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Drug Discovery And Development: A Complex Team Sport Add in library

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Question:

Discuss the reasons for using the performance-enhancing-drug, attitude of the footballers towards the usage of dope and drug testing and actions taken by coaches to encourage anti-doping?

 

Answer:

1.0 Introduction

The report analyses the debate of the usage of illegal materials for enhancing the aims of one’s aims of performance in a game. It is known as doping. The outsiders’ interpretations and perceptions of doping have obtained minute attention as compared to the attention of the media for doping in the elite sports. It is a very popular phenomenon which has been studied researched majorly from the point of view of biomedical, even if the approaches of psychology are the chief aspects for fighting against doping. These phenomenons have developed majorly at present and there a deep understanding of the essentials for inventing effective prevention programmes. The study concentrates on the outlook on doping in the elite sports (Adams, 2008).

Concept

Doping is referred to as the use of the prohibited performance enhancing drugs by the competitors in athletes, where the phrase “doping” is broadly used in the organizations which regulate the competitions. Usage of drugs is considered to increase the performance and is also regarded as unethical in most of the sports organizations in foreign countries. In the prospective of psychology, attitudes are taken as the index of behavior in doping which is related of the exploitation of the unauthorized substances to a higher leniency in doping. Initial use of these banned materials were taken to gain achievement of success in athletes by an improvement in the performance, gain in finance , recovery and averting deficiencies in  nutrition (Blank et al., 2013). The other most use of these drugs is “false consensus effect”. Many athletes accept that it is cheating, risky and unhealthy because of the authorization and its efficacy is also recognized broadly. It is believed that the inefficiency of the programmes of anti-doping and sports condemn the process in which the tests of doping are carried out. Many sports person deems the strictness of the punishment which is apt or not enough brutal. There are some variations in the team-based sports and sports which needs the motor skills, which is impacted less by the practices of doping, rather than the sports which are individually self-paced. Furthermore the controls of anti-doping are less extensive in the team sports. The usage of these banned materials also fluctuates in some specific sports due to the demand (Brand, Heck and Ziegler, 2014). The coaches emerge to be the main manipulator and the origin of the information for the sports person while the doctors and other practitioners do not appear to take steps as the principal advisors. Football is becoming increasingly famous and familiar with the rules of anti-doping. But the lack of knowledge still exists among the sports people which should be treated and resolved by way of accurate educational counseling. There are also the prevalence of doubtful information on the supplements of diet and the side effects of the performance-enhancing substances. Thus, prevention and information are vital and should accommodate to the footballers and the correlated stakeholders. Thus will allow people to sustain and establish a proper attitude and behavior towards doping (Brand, Melzer and Hagemann, 2011).

Methodology

A systematic survey was carried out for the students of the university on doping in elite sports to take their views. It was primary research where questionnaires were given to the students to fill up and let us know their concerns and notions of the performance enhancing drugs. Another set of questionnaire were given to the coaches to know what is their perceptions on PES and how do they motivate the students to make them stay away from it.

 

The secondary research was based on the journals on doping in elite sports, articles on the same and views of some sportsperson mentioned in websites and other peer-reviewed journals. For the research we have defined “elite sports” as the best sports where the players give their best performance at a national or even an international level (Blank et al., 2013).

Data collection

The mode of collecting data was through the questionnaires for both the students and the coaches. The students who mainly focus on sports were given the first preference. It was an open survey. Students who wanted to participate in this were taken. As the research is based on the athletes of the elite sports, it is unable to take their views so the sporting students in the university were asked to give their views because every academic year multiple students of the university becomes trained coaches with the aid of the university. So the sporting students are the next best alternative of the elite athletes so as to get a detailed research on doping. The relation between the students and the research is that they practice to be able to perform in the elite sports so their views and notions are very important to know (Brand, Wolff and Thieme, 2014).

Even though the research objective is to find out the views of the students in the matter of doping in elite sports it is also necessary for us to know the notions of the coaches. Their relationsh8ip (elite athlete and coach) has to be strong so that the performance level increases. Also the views of the coaches are essential because it is needed to know how they train athletes on the matters of doping and how they motivate them to not take those drugs to enhance the performance. Since the elite coaches cannot be approached for the research the university coaches will help the researcher in the research. The relation between the coach and the research is to focus on the students in sporting and to do so a face-to-face interview is necessary (Camiré and Trudel, 2013).

