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EDUC6048 Project Research Methodology

tag 0 Download 8 Pages / 1,756 Words tag 10-12-2020

Question:

Your task will be expected to read the interview transcripts provided below and perform a content analysis. That is, you need to read the information/data over and find if there are some common themes among them. You may do this any method you choose. When you have finished the reading, and the categorization, you need to write a no more than five-page report on what you have discovered.  You’re going to write this up as you would in two sections of a research paper:

Methods (or Methodology)

Here you describe exactly how you analysed the data. What were your rules for determining categories, trends, or themes. How did you do the coding?

Results

Here you talk about what you actually discovered. As they used to say in Dragnet, “Just the facts.” You can’t really interpret the data, or talk about what it means, as we didn’t start this with a research question or hypotheses.

Interviews 

When the researcher began the interview process, the line of questions concerning the corporate culture and the college-to-work transition process were viewed as separate entities.  Experience soon proved the two to be inter-dependent.  After, the first two interviews, the interview was dealt with as a single continuum, which in fact flowed into the follow-up interviews with the three new hire participants.  Separate conclusions concerning corporate culture and the school-to-work transition process were derived from the data.

Participant 1 Data

Corporate Culture Assessment Interview

The interview was held in Participant’s office at 0900, November 11, 1997.  The researcher's time with him was limited to 30 minutes by his busy senior executive schedule.  The interview proceeded on a very structured path defined by the preliminary question set used by the interviewer to assure coverage of the topics of importance to the researcher.  Participant 1 gave very tight concise answers to the questions and kept the discussion on track to an on time conclusion.

The interview got off to a bumpy start, as Participant 1 agreed to recording the session, but the tape recorder malfunctioned (after functioning properly the night before).

What is it like to work here?

It is an interesting business working in information technology (IT). It is growing fast in the areas of communications and international competition; it is fun. The corporation is a top growth company, in the top 10-20% internationally.  The employees are interesting, bright, dedicated people; customers are interesting also.

How did the organization evolve to its present state?

Started in 1959 as a software house building system software for the large hardware manufacturers such as IBM and others; and information systems.  Expanded to Government contracts in the 1960s.  The Systems Group and SED are focused on government software development and support, mostly Department of Defense and Intelligence agencies.

What does the organization stand for?  What would be a good motto?

The company wants to be pre-eminent (#1) in information technology (IT) consulting, business services, etc worldwide.  All constituencies (Customers, Employees, Stockholders) are considered of equal importance.  The motto is contained in the management principles written by the former CEO.

Who has the most power? Who has the least power? How do you know?

Without any doubt, or even a close competitor, the present CEO, President, and Chairman of the Board.  In second place would be six or seven people, but none close to number one.

How does change come here? What kind of changes?

Slowly (with emphasis).  Inertia of a large organization, alluded to IBM’s problems in responding to changes in the marketplace a few years ago.  We do not face the same level of danger.

How is information passed to you and to others?

Lotus Notes is used through out the company, world-wide.  Almost all company data is in shared data bases accessible to anyone in the company.  Any employee can send e-mail messages to anyone in the company.

What are some unwritten rules here?

(after a very long pause), cannot think of any.  The few written policies are short (a few pages).  Power to make decisions is invested in the local manager with little oversight from higher management.

What could get someone rewarded here?

There are three factors: Client satisfaction; Technical knowledge; and General Good Performance.  One more is Market Performance: winning contracts with successful proposals.

What could get someone punished/fired here?

Very few employees are fired.  Standout causes for dismissal: Insubordination, Conflict of Interest, basic Honesty and Ethics problems.

What kinds of mistakes are not forgiven?

Poor judgment, ethical breaches.  Not many people are fired.

What does doing a good job mean here?

Solving client problems.  Good ratings letters from customers, more work (expanded scope), good reference or recommendation to use in contract competition.  Profit.

To what extent do you feel you can make a difference here?

Pretty good at any level of the company.  Satisfied clients is the metric.

Who are the heroes of the corporation? What are their values, biases, assumptions, and goals? The people on the organization chart.  Basically corporate leaders with ten or more years of experience.  People who manage projects to client satisfaction and profit.

How will you charge the time spent on this project?

Incidental interruptions of less than one hour do not have to be reported on the employee’s time card.

NOTE: My goal should be to keep interviews to less than one hour.

