(1) Explain whether there is a relationship between inflation and unemployment. Should government interfere and reduce inflation and unemployment?
(2) Using your home country as a case study outline and analyse inflation, unemployment and growth trends. Identify what range of the aggregate supply curve your country is operating in?
(3) Explain how monetary policy can influence an economy, including the exchange rate and employment levels?
Yes, there is an inverse relationship in between the inflation and the unemployment. This statement is represents by the Philips curve as stated below.
There are two ideas that state the financial statements and are densely attach with each other these are inflation and the unemployment. Various economists were trying to link the connectivity in between the ideas of inflation and the unemployment in the previous years. The above statement clarifies the two details. These are one is temporary and the other is the permanent. Both the clarifications are not linked with each other. They show the inverse relation in between each other in the short pace. Let assume that in the above case, unemployment is at the high level and inflation is on the lower side whereas the opposite of this is also suitable in this case too (Aisen, Ari and David , 2008). It has created various problems. The relations in between inflation and the unemployment that became the part of the discussion is known as the Phillips curve. It seems to diminish in the short-term period and a long drag gets separate from the curve in this period. All economists believe that in the short period all the ideas of inflation and the unemployment are not connected. With an old approach of inflation, it enters with lots of changes in the cash supply and at the same point when the supply of cash gets increase with the value of the other things in cash. Increases in the volume of the costs known as inflation. An old approach of an economist states the regular rate of unemployment. It is called as the equilibrium level of unemployment in a particular financial system. It also called Philips curve i.e. long haul. This curve is perpendicular because inflation is not encompasses to some association with an unemployment in the longer period (Akintoye, 2008). With the above study, it’s expected that unemployment would move forward towards the stable point as not dependent on inflation. This is the rule, if an unemployment is lower than the rate of the characteristic then the inflation rate passed through all the points of desire ones whereas, if an unemployment is greater than the possibility to achieve then the inflation rate would come down to the normal intensity. There is an alternate approach with an old approach is the approach of Keynesian. This economist treats inflation as the results of cash that seems rising. They bargain with the institutions and individuals when both of them will increase the intensity of the values. As per an argument of the above, the top management authority of the company continuing in increasing the salaries of their employees with an aim to appease them. They increase their own profits by enhancing the costs of administrations given by them only. There must be a high rise in the supply of cash with an increase in an economy. With an objective of meeting the above demand, the government continuously provides more cash so that it gets aware with the rate of inflation. With an addition to inflation, unemployment is the major concern that plays an important role in the social and economic life of the country. Unemployment is an endless discussion that spreads worldwide and is the matter of need in all developing countries. Later, it clears that an increase in the profit is the strong approach and expected to be endless. Any type of development becomes the matter of satisfactory and gives the good supply of products that increases the welfare of all individuals and improves the advancements of the society.
Fiscal policy keeps the ability to remove the problem of unemployment by increasing the demand of the development of finance. The government will seek to opt for some strategy after the development of finance and involves the taxes with an expansion in expenditure of the government. Less taxes increases the revenues that may get disposed anytime and guides to do best utilization higher aggregate demand (AD). Example VAT slices that is of 15% in 2008, with an increase in the AD the GDP also started increasing. When the business expands, it increases the demand for workers / work force along with the insufficient demand of unemployment. Moreover, with the sound development in finance, some of the companies will get insolvent represents unemployment. Another economist Keynes supports and enhancing fiscal policy with a long last recession (Kumar and Alamuru, 2010). Keynes states that in recession assets are not moving whereas the government needs to mediate and tries to increase the demand of decreasing unemployment.