Reasons for using the performance-enhancing-drug

It is found that the most often reason for doping or using these drugs was to enhance the performance as well as to gain financial stability simultaneously. Through the research it is also seen that the students mentioned that it was also to enhance the self-confidence and social recognition. It was also found that 6% of the students were encouraged by their family and friends to engage themselves in doping while 7.5% of the students were persuaded by the coaches so that they progress in their performance. The research brought that some students had no exterior pressure to engage themselves in doping. And the respondent did mention that the grounds on which the uses of these drugs by them were mainly due to the recovery aid from injuries and economic pressure from the elite sport. These drugs were banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The sample of students who were the upcoming sporting persons mentioned that they used these drugs to protect their health, to enhance their immune system and to bring out improvement in their performance (Camiré et al., 2011). Things like ability to recover quickly and improvement in the performance of the muscle were also referred. While some group of students mentioned that the core importance of taking these drugs was to study the supplementation to make an increment in the energy to sustain the health and avert the deficiency in the nutrition portion and also to improve in the recovery of exercises. The respondent mentioned that the use of supplement is essential in the sports to be successful. It was believed by them that the supplements in their nutrition have enhanced their performance.  Thus they were drawn towards doping and has also confessed that they were exposed to the usage of doping drugs themselves if it is essential to maintain their career, but only after they have become professionals (Camporesi and Knuckles, 2014).

 

The concept of “false consensus effect” suggests that the footballers with a history of use of illicit substances overestimate the dominance of the drug use in the footballers. These outcomes guarantee more attention because the students tend to report that the high dominance of the use of drugs are found in the footballers compared to the other sport. Thus the students believe that footballers who take these substances are likely to start as well, which will lead to the establishment of a viscous cycle which will propagate the culture of pro-doping. Thus the people who are around these footballers like, coaches, family, and friends should be very careful about this “false consensus effect” when discussing about doping. It is very important that the stakeholders emphasize on the importance of averting doping and not to overstress the use of performance enhancing substances or the notion that the successful footballers are using these drugs (Adams, 2008).

Attitude of the footballers towards the usage of dope and drug testing.

The lack of the scientific research describe that the elite footballers attitudes towards doping is due to the impenetrability in convincing the footballers to discuss about this with the researchers. (DuPont et al., 2013) stated the attitudes of the footballers are an issue which is impacted by the previous experiences, personality traits, characteristics of the objects of the attitude and the environmental factors. In a survey it was found that the 91.5% of the footballers perceived that the use of the banned substances will improve their level of performance. Furthermore, many footballers were not in the support of doping. Multiple footballers believed that it is achievable to make it to the international level in their sport without the intake of these substances. They viewed that the intake of these substances were “illegal” and deemed the shame that was linked with it as an important deterrent (EGAN et al., 2011). It was seen that some elite football students as compared to others are reluctant to use these drugs. Even though the intake of non-banned supplements of nutrition was deemed to be acceptable by more than 66.4% of both the groups, they all declined the though5t of using anabolic steroids, erythropoietin and amphetamines. It was researched that the elite footballers represent a distinct group with some norms, beliefs and values which are different from those who take these substances. This is straight away related to different objectives, motivations, pressures, necessities, knowledge and other influences which are placed on the footballers that could bring an outcome of different behaviors. Thus such comparisons that are made between the elite footballers or the elite sports person of different sports should be made cautiously. The use of these substances to enhance the concentration was highly acceptable in the survey. 12% of the elite footballers mentioned this as a “magic drug”. So at least some of the footballers who are reluctant to take these drugs would have taken these substances if it had no harmful effects while some footballers mentioned that they would have taken these if it gave short lifespan (EGAN et al., 2011).

The research also examined the achievement goals, motivational goals and sportsmanship profiles of the student footballers in terms of the behavior in doping. The analysis exposed three major divisions with regard to the self-determination of the footballers. These are intrinsically motivated, amotivated and extrinsically motivated. The Amotivated footballers are mainly the high scorer for the partial use of these substances and the objective of the future usage compared to the footballers who are intrinsically motivated and extrinsically motivated. In the conducted interviews with the students to measure their attitudes towards the use of drugs and the drug testing, it was found that most footballers have a negative attitude towards the use of drugs. The drug testing results gave the most inconsistent outcomes. It was found that the drug testing wasa restraint to the usage of drugs among the intercollegiate players but the footballers were only concerned about the accuracy of the drug test (El-Hammadi and Hunien, 2013).

 

Psychological and Social Determinants

Many may not believe or try to understand the set of laws pertaining to doping which is put forth by many anti-drug agencies which clearly states that doping in sport should not be tolerated. Despite the educational programs of these agencies use of dope did not decrease as it was expected to be. To identify why a footballer will risk his reputation, career and health by doping, researchers are now evaluating the psychology of the footballer’s process of decision making. To examine the psychological and social factors portrayed a major role in the decision of a footballer to use the drugs, researchers surveyed the personal norms, attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy comparing to the characteristics to define which is the factor that influences the use of PES. The outcomes of the survey showed that the use of PES was the major predictor of the intent to use the PES in near future. Winning was supported by personal norms, no matter what the cost is, it influenced the footballers to push themselves towards PES. Addition to this the former and the current user of PES displayed positive optimistic attitudes on how PES can improve their performance level (Elbe and Brand, 2014).