Participant 2 Data

Corporate Culture Assessment Interview 

The researcher met Participant 2 in the lobby of her building at 1 PM on November 13, 1997.  She led the way to her private office, which had a window view of the woods behind the building.  She had the usual assortment of computer, telephone, and working papers on her desk and work table.  After she agreed to the interview being recorded, the tape recorder was set up on her table and tested. The researcher began by explaining the purpose of the research and guaranteed her anonymity in the dissertation.  She did not appear to be overly concerned about her views being revealed and expressed interest in the topic.

What is it like to work here?

What’s it like to work here?…well, I enjoy working here; I have been here about a year and a half, actually this is my third position: I worked in facilities and contracts previously.  I am fortunate that the managers I have worked for have been so helpful, mentoring, if that is a word? I felt that because of that it is easy to grow with the company; to enjoy my job.  I have had jobs in college where you were miserable about going to work.  I have not found that here. I have had  a lot of opportunities that I have not had before in my life.

How did the organization evolve to its present state?

I don’t understand.

Yes, how did organization evolve in your experience? In your understanding, if you don’t know, you don’t know.

Oh, I know that over the last few years it has grown a lot! The Park, for instance has gone from two buildings to four; I don’t really know the ins and outs, I don’t really know the history.

What does the organization stand for?  What would be a good motto? What are its values?

What are the values…I know that, to expand its many markets,  reaching new business.  I am just beginning to learn what exactly we do.  My position in Facilities was unique because it allowed me to see how the company operates internally.  In this position, I am just learning what the company does to make money.  These questions are difficult for me, because I feel so new.

What is a short motto?

(Pause)  Making business easier.

Making business easier for who?

Easier for the customer.  Reaching everyone…reaching….it is difficult.

Who has the most power? Who has the least power? How do you know?

Well,  I know the division is broken down in different ways.  The heads of each division, I am new to this, within each group…there is systems group, SPG, and ISD; I think it is balanced pretty evenly.  The hierarchy is not overpowering. People who are directors are touchable, we interact daily.  I spoke with my last director every day, she was a very reachable person.

How does change come about? What kind of changes?

Changes within the department?

Sure, within the department,  within the company.

I guess it is…I know when certain policies change, everyone is notified by green sheets, sent out by the person initiating the change.  For instance my last director would send out a green sheet to notify us of changes in parking issues or fire codes, sent to everyone affected. Procedural changes.  It is a big company, it is hard to reach every single person. If there is a position change word gets around because usually our directors find out, and tell our managers; most of the people in the company are on e-mail; that is how a lot of information is passed.

How is information passed to you and to others?

The E-MAIL system is a very powerful system, I actually use my E-MAIL more than I use my phone.

Are there any limits on your use of E-MAIL? Is there anybody who is out of bounds to you? Like somebody I would like to talk but couldn’t.  No, I actually have sent E-MAIL to people I would not normally feel comfortable walking into their office.  I find it easier.  I like to be able to send somebody a note and have them respond to it.

Would you feel comfortable sending something to Milt (President of Systems Group).

Not if it was something negative.  I have been told by directors not to send negative E- MAIL.  If I wanted to ask him a question, I might feel comfortable sending him an E- MAIL.  I would not feel as comfortable going up and knocking on his door.

So, E-MAIL is actually positive in that it enhances communication.

Definitely, I think a lot people would agree with that.

What are some unwritten rules here?

Unwritten rules, such as?

Such as the dress standard?

I think the dress standard is a pretty unwritten rule because most try to dress professionally.  I think the code of conduct is pretty evident, there are certain things you should do and not do. There actually are policies and everyone goes through that on your first day, you have an actual training session you go through, you are constantly updated with code of conduct as well as proprietary data information; certain things you are not supposed to leave on your desk. They actually come around and check, which is helpful and important; as well as HR (human resources) regulations and policies.  That goes back to the transferring of information, we are always notified if there is an upcoming event, such as HR event: there is always some thing hung up in the lobby to notify us of upcoming events.  Information is passed well around here, both up the chain, as well as down.

What could get someone rewarded here?

I think going over above the call of duty.  I have actually seen where someone was out of the office for illness or for maternity leave.  Other people picked up their work. Taking over someone else’s work.

What could get someone punished here?