Effects of Increase AD on economic conditions
It depends on the various factors of AD and the chances are very less in the above event where deducting taxes might not increase the expenses of the purchaser on the base where individuals need to spend extra. Moreover, where individuals do not want to pay for their taxes, in this event they will soon tries to look at back. Fiscal policy may have the shortage of time and to build the new form of government investment may increase with leaving an effect on increasing AD. If at this time, when the system of finance is close to the increment of AD will leads to inflation. Fiscal strategy will reduce the evil of unemployment in the case where there is a less gap. The policy of fiscal strategy will grateful to the government that may not be easy for the countries with the increase chances in security. In the end, fiscal strategy may move out when the administration increases the expenses however they capture the private segment as they left with very less so they cannot help in increasing them and here, AD does not increase.
Last but not the least that Keynesian contends spilling over would not done in the solvency trap. In case if the business returns more there is an increase in the demand of the workers that reduces the unemployment. With an increase in AD and the finance development, some of the business becomes bankrupts that results unemployment. Keynes who was a supporter of the fiscal policy was having an aim of reducing subsidence. He believes that in subsidence, workers are not moving along with the legislatures that may gives an extra demand to reduce unemployment. Monetary policy involves the diminishing rates of investments. These less rates reduce the expenses of borrowings and invade individuals to donate or spend more. This results in boosting the GDP and decreases the unemployment.
(Source: CBO, Australia Unemployment and GDP)
Unemployment has fallen faster since 1980 until 2009 in the previous years of recession as shown in the above chart. This decrease is due to the various reasons like decrease in the growth of wages, less labor productivity and more flexibility in labor markets.
(Source: CBO, Australia unemployment and inflation)
Inflation brings the huge change in an economy of Australia through the sound development in finance/ economical conditions of the country. Aggregate Demand of an economy is faster than the aggregate supply and is expected at a prominent rate of inflation. Suppose, if the demand increases than the aggregate supply then it is suggested that the development of financial condition is greater than the reasonable rate of development in the longer period. Let us assume that in Australia the rate of the development in finance in the long period is approx 3% then the financial system of the country increases fast such as the monetary development is 6%, in this case results are expected of inflationary demand. The inflationary demand means the demand increases fast than the companies those can stay along side by side of supply, High development with face up to imperatives in supply and businesses increases the costs. Increase in the developments increases more livelihoods. Unemployment decreases because it causes the deficiencies in labors. A deficiency in unemployment increases the range on income that prompts prominent inflation (Rao and Rao, 2006).
The Keynesian AS bend accept that prices and remunerations are settled in anticipation of full livelihood is arrived at. Over the 'Keynesian range' there is extra limit in the economy, the price stage is steady, and genuine yield can extend as an aftereffect of expansions in AD without any inflationary weight.
Past complete vocation, any progressions in AD will realize advanced price extents. The Keynesian perspective of AS was adjusted to demonstrate a 'moderate extent' where together joblessness and inflation possibly will happen together.
The adjusted Keynesian AS bend is more reasonable, and emphasizes the exchanges that can happen between the price extent and unemployment.
The above chart shows the Australia’s LRAS curve. LRAS (long run total supply curve) shows the Australia’s plan of supply in the long period. It is feature as one of the step where costs of resources have completely adjoined with the changes in the cost of the finished goods. Increase in the cost in the longer period where vendors get their finished output that is completely balanced by its relevant increase in the costs that dealers move out for the resources. Result is that the GDP (Gross domestic product) offers by all the dealers are free of amends in the economy of Australia. The above chart shows the LAS curves that depicts in a perpendicular line where the curve is not affected by the changes in the price level. The above LRAS curve is straight upward at the point that shows the GDP. The normal GDP is feature as the point of the real GDP that shows at that time where an Australia economy is used completely in every bit of reachable assets.