Scale Level Model of Doping

The distinction between substance abuse and doping is that the doping behavior means an end to one’s life. The orientation of winning is the only variable with an important relationship to the attitude of doping. Attitude towards the orientation of winning may also influence what the footballers think about doping (Judge et al., 2012). It was also found that the doping attitudes influence the behavior. The sole variable with a strong relationship to this behavior is the belief. The footballers do not have to be highly driven to win so as to have a inclination towards doping. The orientation of sports can also be defined the prevailing terms of attitudes towards the achievement of goals. Goal achievement is defined as task orientation or the orientation of ego. It is seen that more the footballer is ego-oriented the more his attitude is inclined towards doping. The footballers vary in the degrees of each of the orientation. A high orientation of task can over ride an extent of ego and construct negative approach towards to doping. The environment in which the footballer competes impacts their orientation of goal. A “mastery climate” constructs an environment which fosters “be the best you can be”. A “performance climate” promotes a direction towards “winning at any cost” (Hauw and Mohamed, 2015).

Goal Orientation

Win Orientation

Doping attitude

Past Use

Current Use

Competitiveness

Doping Believes

Doping Behavior


                                     
Figure 1: Scale-Level Model of Doping

Effects of Doping

 

After all the information, debate and attention on doping, effects of doping should be seriously noted. It is an important field of concern for the footballers. Doping has the potentiality to drastically change the human body and the biological functions which includes the capability to moderately improve the sporting performance in many instances. These drugs are nevertheless awfully dangerous and in many situations deadly. The negative impacts of these drugs have on any individual’s body is paramount so the footballers should shun the use of such drugs just to succeed in the game (Huybers and Mazanov, 2010).

Anabolic Agents

The following can be the effects of doping.

Physiological

Male Pattern Baldness (Partridge, Lucke and Hall, 2014)

Acne

Damage of liver.

Stunted growth.

Insomnia.

Dehydration.

Tremors.

Increased risk of stroke.

Psychological

Increased aggressiveness and criminal behavior.

Depression

Gender Specific

Impotence.

Reduction in the production of sperm (Kim, Chen and Hwang, 2010).

 

Help from the coaches

Many coaches see the ability of the sport (football) to offer a positive experience and hold up the development of health in the young and elite footballers, but they do not know how to increase these benefits (Morente-Sánchez et al., 2015). Education on the fair play and ethics in the sports is a common thing for the coaches. It is the duty of the coach to deal with these ethical issues of sportsmanship, doping, use of PES, etc. It is important that the coaches activate professionally and with the integrity in the relationships with those who participate in or are linked with their sport. Coaches ensure the rights and needs of all his students engaged in football (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala, 2013). A coach can influence tremendously on the footballers. They are their role models. It was found from the research that no coach encourages the use of doping but the footballers have accepted that they were told by the coaches to indulge themselves so that they can enhance their performance so as to succeed in the game. Due to this drawback the outcomes of some survey was improper because it could be analyzed the people who are high motivators for the footballers in case of doping. But some of the coaches were up front in telling that they have advised the footballers and encouraged them in doping because it helped them in giving strong performances and moved the players to the achievements of goals (Mallia et al., 2013).

Actions taken by coaches to encourage anti-doping

Sport is something where a player gives his 100%, so when methods like doping is encouraged to these players it becomes a nuisance for them ruining their health, reputation and also the skill fades away.  It is the duty of the coach to motivate players to work hard to achieve their goals and not to push them towards doping (Szabo and Müller, 2015). Following are some actions that the coach can take for the students in the university so tha5t6 they don’t indulge in doping.

< >Coaches should understand the aftermath of these prohibited substances and the methods on the health of the footballers and also their performances.Planning and executing a program which will help them develop the footballers in all areas of their expertise.Averting pressure on the footballers wherever possible and expressing the concern for their well-being.Educating the footballers on the various resources of anti-doping which are available and also the process of checking the medications and gaining the approval for the use of these resources when required (Singhammer, 2012). Conveying the beliefs on health and the fair play to the footballers by strengthening the use of these substances which are prohibited and the methods because this process is nothing but cheating (Sas-Nowosielski and Swiatkowska, 2008). Discouraging the illicit practices which can ruin the health as well as also the skills. Doping is not a healthy pursuit.8.0 Conclusion

(Vangrunderbeek and Tolleneer, 2010) stated that sport is sacred. People put their efforts to become a good sportsman. When things like doping and other prohibited substances come to their way they get lured so as to perform well. This study showed how the students in the university perceived the notion of doping. The research brought out varied results of doping band how they perceive them. It is not only the footballers of the university who has the responsibility to shun the use of these drugs but it is also the duty of the coach not to encourage the students to illicit substances like this. Doping has serious and adverse effects which will not only ruin the health of the footballers but will also take his career to the ruins (Stubbe et al., 2013).