Violation of policies most likely from the simplest things such as recording time, if you don’t record time every day.  The legalities of recording time right.  Restrictions on how much you are supposed to use E-MAIL.  Documents left out on the desk.  Wearing security badges.  Emphasis on protecting classified or (company) sensitive (proprietary) information.  We are required to lock our doors at night and when we leave the building.

What kinds of mistakes are not forgiven?

I have never had that happen.  I have never heard of anyone being fired outright.  I guess it could happen for not doing your job.  Hopefully, a manager would talk to you about poor performance before firing you.

What does doing a good job mean here?

Performing your job and trying to perfect it; doing the best job you possibly can.

To what extent do you feel you can make a difference here?

Recognizing your role as an employee, and understanding how your position fits in with the company, and understanding how that role helps the company work. Being part of a team that is, your department as part of the division and how that builds up to the total as a company.

Who are the heroes of the corporation? What are their values, biases, assumptions, and goals? Gosh, ah…  The proactive managers, the people who get the ball rolling, the people who go above and beyond the call of duty.  The people at my level, the administrators, the people who work hard.  I am sure there are certain directors who simply put in their time. (these are not heroes)

How will you charge the time spent on this project?

This is my lunch hour – I haven’t eaten lunch today, yet.

School-to-work Interview

What is your educational level?  What college(s) did you attend? What was your Major/Degree?

I am working on my MBA at UVA, receiving 60 % tuition assistance – the assistance depends on my maintaining a “B” of better. I could not afford to without company help. My bachelors degree is from Johnston Wales in Rhode Island, in Marketing.

What high school did you attend? College preparatory or other track?

Bernardsville HS, in Bernardsville, NJ.  It is near Millburn, NJ where I actually lived.

When and where did you first begin to prepare for your vocation?

That is hard to say.  I began college in Culinary school. I graduated and was working in food and beverage.  I wound up in this area working at a hotel.  I felt I needed business and office experience, which led to “temping” in the DC  area.  The experience was unbelievable, learned more in six months than studying in school.  The job here resulted from a temp assignment which led to a job offer.  I was ready to settle down to a regular full time job, the benefits are unbelievable.  I knew it was a very large corporation and would provide good opportunities. The educational support was an important benefit.  I was hired into Facilities, the organization I temped for.  Worked as an information management specialist.  Worked on project management and worked on the construction of the new corporate cafeteria because of my food and beverage experience.  I look at everything I do now as invaluable experience.  I am grateful for the company putting me in positions where I have the opportunity to learn.  They identified my experiences and interests and put me in positions to take advantage of those experiences.

What do you consider to be the necessary KSA’s for success in the work place? Define Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes (KSA) = The acquired attributes required to be successful in the world of work: Reading, Writing, Computation, Regular Attendance, Conformance to Workplace Culture and Norms, Working with People, Basic Work Habits, Knowing How to Learn, Communication, and Self-esteem.

I consider myself to have a very strong work ethic.  I very rarely miss work and am always reachable.  This job will utilize my reading/writing skills more than my last job which was more hands-on.

Where did you acquire the most important ones?

High School.  Actually in grammar school I learned more writing techniques and in high school I learned more comprehension.  Public school experience was that high school built on grammar school.  I moved around a lot and attended several schools in the state of NJ.

Did a particular person or institution play a major role?

I need some time to think on that one.  I have always found someone in each stage of my life to be a mentor: in school and in each job – not every job, however.  I see traits in a person that I admire, someone who works hard.  Mother and Father were role models.

Most of the time the mentors were in the workplace.  Not every job offered mentoring opportunities.  Once in college it was usually teachers who were the mentors.  Valued the teachers who were able to keep it interesting and to get the message over.  Most important was their caring about me as an individual.

Can you think of one individual who was particularly helpful in acquiring needed KSA’s?

My last manager here has been my big mentor – helped me to get back into school; has had a big impact on me.  She hired me.  She reached out to me and gave me projects that peaked my interest.  I was amazed by that, because I nobody had ever taken that big an interest.  She is a role model for me: very strong work ethic, a few years older, incredibly intelligent – she is working on her PhD right now. She is becoming a master in her field, a very successful and positive person, has a very strong marriage – I find it wonderful to see a successful marriage.  I am engaged myself and envy her that. Parents are divorced

– looking for the qualities that make marriages work.  She reached out to help me.