The changes like in Aggregate Demand are not made by the changes taken together supply is not done by changes in the level of the value. Besides this, they are brought by the changes done in the various components. The principal of these components is the change in the expense of the resources. Example- the value of the oil and its resources increases in the 1970 because of the changes done in an export of oil where the trading of oil is done in the particular nation. Various administrations that use the oil or its items same as it is like its resources. Suppliers of these oil goods faced increase in the expenses and need to decrease and last finish the supply at every step of its cost. Decrease in the AS brought by an increase in the cost of the resources that is demonstrate through the changes done to the left side of the curve that is SAS curve and this curve assumes that expenses on the resources stays as it is same. An increase in the AS because of the decrease in the cost of resources that is denotes by the changes done in the SAS curve towards the right side. A second changes that creates the AS curve and impose it to shift are represents the development in the financial condition whereas the growth is positive in the economy of the country. It is done through an increase in the assets those are highly profitable example- labor and wealth (Nelson and Nikolov,2002). With additional assets, it is able to develop an additional outcome/ results in the forms of goods and services that results in the level of the real increased GDP. Here, the monetary development shown by the changes in the LAS curve to the right side. It is important to know that the development in finance decreases the volume of the real GDP that shifts to the left side of the LAS curve.
3. Explain how monetary policy can influence an economy, including the exchange rate and employment levels
Arrangements related with money effects inflation in the short term and the huge demand of goods and the services. As a result, the demand of the labors those help in the production and administration department get affected by the impact on the money related circumstances faces the unity in the companies. In tough times, the reserve of a federal economy generally affect by all situations of monetary through making changes in the finances of the government like fees that is charge by the banks from one another on credit creation. Development in the rate of trusts of government transits to the other rates of investment that leaves the effect on the expenses of the families and the companies (Damachi, 2001). Development in the rates of the investment leaves the great impact on the huge premium rates. Example- Rate of security for all commercial purposes i.e. home loans. Those rates that are imitate for the various variables, the current one and the future upcoming estimated rates get varies. A long pull rate of premium leaves the huge impact on the costs of all resources and removes this cost of equity with the estimated price of dollar on foreign exchange. Example- all above besides become equal, inferior rates of premium lifts the costs up as a investor rebates the chances of the stream of money related with the changes in the value at a decreasing rate. Therefore, these drastic changes in such situations of money effect on the movement of finances. In the short and long run, rates of investment diminish. As a result, it became less costly for taking loans. Therefore, it is beneficial for the families those get ready to buy goods and services. Business those are running successfully at the large-scale purchase things to increase the infrastructure / resources of their firms like tools, machinery etc. By observing all such increments in the units of industry and families businesses react vast and involving more professionalism for enhancing business opportunities. Being the reasons of the above factors family units helps more in building or creating more expenses. These relations involve the strategy of money used in production that is not turned up and gets affected by the changing variables. It making the situations tough with a proper estimate that effects on the monetary approach on the economic conditions. Strategy towards money leaves an important impact on inflation. When the rate of government finances decreases then it makes the demand of goods & services toughest that may has the tendency to take out the income and the expenses that shows the more than worth it demand for the workers. Thus, this is important for all upcoming generations (Friedman, 1999). More than this, all approachable activities effects on the desires of the people and ultimately effects on the economy of the nation that may consider later on. Desires at cost and the compensation those have the huge direct scope with an effect on an existing inflation. In 2008, when the rate of an investment is at zero then here it is not possible to do one more good deal and the reserve of federal embraces the monetary approach of non-customary for giving an extra support to all system of finance. In the starting of October 2014 and in the last of 2008, the reserve of federal captures the home loan that supports the business of securities offered by the government. In addition, more than this majorly bonds are relate with treasury & notes. The Federal Reserve buys the long-term bonds of treasury and securities. The main purpose of their purchase is to help the low term rate of interest for improving the financial conditions. This untraditional policy of monetary operated through the wide channels of the traditional policy though; there are many differences in this policy implementation.
The main role of the purchase was to guide and beings down the depth of the rates of investment that results in increasing the circumstances of money related. As a result, this non-conservative arrangement of money enhances its working all over the world at every outlet besides all the differences used in making and using strategy. It is widely accepted that the government has the capability to control the standard of translating with the help of buying and offering at the foreign exchange for all businesses on the global economy.
