Discuss about the Early Childhood Learning for Growth and Development.
Childhood is the most sensitive as well as the integral part of life. The mental growth and development occurs at this particular stage which later on plays very crucial role (Britto et al. 2017, p.91). Therefore it is very necessary to nourish the little hearts with appropriate education by means of different forms so that it can get absorbed easily in a positive manner. In this context various methods of childhood learning are discussed.
There are various types of early learning methods that are helpful is restoring features and arts. The early learning includes very small kids mostly till five years including toddlers. Therefore it is very important to provide special attention in their upbringing unlike grownup kids. While educating children of these ages; every child needs attention individually (Wright & Ford, 2017, p.111). Mostly preschools or crèches take care of them; hence the approach should be very gentle. Toddlers develop feeling of insecurity when they are left there for any interval of time. Therefore it is very necessary to make them feel the homely atmosphere with so many friends around (McDermott, Rikoon, & Fantuzzo, 2016, p.54).
The features that are mostly used in early education are as follows:
Rhyming poetry: it is observed that children enjoy the rhyming words of poem and they try to connect the rhyming words with the tune despite not understanding its meaning. This is why it is important to rhyme the poem with expression and gestures because kids will capture that expression and follow accordingly (Bradley & Corwyn, 2016, p.29).
Drama: this is generally done for the little grown up kids where an interesting fairy tale can be acted upon. This will help them to remember the entire scenario.
Singing: singing is an effective approach which is found to be enjoyed very much by the children. For very young toddlers they can be made quiet by singing. Kids love to be connected with any kind of song, humming the tune (McDermott, Rikoon, & Fantuzzo, 2016, p.23).
Toddlers are not developed to build or link to any kind of concepts therefore 2-3years old kids can be educated through pictorial representation and coloring (Proud et al. 2017, p.79). For example they can learn basic knowledge such as domestic animals and their products, family tree, find the color, puzzles and so on (Bradley, & Corwyn, 2016, p.29). This is the best learning methods through gaining sufficient knowledge. This is the ideal age to prepare the kids for better admission to schools. So visual learning is most effective here than the traditional learning skills. Research says that kids tend to remember the visuals more than the bookish education (Payler et al. 2017, p.24).
Through Kolb’s style children are educated in terms of models and experimental approach. This is estimated that the perception of the learners is accomplished through concrete experience and abstract conceptualization (Bishop et al. 2016, p.300). Hence this particular learning style includes the following
The major motto behind this style is to participate in the active experimentation.
The art module can be programed as, playing a moral story with CD player so that the learners get attached with the moral of the story emotionally (Richter et al. 2016, p.103). Pausing player after certain scenes, the learners can be interacted by asking questions based upon the story shown so far. This will help them to know the backdrop much better and clear concepts. At the same time if doubts raised, that can also be resolved so that they do not develop any misconceptions about the morality of that particular lesson. On the next day a small quiz session can be organized based upon the questions on the story followed by the kids may be asked to draw their favorite character shown on the previous day. This will help the children to get acquired to the morality as well as they will develop the judgmental power to distinguish right and wrong. Similarly on the other days the story can be acted and played assigning different roles to the kids (Manning et al. 2016, p.18). This will be very enjoying part of their learning session, children dressed up colorful communicating with other kids through play. If the kids are too small to play their role, they can simply fancy dressed and the trainers can stand behind them to act on their behalf as this can also give them the idea of role play as well as the story itself. Apart from these, the children may be made to learn to distinguish between breakfast, lunch and dinar and take the right meat by themselves. For this different big paper models of food items can be used so that they can identify the correct model when called aloud. This will prepare their daily routine and they can learn easily when to switch the exact activity (Elliott et al. 2016, p.319).
Based upon the module theme some of the major developmental stages through which kids develop themselves are identified. The stages are describes as follows:
Sensorimotor stage: this stage is applicable for children who are below 2 years age. The child is initially made to adjust with the new environment. Here through physical perception he acquires the knowledge of the surroundings. His sense organs are stimulated with a new experience on every single day (DeBruin?Parecki, & Slutzky, 2016, p.52).
Preoperational stage: this stage is suited for a little grown up kids who can be taught to do things by themselves. In some situations it is observed that the kid is unable to conceptualize things mostly the abstract belongings. In this case the kid needs more physical experience (Asimow, Kennedy, & Lees, 2016, p.276).
Concrete stage: the concrete stage signifies to the stage applicable for grown up kids who are capable enough to accumulate through physical experience. In this case the child has the capacity to look things and judge them through concepts (Lastikka, & Lipponen, 2016, p.75). Children of these ages can also solve abstracts such as puzzles and games. Going much into the detail it can be said that the children can solve sums and arithmetic logic which were taught to the beginners in terms of building blocks and colorful objects.
Formal operations: formal operation stage refers to those particular children who are already in step to their adulthood. Their physical structure is developed, they has the judgmental capacity and see every topic through logic reasoning. The teenagers can be grouped into this category. The children of this age have their own likings and disliking. Mostly it is observed that many of them imitate adults.