Did you receive the training you wanted/needed?

It is available. I have not taken full advantage of the opportunity.  In my present job I plan to take advantage of it.  Fiancee is taking advantage of the seminars that are offered all the time and encourages me to participate.  Process reengineering, finance groups.??

What did you learn while in school that can be directly applied at work?

My finance education taken in college (stat, accounting)  and reading and writing in HS, basic skills in grammar.  My HS had a good program in reading and writing skills.

How can the company help you attain the needed KSA’s in the future?

Programs outside of the company are available to me. It is a matter of my convincing my manager to support my request for schooling, such as the UVA masters program. Nobody stands in the way.

Is there some aspect of the culture that impacted your attainment of needed KSA’s in particular?

I don’t think so.

Is there anything you would like to add in closing?

I don’t think so.  I have been very happy so far.  I am excited to see how it works out. What I have done so far has given me some good experience.  Lots of new experiences, I see a bright future.

Thank you for participating in this research project.  I will prepare a transcription of this interview in the next few days and will send a copy to you for your review and validation; please correct any errors or instances of misunderstanding on my part.  My intent is to accurately capture the STW process as you have experienced it. I will write up the text of this session and E-MAIL it to you for your review, correction, and editing.  I invite you to change anything that doesn’t sound right in hind sight, add information, correct my misinterpretations of your comments.

Participant 3 Data

Corporate Culture Assessment Interview 

The researcher met Participant 3 in the lobby of her building at one PM on December 22, 1997.  She led the way to her office which was similar to Participant 2's office with the exception that she shared the office with another employee.  She had a window looking out on the side of the building.  She agreed to the tape recording of the interview.  The researcher explained the purpose of the research and guaranteed her anonymity in the dissertation.

What is it like to work here?

A great company, it’s a big company; I think you feel more like a number, because it is such a big company. But, other than that everything is comparable to whatever you can get anywhere else, it seems to me; it is my first job, so I'll say that I like it.

How did the organization evolve to its present state?

Which organization?

The one here.

How did it evolve?

Do you have any prior knowledge of how it grew to be the way it is?

Actually no.

What does the organization stand for?  What would be a good motto?

A motto - a good motto? I don't get exposed to too much of the company.  I was on a very small project before.  I feel like it is a big and strong company.

Who has the most power? Who has the least power? How do you know?

Probably the President, the whole chain.  I have the least power.  Because I don't see anything that goes on up top.  I don't have a problem with it.

How does change come here? What kind of changes?

Basically your manager says something is going to change.  Organizational structure.

How is information passed to you and to others?

Sometimes from my immediate manager, or through his manager - through the chain of command.  Through newsletters over the internet, that are sent out or broadcast.

So, newsletters on the internet?

Yes.

Do you have an E-MAIL system?

Yes. They actually send out through E-MAIL, the intranet.

Do you have outside access? Can you browse the INTERNET?

Yes.

Does anybody monitor that?

Yes they do monitor to see what sites you visit.  There a lot of E-MAILS about that.

What are some unwritten rules here?

Unwritten rules as in mannerisms.

Sure, how you behave, how you dress.

I think this is more a non casual building, men have to wear ties, women have to dress…. That is probably not written down anywhere.

No, it depends on your manager.

So, it is communicated to you through example.

Yes, you kind of have to ask.  I asked another lady that works here; she said you probably want to dress more professionally, because VPs and directors in this building are around.

Are there written rules? Is there anything that states here is company policy?

Yes, there are a couple of policies, mainly about time management, recording your time, the time card is automated.  Rules, rules …we talked about INTERNET rules.

When you first joined the company, did someone hand you an information packet like code of conduct?

There is a yearly update, you have to go, its mandatory; its 15 to 30 minutes to watch a video tape on code of conduct and ethics.

When they get into ethics, what do they talk about?

Since a lot of the contracts we have are government contracts, we talk a lot about proprietary information.  Using internet for business purposes, using telephones, keeping that professional manner.

What could get someone rewarded here?

I won't say what off the top of my head, no, I mean "kissing up".  I guess performance, showing you have succeeded in your given tasks.

When you say "performance" is that what you think of as a company answer?

It depends on your manager.  I was on a project before this with a manager who noticed particularly certain people - for them, for them, it was a huge accomplishment, whatever they did, and it didn't matter whatever anyone else did, even though they were working just as hard.

