At last the ranges is concern, all are up to their control limit and action limit. It means there is no variation in diameter of produced pipe and maintains its accuracy
it can be easily find that the increase of batch size, there is a decrease in unit cost. It’s a general applicable phenomenon, this happen due to the reason that for producing less number of batches, we have to apply high machinery cost, this results in high unit cost of product. If any company want to gain profit from the process it has to increase batch size, in this way machinery cost becomes apparent and cost decreases.
it is visible that unit cost of Die cost of die casting and sand casting is meeting at point where batch size is 100. It simply means that at the batch size of 100, the unit cost equalises with each other.
As mentioned earlier, for low size of batches, the machinery cost results to increase in per unit cost of product which high as compared to high size of batches. It also means that if machinery cost is being lowered by any means the unit cost will also go downward. This is the main reason behind unit cost cheaper. And that is why Unit cost of sand casting being cheaper at low size of batches and unit cost of die casting is cheaper at high batches size. This is also one more reason that the production rate of die casting is faster than that of sand casting in addition to lower capital cost, this also helps to make product cheaper as compared to sand casting.
As far as small size of production run is concern, Filament winding is preferable, this is due to the reason that its unit cost at batch sizes is lower than 1000, as compared to hot metal extrusion. Whereas large production is concern, then hot metal extrusion is cheaper and preferable for me. Its unit cost at batch size which is greater than 10000, is quite cheaper than filament winding.
There is a great concern of economic process and environmental impact while selecting the material for manufacturing process of a product. It has to in depth thought regarding material selection for further use and its side effect.
If there is plan of producing aluminium shaft we must apply hot metal extrusion process, and if there is a requirement of composite shaft then we must use filament winding process. As mentioned earlier production though hot metal extrusion is only economical if batch sizes are less than 10000 pieces. It simply means that producing aluminium shaft would be more useful and gain more profit we have to keep our batch sizes greater than 10000.
After the use of CES Edu pack Eco audit tool when life cycle and end of life potential of both the material is not considered. The environmental impact of aluminium shaft is around (3.13E +03MJ) is quite higher than composite shaft which is calculated as (2.38E+03MJ), therefore, using the aluminium shaft is less environment friendly than that of composite shaft. Additionally, the CO2 footprint of shaft made of aluminium around 218 kg, while composite shaft contribution to environment is 160 kg, which also quite less than aluminium. And finally, we can say that, use of aluminium shaft is more harmful for environment that composite shaft.
However, we must point out very important thing about aluminium that aluminium material can be recycled. i.e. we will produce less aluminium for further use and we must produce less number of batches. If we compared both the material on end of the life basis, the overall energy impact during the life cycle of aluminium shaft (2.1E+03MJ) is smaller than composite shaft which is around (2.39E+03MJ).
Finally, we can conclude that I may prefer manufacturing of aluminium shaft in place of composite shaft, this is due to the reason that producing aluminium shaft is not only cheaper but also environment friendly as compared to composite shaft
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