According to Robert Gagne (2002), an educational psychologist there are some resources that help to demonstrate the learning stages. Hence Gagne illustrated a nine-stage process that highlighted each element required for the process of effective learning. This model has proved very much useful for every type of learning, but this project illustrates on applying it to only training purpose of learning for the learners (Reynolds et al. 2016, p.378). The stages are detailed below.
Level 9: enhancing retention and transfer: this level is also known as generalization
Level 8: assisting the performance which is also known as retrieval
Level 7: next level talks about providing feedback, also known as reinforcement
Level 6: electing performance is the next 6th level. This level called as responding
Level 5: level 5 is about providing any kind of learning guidance and also called as semantic encoding
Level 4: next is presentation of the stimulus. Here at this stage selective preparation starts to occur
Level 3: immediately after stimulus presentation there comes stimulation of recall of prior learning also known as retrieval
Level 2: level 2 is all about informing the learners about the objectives. This is expectancy
Level 1: the last and final level is level 1 which is gaining attention. Level 1 is also known as reception
As for example if one talks about level 1 which is to gain attention, that can be easily accomplished by reading aloud, raising voice, instruction through gestures and so on. Similarly the other stages follow as detailed (Chambers et al. 2016, p.88). Hence these Levels of Learning model provides trainers as well as educators a response rather a checklist so that they can use before they engage themselves into education or training activities. Every step details a type of communication that enhances the learning process. after completion of each step, learners are seen more likely to remain associated and to extract the lessons, information or instructions that are being taught.
As seen in the previous sections childhood education and learning is a very challenging task. Therefore the trainers must be thoroughly skilled enough to guide the children through proper knowledge. Every individual trainer has to impart love and natural care for every child so that these educating methodologies do not come as the only part of profession. Children admitted to any preschool or crèche are too young to understand therefore their restlessness and irritation should be dealt with empathy.
Asimow, J. G., Kennedy, A. S., & Lees, A. T. (2016). Beginning with yes: Reframing the narrative in teacher preparation to support community college transfer students in early childhood special education. Voices from the Field, 276.
Bishop, C. D., Snyder, P. A., Algina, J., & Leite, W. (2016). Expanding Frontiers in Research Designs, Methods, and Measurement in Support of Evidence-Based Practice in Early Childhood Special Education. In Handbook of Early Childhood Special Education (pp. 501-539). Springer International Publishing.
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2016). Home Life and the Development of Competence in Mathematics: Implications of Research with the HOME Inventory. In Early Childhood Mathematics Skill Development in the Home Environment (pp. 29-49). Springer International Publishing.
Britto, P. R., Lye, S. J., Proulx, K., Yousafzai, A. K., Matthews, S. G., Vaivada, T., ... & MacMillan, H. (2017). Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. The Lancet, 389(10064), 91-102.
Chambers, B., Cheung, A. C., & Slavin, R. E. (2016). Literacy and language outcomes of comprehensive and developmental-constructivist approaches to early childhood education: A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 18, 88-111.
DeBruin?Parecki, A., & Slutzky, C. (2016). Exploring Pre?K Age 4 Learning Standards and Their Role in Early Childhood Education: Research and Policy Implications. ETS Research Report Series, 2016(1), 1-52.
Elliott, S., Carr, V., Ärlemalm-Hagsér, E., & Park, E. (2017). Chapter 14 Examining curriculum policy and pedagogy across borders: re-imagining socially transformative learning in early childhood education. In Envisioning futures for environmental and sustainability education (pp. 319-341). Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Lastikka, A. L., & Lipponen, L. (2016). Immigrant Parents’ Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Care Practices in the Finnish Multicultural Context. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 18(3), 75-94.
Manning, C. E., Williams, K., O'Brien, G., & Sutherland, M. (2016). Use of Goal Attainment Scaling in the evaluation of the Kids Together inclusion program in early childhood learning environments 18-20.
McDermott, P. A., Rikoon, S. H., & Fantuzzo, J. W. (2016). Transition and protective agency of early childhood learning behaviors as portents of later school attendance and adjustment. Journal of school psychology, 54, 59-75.
Payler, J., Davis, G., Jarvis, P., Georgeson, J., Wood, E., & Lloyd, E. (2017). BERA-TACTYC Early Childhood Education and Care Review 24-25.
Proud, D., Lynch, S., à Beckett, C., & Pike, D. (2017). ‘Muck-about’: Aboriginal Conceptions of Play and Early Childhood Learning. In Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Play from Birth and Beyond (pp. 79-91). Springer Singapore.
Reynolds, A. J., Ou, S. R., Mondi, C. F., & Hayakawa, M. (2017). Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well?Being. Child Development, 88(2), 378-387.
Richter, L. M., Daelmans, B., Lombardi, J., Heymann, J., Boo, F. L., Behrman, J. R., ... & Bhutta, Z. A. (2017). Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development. The Lancet, 389(10064), 103-118.
Wright, B. L., & Ford, D. Y. (2017). Untapped Potential: Recognition of Giftedness in Early Childhood and What Professionals Should Know About Students of Color. Gifted Child Today, 40(2), 111-116.
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