That is what psychologists call the "Halo effect" if you are a good person to this manager, then, whatever you do is good.  That is a hard thing for a manager to overcome.  So, how do you overcome that; how do you get yourself a halo?

I don't know I've never had one. What could get someone punished here?

Non performance.  Getting along with the people that we work with.

Being part of a team?

Yes, that is important to me.  I have to get along with people I work with otherwise, there are a lot of problems.

What kinds of mistakes are not forgiven?

Personality conflicts mainly, sometimes it can get personal.

Something make you lose your temper, lose your bearings, could impact negatively on your status in the company?

I don't know if it would affect the status the status of the company.

Your status in the company, if you misbehave in that manner, you would expect that.

No I wouldn't expect that. I wouldn't know what to expect. I have not felt  that out. I have only been on the project seven months, so I haven't come to the point of losing my temper yet.

What does doing a good job mean here?

Basically performance, something physical; output. Doing it in a timely manner.

To what extent do you feel you can make a difference here? To what extent - in the corporation or on the project?

Both.

Project, I think I can make a difference.  I am very entry level, so if I pick up on anything, it will help, because I bring a fresh point of view when it comes to this stuff. It helps me to want to learn, to have that enthusiasm.

Talk to me about learning; is that important to you?

Yes, I just finished a course that we did with UMBC in a venture between them.  I took an NT Workstation course.  I have taken a total of two college level classes here.  I have enjoyed the classes.  I am trying to feel what field I want to go into. I'm still at that entry level mind set.

Who are the heroes of the corporation? What are their values, biases, assumptions, and goals?

Who are the heroes of the corporation - the company. Anyone who brings in money, business. A good manager.  Values? Dollar signs.  Make money.  I only say that because if I put myself in that position, that is what I would value, status and bottom line.

How will you charge the time spent on this project?

That is a good question, I was going to ask you.

Gus tells me that interruptions of less than an hour do not have to be accounted on a time card. What is your educational level?  What college(s) did you attend? What was your Major

I have a BA in English literature.  University of Maryland.

What high school did you attend? College preparatory or other track?

Rockville High School.  I was in the upper level, taking AP classes Senior year.  All my peers were going to college.

When and where did you first begin to prepare for your vocation?

After college.

So, while in college you were not oriented toward this career?

No, I wasn't; taking one thing at a time, just trying to graduate.

How did you get the job here?

Through a TEMP Agency.  Worked at a site in Rockville as an administrator.  I was offered a job after the project was complete.  I learned a lot in college, but while in college, I did not know how to turn on a computer.  I temped for other companies and picked the computer stuff up very quickly.

What was it about the company that attracted you to it?

I liked working with the people I worked with; I was involved in the things I was doing. I enjoyed that.  After six months there, I realized it was time to get a full time job with benefits.  I was looking for another job and received a decent offer.  So, it took my threatening to leave.

What do you consider to be the necessary KSA’s for success here? Define Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes (KSA) = The acquired attributes required to be successful in the world of work: Reading, Writing, Computation, Regular Attendance, Conformance to Workplace Culture and Norms, Working with People, Basic Work Habits, Knowing How to Learn, Communication, and Self-esteem.

Out of all of those.  Reading is important, writing not as important, computation in the logic sense, attendance, culture and norms - yes it is important but not as important as reading, basic work habits is important, knowing how to learn is important but a lot of people get off without having to do it, communication is important (up there with work culture and norms), and self esteem - seems sometimes you don't need that - sometimes it is a little too personal.

So your thinking is that the way corporation is structured, maybe lowers the need for self esteem?

Yes, there are some things that happen that we can do nothing about.

Where did you acquire the most important ones?

Reading and learning is important now here, because I am trying to learn a lot of new things.  The skills I am working on now, this is all new stuff, stuff I have never worked with before. So, I am finding it is important to learn how to read material and kind of understand it, and it is harder for me because I was a literature major and it is very different from technical writing.  Just reading this stuff takes me a little longer to understand it.

So, the importance of these didn't really come out to you until you got out into the work force? Yes, like when I started working, the reality of knowing all these things; being able to keep with good attendance, good reading and comprehending all this technical stuff and being able to communicate effectively with people.  I think that was something that hit home when I started working.

