentioned in chapter 1 with the questionnaire thus made and the survey thus done.
Objective 1: to study the effectiveness of the existing recruitment and selection system of BPSC.
The objective here of the researcher was to study the different recruitment and selection process of the BPSC and to determine their effectiveness. The researcher here has linked this objective with the questions 1 and 2. In question 1 the researcher asked the mangers about what are the types of recruitment process. This was necessary in this context because the researcher at first to ascertain the effectiveness need s at first to have information about the types of recruitment systems prevailing in the commission. The managers’ informed that the BPSC is having three types of recruitment system namely the direct recruitment, transfers and promotions. The second question asked by the researcher was that how effective the mangers think that these three methods are. The managers are of the opinion that the all the three methods have certain flaws. But out of the three methods according to them direct recruitment can be considered as more effective than the other two. In spite of this they also suggested that even the direct recruitment process can be improved by means of maintain a transparency and reducing the time and costs for the examination.
Objective 2: To identify the loopholes present in the system of recruitment adopted by BPSC.
This objective has been linked by the researcher in question number 5 . Here the researcher enquired about the issues present in the current process of recruitment of BPSC. The question when put forward got a number of replies from the mangers they being the employees of the organization is not satisfied with the prevailing system. Hence they are of the opinion that the prevailing system needs to be improved and amended. They mentioned the different problems like the retention process is not suitable, the political influence is high on selection of candidates. There are no suitable people having the required knowledge for the recruitment process. Even the question 4 is also related to this objective. That question highlights the part of the problems of recruitment. Availability of suitable candidate is a part of the problems of recruitment. But since the researcher needs to analyze the loopholes in detail hence this question was prepared so as to enable the researcher to get a clear idea about the non availability of the capable candidates. The managers in this respect highlighted the different problems they face in getting the right applicants. They told that the commission is not able to attract the candidate having specialized knowledge due to the lack of mass advertisements and social media coverage.
Objective 3: To assess the theoretical underpinnings of recruitment and selection process
This objective was linked with question number 1, 2, 3 4 5 & 6.This objective was taken by the researcher to observe what relation does the present recruitment processes have with the theories of the recruitment process. The researcher in the second chapter had already mentioned about the theories which are present in regard to the recruitment process. Hence the researcher to analyze the application of those theories used all the questions of the questionnaire. The researcher in different types of questions applied the knowledge gained from the existing theories. Thus it is seen that the researcher is able to analyze the problems faced by the recruiters and the factors which influences the recruitment process.
Objective 4 : To evaluate the factors influencing the recruitment process of BPSC.
The researcher to link this objective with the main survey selected the question number 3. Here it was asked what factors are affecting the recruitment process of BPSC. On being asked this question the mangers gave their opinion about what factors are the major ones which influence the recruitment process of BPSC. The answers thus received were that the negative influence of the political party, the financial dependence on the government, lack of accountability on the part of the employees, the mistakes of the officials for the purpose of the selection of the candidate. They also added that the demographic factors and the reservation factors are also responsible for the problems arising in the recruitment process. Thus from the inclusion of this question the researcher is able to analyze the major factors which influences the process and hence these factors play an important role. The researchers as well as the management personals are of the opinion that to improve the system the commission has to first improve any flaws which are present in these factors. Thus the recommendations thus given by the researcher mainly aims in improving these factors. If they are improved the management can ensure a smooth working process.
The recruitment and selection is the main backbone of any organization. Hence any organization’s most important part is to recruit the work force successfully. The researcher here has shaded light on the problems of the recruitment process of the BPSC. With the help of the primary and secondary data thus collected by the researcher he has been able to analyze the prevailing situation and has been able to provide with certain recommendations about the betterment of the system. Hence this part of the chapter deals with the suggestions given by the researcher based on the views of the management of the BPSC. The following are the recommendations by the researcher.
5.2.1 Feedback system
It can be recommended that the commission should incorporate a feedback system method. Where in the applicants as well as the employees of the organization can send their feedback about the recruitment procedure, they can share their problems so that they can rely on the system and get the solutions to the problems. The 4employees can also lodge their complaints and share their difficulties about their jobs.
5.2.2 Educational fairs and consulting agencies
The managers are of the opinion that the commission can take the help of the recruiting agencies for the initial screening process. They can also use the social sites by creating a good official website. They can advertise their vacancies in the educational fairs there they will get exposed to the highly qualified students and this will help them to get good candidates.
5.2.3 Transparency on the system
The commission should make transparency I the recruitment process they should produce the results of the examination clearly and they should also keep trusted and knowledgeable officials who would conduct the examination process. The selection of the candidates should be on the basis of merit. The secondary sources report that the commission at times recruits candidates who have failed in the examination. This should be avoided because those candidates even on receiving training are not able to perform well and moreover this is considered to be illegal.
5.2.4 Demolition of the reservation system
The reservation system should be demolished and the recruitment should be solely based upon the merit of the candidate. The gender biasness should be stopped as this is hampering the development of the female section in the country. The quotas of the different categories should be reduced in the number. Or if it is necessary to keep all the quotas then the commission should try to reduce the percentage of people to be employed under those quotas.
5.2.5 Reducing political interference
The researcher aghast suggested that the commission should reduce the political interference that is present in the recruitment system. The candidates even if not qualified for the job are recruited if they are referred by the political parties. Hence the system becomes corrupt. The commission should not be totally dependent on the government for the financial support. It can regulate as a ns independent body and can take the partial support of the government.
5.2.6 Increasing the eligibility criteria
The researcher has also suggested that the commission can increase the present bar of the eligibility criteria so as to reduce the number of less qualified applicants for the higher posts. the commission for this purpose can include in the vacancy ads that the minimum qualification for the post of a higher level officer should be a first class post graduation degree. This will limit the quantity and increase the quality of the candidates.
5.3 Limitations of the study
Every project thus undertaken faces certain limitation in its course. And because of these limitations the researcher is not able to give an accurate data analysis for the project. The researcher in this context also faced certain limitations. The researcher being a student had very little financial support for conducting the survey. The officials and the mangers also did not entertain the survey questions made by the researcher. Few of them gave the researcher sufficient time to answer the questions. The sample size thus taken by the researcher was very less because it was not possible for the researcher to take the interviews of the managers in between their busy schedule.
5.4 Future Scope of the research:
The research project has a lot of future scope. In the future if a person takes up the same topic for the purpose of analysis then he should also consider the views of the students who are applying for the public sector job. This study deals with the problems faced by the officials in respect of the recruitment –procedure and in future study the analyst should take the opposite side view. And figure out the problems in respect of the student.
Qualitative Research Questionnaire:
Q1) What are the types of recruitment and selection methods that are followed by the Public service commission?
Q2.How effective do you think are the methods of recruitment and selection which are followed by the BPSC?
Q3. What are the general factors which affect the recruitment and selection process of the BPSC?
Q4. What are the problems relating to the availability of the correct candidate?
Q5.What are the major issues in the present process of recruitment and selection of the BPSC?
Q6. What suggestions can you give regarding the improvement of the current system?
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