Learning and development can involve behaviourism and social constructivism. Behaviourism have different approaches to learning. The different types of behaviourism learning are; classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning theory. Each theory has their own places in the learning development and it gives major influence on the school. Classical conditioning is a reflexive type of learning in which a stimulus gains the ability to suggest a response that was originally suggested by another stimulus. In the early twentieth century, Pavlov did Nobel prize-winning work on absorption.
While studying the role of saliva in dogs’ digestive processes, he tripped upon a sensation he labelled “psychic reflexes.” While an accidental discovery, he had the foresight to see the importance of it. Classical conditioning is not a voluntary behaviour; instead it’s an automatic or reflective response. This mean human or animal is being trained to do something; it is something they don’t want to do it. It is a temporary response to something that motivated them.
Another type of learning that involves in behaviourism is operant conditioning. The operant conditioning invented by the behaviourist B. F. Skinner, who believed that one should focus on the external, observable causes of behaviour. Operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify behaviour through the use of positive and negative support. This means person will be rewarded or not rewarded for their behaviour. An individual makes a link between a particular behaviour and a consequence through operant conditioning.
The operant condition is a voluntary behaviour whereas; classical conditioning is opposite to operant conditioning. In operant conditioning people will understand the consequence of not doing their job. The example is in school when teachers give points to students as awards when they well-behave in a class. This means student’s voluntary to be quieter because they realised by changing their behaviour they can earn points.
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