So, when you were in high school and college, the importance of these areas wasn't apparent to you?

No. It wasn't until I first started working.

Did a particular person or institution play a major role?

Can you think of one individual who was particularly helpful in acquiring needed KSA’s?

Any particular person - mainly just co-workers; they were influential.

Does any particular co-worker stand out in your mind as some one who took you under his or her wing?

No. No one was all too influential.

Did you receive the training you wanted/needed?

Not as much as I wanted.  I was looking for a particular class that was easy to go to and was conducted by the company.  I wanted an introductory level programming class that is not as readily available. So, I am going to have to seek to take a class outside of any company affiliates, go to a community college.

Is information like that provided to you here?

It is, through the education policy in the handbook.

So, there is an education policy? Re-imbursement policy.

It covers paying for courses.  It does not identify available courses - is that up to you to go out and find them?

Yes.  I think as long as it is on a career track, but I cannot sign up for an English class because I already have an English degree..

When you ask the company to fund a course for you, you have to justify that it is applicable to your job?

Yes.

What did you learn while in school that can be directly applied?

I think  through the courses I took - I strongly do believe anyone with a college degree who went through all those stress processes, it doesn't matter what your major is, you really do learn to be little more analytical and you learn to focus and learn to achieve small objectives like mid-term exams. It helps you to prepare for any big task.  Time management.

So, it keeps you from being overwhelmed by the magnitude of the task and realize that you can cut it into smaller pieces?

And, it helps you to focus on the given things - to say, OK I need to get started, to study.

So, you learned this more in high school or college.

I think more in college.  In high school most of the exams were more multiple choice, simple, was not as challenging, where as in college you get so much information, comprehend all of this stuff in order to do well; it forces you to think.

Would you characterize college, as opposed to high school, as forcing you to take a more active role in your own learning?

High school versus college.  Yes.

How can the company help you attain the needed KSA’s in the future?

I suppose offering more company offered courses.

Is there a certain power in the company bringing the course to the site?

A matter of convenience.

Is there a means available to you to communicate that desire to the company?

Yes, you can talk directly to the HR Rep.  They are available on this floor.

Is that well publicized?

No.

Is that something you would suggest that they do? Do you value continuing education courses? Lifelong learning?

That would be desirable - a lot of people could use taking a lot of these classes. Learning for the rest of your life.  But, I want to find my niche first.

So, you want to find your focus? How are you going to find your niche?

The next class I get an A in.  It is mainly just exploring the different things I can go into. I am interested in programming, but I don't know if I can think like a programmer. It is a different thought process.  I came from an arts background.

If there is a company offered course that says, here is what programming is about, to give you an idea of what the company business is like?

I think it will be helpful, but it varies so much - it changes from project to project. Responsibilities aren't so well defined.  It would be helpful as a general guide to offer something like that in the colleges.  So that the colleges could say: if you are interested in becoming a programmer, as a general rule, these are the things that are expected of you.

What the company expects of a programmer?

Yes, maybe during recruitment time.  There are job fairs.

Did you go to those?

No.

What happened when you graduated from the University of Maryland.  Did you say, after graduation, well, now it is time to go look for a job?

Yes. I wasn't so gungho, I was just happy to graduate on time. And I just took it from there and decided to look for a job.

Is there some aspect of the culture that impacted your attainment of needed KSA’s in particular? The company, as a whole I don't really think so.  It is really up to me to go out and get the education I need to become a level to do what I want to do. If I had graduated with a computer science degree, then my life would be set; then I would know, at least, the direction I wanted to go.  But, I never knew even in college, what I wanted to do when I came out, I was just kind of winging it.  I usually do better when I wing it.  It just kind of falls on me.

Why did you take English Lit?

I took an introductory class and got an A.  I did like it.  I enjoy learning new things now.

So, you look forward to coming to this job?

Yes, because I am learning new things.  As long as it keeps me on my toes.

So, being in an environment where there are unknowns, new challenges makes it interesting as opposed to being threatening?

Yes, as long there is some goal in it for future achievement, is geared towards some kind of a career track; whether I can use it later in life.

How do you define a career track?

I don't know. I haven't found it yet.

So, career track is something you are seeking - a niche?

Yes.

You realize that you will likely do a number of different things in your life, that the niche will probably shift as you go along.

Oh yes.