(source: Economics for today/4th Asian pacific edition)
The money market involves the demand and the supply of money. The demand curve of the market consist the quantity of the money that are hold by the people at different interest rates. The vertical line shown in the above diagram is the money supply i.e. at $20 billion. It is based on the assumption that this quantity of money supplied by the central bank. The equilibrium rate of interest is 8 % & finds out at coincide of the money demand and the supply curve of the money that is at point “E”. Example- If any other interest rates assumed that is 12 % or 4 % then the quantity of money that people desires to hold it is not equal to that money which is already in hand.
At this point where the government purchases the supply of foreign exchange with the cash at its local place world wide it increases the supply of cash. At the same time, it offers the bonds of the same cost that reduces the supply of cash by the equal sum. An imaginable effect on the translating scale would be the impact on purchasing the foreign exchange that happens at instant. As the foreign exchange for local money through local investors, make their portfolios in achieving the securities from the government may require less time. With an addition of the above, authority that purchases the stores of foreign exchange may increase and leaves the impact on the rate of the interest. Legislature purchases all external resources when it increases the supply of foreign exchange acquirement and offers the localized resources. It leaves the impact of the above supply on an increase supply of local cash. This fact does the supply of all non-monetary resources at worldwide businesses and the rate of investment at the local level will take a hike at its highest premium rate by the modest sum. The external resources are not the substitutes of it. The rate of the above-noticed investment effects on its staying so long and on the other side, the premium of all the resources at the local level are in danger forever. It increases as the result of the portfolio available in translating the acquisition of foreign exchange faced and the replacement of the local resources available at overseas. This will be result in the less portion of the resource portfolio globally (Khan, 2002). It effects on the local investment rates, the changing scale and the local changes without any doubt. The effect of increasing the foreign exchange property on the supply of cash by the market consists of open procedures in the local securities. The supply of local cash increases and will move to the upward .Costs will increase if the transform in the standard is flexible in the same procedure, as it had happened in the supply of the local cash or in the same way as it was created.
Aisen, Ari and David .H, 2008. “Budget Deficits and Interest Rates: A Fresh Perspective”. IMF Working Paper 08/42 .Washington: International Monetary Fund.
Akintoye. IR, 2008. “Reducing Unemployment Through the Informal Sector”: A Case Study of Nigeria. European Journal of Economics. Finance and Administrative Sciences. Issue 11.
Damachi. NA, 2001. “Evaluation of Past Policy Measures for Solving Unemployment Problems”. in Unemployment in Nigeria. CBN Bullion Vol. 25. No 4; Oct/Dec.
Friedman. M, 1999. “Inflation and Unemployment- Nobel Memorial Lecture”. The University of Chicago. Illinois. USA.
Khan. MS, 2002. “Inflation, Financial Deepening, and Economic Growth”. Paper prepared for the Banco deMexico Conference on Macroeconomic Stability. Financial Markets and Economic Development. Mexico City. November
Kumar. R and Alamuru. S, 2010. "Fiscal Policy Issues for India after the Global Financial Crisis (2008-2010)." Asian Development Bank Institute. WorkingPaper No. 249.
Nelson. E and Nikolov.K,2002. “UK inflation in the 1970s and 1980s: the role of output gap mismeasurement”. Bank of England Working Paper 148 and CEPR Discussion Paper 2999.
Peter.T,2009. “The New Keynesian Phillips curve in Europe: does it fit or does it fail?” Empirical Economics 37:463–473.
Rao. NG and Rao.RK, 2006. "Trends and Issues in Tax Policy and Reforming India." India Policy Forum. NCAER. www.ncaer.org/downloads/Journals/ipf0506-paper2.pdf.
Sargent. T,1999. “Discussion of ‘Policy Rules for Open Economies”. in John B. Taylor, ed..Monetary Policy Rules. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 145–154.