 

References

Adams, J. (2008). Drug Discovery and Development: A Complex Team Sport. Science.

Blank, C., Leichtfried, V., Schaiter, R., Fürhapter, C., Müller, D. and Schobersberger, W. (2013). Doping in sports: Knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 25(1), pp.116-124.

Brand, R., Heck, P. and Ziegler, M. (2014). Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes’ attitudes. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy, 9(1), p.7.

Brand, R., Melzer, M. and Hagemann, N. (2011). Towards an implicit association test (IAT) for measuring doping attitudes in sports. Data-based recommendations developed from two recently published tests. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(3), pp.250-256.

Brand, R., Wolff, W. and Thieme, D. (2014). Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy, 9(1), p.36.

Camiré, M. and Trudel, P. (2013). Helping youth sport coaches integrate psychological skills in their coaching practice. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 6(4), pp.617-634.

Camiré, M., Forneris, T., Trudel, P. and Bernard, D. (2011). Strategies for Helping Coaches Facilitate Positive Youth Development Through Sport. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2(2), pp.92-99.

Camporesi, S. and Knuckles, J. (2014). Shifting the burden of proof in doping: lessons from environmental sustainability applied to high-performance sport. Reflective Practice, 15(1), pp.106-118.

DuPont, R., Campbell, M., Campbell, T., Shea, C. and DuPont, H. (2013). Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes Toward Drug Testing in High Schools With Random Student Drug Testing. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 22(2), pp.104-119.

EGAN, S., PIEK, J., DYCK, M. and KANE, R. (2011). The reliability and validity of the positive and negative perfectionism scale. Clinical Psychologist, 15(3), pp.121-132.

Elbe, A. and Brand, R. (2014). The Effect of an Ethical Decision-Making Training on Young Athletes’ Attitudes Toward Doping. Ethics & Behavior, pp.1-13.

El-Hammadi, M. and Hunien, B. (2013). Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students. Pharmacy, 1(2), pp.94-106.

Hauw, D. and Mohamed, S. (2015). Patterns in the situated activity of substance use in the careers of elite doping athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, pp.156-163.

Huybers, T. and Mazanov, J. (2010). What drives athletes to take performance enhancing drugs? Insights from a choice modeling experiment. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13, p.e19.

Judge, L., Bellar, D., Petersen, J., Lutz, R., Gilreath, E., Simon, L. and Judge, M. (2012). The attitudes and perceptions of adolescent track and field athletes toward PED use. Performance Enhancement & Health, 1(2), pp.75-82.

Kim, D., Chen, Z. and Hwang, Y. (2010). Are we really measuring what we think we're measuring? Assessing attitudes towards destinations with the implicit association test. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(5), pp.468-481.

Mallia, L., Lucidi, F., Zelli, A. and Violani, C. (2013). Doping Attitudes and the Use of Legal and Illegal Performance-Enhancing Substances Among Italian Adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 22(3), pp.179-190.

Morente-Sánchez, J. and Zabala, M. (2013). Doping in Sport: A Review of Elite Athletes’ Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge. Sports Med, 43(6), pp.395-411.

Morente-Sánchez, J., Freire-SantaCruz, C., Mateo-March, M. and Zabala, M. (2015). Attitude towards doping in Spanish Sport Sciences university students according to the type of sport practised: Individual versus team sports. Science & Sports, 30(2), pp.96-100.

Partridge, B., Lucke, J. and Hall, W. (2014). “If you’re healthy you don’t need drugsâ€Â: Public attitudes towards “brain dopingâ€Â in the classroom and “legalised dopingâ€Â in sport. Performance Enhancement & Health, 3(1), pp.20-25.

Sas-Nowosielski, K. and Swiatkowska, L. (2008). Goal Orientations and Attitudes Toward Doping. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(7), pp.607-612.

Singhammer, J. (2012). Age and Gender Specific Variations in Attitudes to Performance Enhancing Drugs and Methods. A Cross-Sectional Study. Sport Science Review, XXI(5-6).

Stubbe, J., Chorus, A., Frank, L., de Hon, O. and van der Heijden, P. (2013). Prevalence of use of performance enhancing drugs by fitness centre members. Drug Test. Analysis, p.n/a-n/a.

Szabo, A. and Müller, A. (2015). Coaches' attitudes towards placebo interventions in sport. European Journal of Sport Science, pp.1-8.

Vangrunderbeek, H. and Tolleneer, J. (2010). Student attitudes towards doping in sport: Shifting from repression to tolerance?. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 46(3), pp.346-357.

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