You do not have any grand expectation that you will find something you will do for the rest of your life?

No, but it is fun looking.

Does the company provide you an environment in which it is easy to work?

I would say no.  I mean yes and no.  I depends on if you know what you want to do, there are plenty of opportunities to go and do it.  If you don't, it is really up to you find it and develop it.  Computer Science is skill oriented field.

You know that going to work for a company like this, that there will be a strong orientation toward exploiting the capabilities of the computer?

Oh yes.  Actually, I took the job because it was a decent offer. And in the six months I was working as a temporary, I learned a lot, lot, lot about computers.  Just the general work skills as in organizational skills and communication skills - just getting to know the environment and the people.

So, a lot of your transition from college to where you are now, was executed through this temp process?

Yes.

Is there anything you would like to add in closing?

No.  Be nice to everyone.  Especially here - there is a work dress code.

Thank you for participating in this research project.  I will prepare a transcription of this interview in the next few days and will send a copy to you for your review and validation; please correct any errors or instances of misunderstanding on my part.  My intent is to accurately capture the STW process as you have experienced it.

Follow-up Interview

(Participant 3)

Participant 3 met the researcher in the lobby of her office building at two O'clock on February 25, 1998.  The lobby guard had given the researcher an Escort Required badge so Participant 3 could escort the researcher to her office.  She shares an office with another employee who was not in at the time of the interview.  She has a window looking out to the side of the building.  The interview began with a review of the previous interview and the researcher request for additional information concerning the entry to the company process.  She agreed to tape recording the interview.  The interview was transcribed that same night and a copy sent to her the next morning.

How did you decide to TEMP here, what was that process?

The TEMP agency told me.  It is near home, a short drive.

Once you were here, how did you demonstrate to them that you were qualified to be here?

I guess I was a go-getter.  Wanting to do and wanting to learn a lot.  I wanted to touch everything, I guess.  I was open to helping out everyone.

I would characterize that as attitude.

Yes, oh definitely.  Attitude is a good way to put it.

I would say you are smart and you probably pick things up pretty quickly. Yes, fresh out of college. Not bothered with the worries of life yet.

How long did you TEMP here?

About six months.

Somewhere in there you came to the conclusion that you wanted to stop being a TEMP?

Yes.

What drove that decision.

I decided it was time to get a full time job.  A fulltime regular job.

For you it was the realization - it is time to get a job with benefits and so forth?

Yeah. That is exactly how it happened.  I just thought I am not getting benefits.  I am not getting a lot of things I should be out of college. I wanted a fulltime job, so I told my

TEMP agency that I wanted something more permanent.  And I started looking.  Because I never really looked before.

Where did you look?

I had a few leads from the company and other people who had left the company, who I had a relationship with; I spoke with them.

You were looking within the company?

I looked within the company, and the manager I had at the time gave me a very low ball salary.  A real low ball salary, and I said no, thank you for your offer.

So, the company made you an offer and you turned it down?

So, what happened, I think it was about a week after that happened, a new manager came on, and I was working with the Test Group at that time.  The new manager said he didn't want any one to leave who had been there for a while. So, he asked me what would it  take to keep you.  And I said this!  It wasn't that much up there.  I was an English major, I knew in the computer science field, I could only go so far.  It was an entry level position that was non-professional track, so I was hired as a senior member of the technical staff and was soon promoted prior to assignment to Iceland.  So, I was assigned overseas with the project I was on. I was there for a year and a half, so I got all seasons, all two of them.

You said you were on the non-technical staff what does that mean?

The professional track, when it comes to certain career paths.  I was in the very entry level, but it wasn’t, I was getting overtime and I wasn’t what is called professional status. It is more, you are there as an hourly person.  Your pay raises are a lot less than someone who is salaried.  The difference is in the overtime.

Compare the tasks you had as a TEMP to the tasks you had when you started fulltime.

I guess as a TEMP, everything was new and I really wanted to learn everything and I wanted to get as much as I could.  I pick things up a lot quicker too, with a clear mind like that, so um.  The tasking, I created it for myself. If I saw something that needed to be done, I would just well do that.  And people would say well great thanks.  I was hired on to do a particular task and it was doing a certain function of Microsoft Word for the MacIntosh, and it was called “publish and subscribe”, and I set up a whole documentation publishing system for the documents they put out in the Group.  And then since I kind of picked that up fairly quickly, it didn’t take too long.  I took that task on as being the maintainer of that, and doing whatever else I could.

So, you looked for other things to do as they appear on the horizon.

Right.  I was really anxious to do all that stuff, because a lot of the stuff they had me doing was, like coordination between other groups. So, I got to meet different people from different management sectors, so I  kind of liked that interaction.

So, as part of being a TEMP you got to know the company fairly well?

At least the people on this project.  Not the company as much.  I guess most of the things I heard about the company is from older folks who had been with the company for a while, and you know just sense that attitude, whatever it was.

Tell me about that.  What was the attitude of the company; I guess you are talking about the culture.

Yes, some of the people didn’t have a very; you know, you get (garbled) just coming out of college, a lot of people with bad attitudes. They express the bad attitude of the company, just always feeling like they were just passed by.

So, you are talking about people who felt they were picked on?

Or not recognized.

What is your assessment of that; your personal opinion, is that the way the company is?

I think a lot of times it depends on what you make of it yourself, sometimes I can see how situations; present itself in a way that you feel you can’t do anything about it.  That you are stuck in a situation where you are not getting the respect for your work, no matter what you do.  Because there are prejudices and biases of any manager.

What would be the nature of those biases?

It is hard to tell, a few cases I have seen it is from being a woman.  Actually, several cases I have seen from being a woman. And sometimes, experiences and how personal they are and personable they are.

So, the personality of the person is strong factor in this?

I don’t know if it is too strong. I think it depends, sometimes depends on the manager you are dealing with.  Kind of hard to read.  From my experience, I have seen some managers who took age into bias too.  And saw expression of personality as being from age.  Oh, she is a young kid; ignore her, or whatever attitude they were going to take on.

One of the things that is very popular in the culture to talk about now is the so called glass ceiling, where there is some invisible limit on how high up you can go. Do you feel like that applies?

Yes.  I think so.

So, you have the double whammy of being female and young.

Yes, I think it really does depend on the manager, its is the personality of your manager, basically.  You can never really read it before you start working there for six, seven, eight months, then you start to see it more.

You have to really be in the environment to really see what is going on?

Right.

Is there a technical bias also, like the computer programmers against the non technical staff, does that exist?

I guess the first instinct is to say yes.  But, I prefer to say no, because the duties are different, the jobs are different.  No matter what your job is, if you get it done and get it accomplished, I think that should be enough in itself.  And not the weight or someone saying well that is more important than this person doing this.  Because you will have a lot of programmers or techie people who can’t even change the xerox or who can’t type a letter, so the tasking is different.  So, there are weeks, when it comes to tasking if you get it done, you get it done.

You work a lot in teams don’t you?

More or less.

Are the teams made up of diverse capabilities, so you have programmers on the team and different specialties?

On my old project yes.

In the test group?

Yes. There was test group software, system engineering.  And there were a lot of hard lines when it came to the different groups.

The test group, is that like system test, where you are taking the new products the company produces and you are running exhaustive tests?

Yes.

You are not doing that now?

No.

What is your present tasking?

The present tasking; that is a good question.  I am doing a lot of different things. Our project is putting together a product for internal tracking of management information. The dollars and assignments, etc., etc.  And, what we are doing is developing; we already have one out there, we are developing an upgrade to the version, and it is using brand new technology: we are using people server, ADO, and all these fancy little data calls.

And what I am doing is I am running reports in crystal report, and running queries to pull the data for the reports. And also updating data bases. I have several different things I do here; I don’t know if I can call myself a programmer, but I am coming towards that.

You are moving towards being a coder, a writer of code? I personally enjoy data bases, creating data bases.

But, you are into the design of systems?

Yes.

When you were learning this job, in your temping job, what were the main factors in learning the job?

I asked a lot of questions.

There are people you could talk to, who could help you?

That is when having a good relationship with everybody usually helps.

So, you had a number of you would go to with questions?

Yes.

Supervisors and peers?

Yes, mostly peers if I could. Supervisors if it was a supervisor specific thing.  Most of the things I was asking were how to do certain things in an application and that is fairly simple.  Sometimes it is easier to ask someone than to looking in a book.

I understand that.  Was there formal training offered, did you have classes you could go to in addition to talking to people?

No.

So, you picked it up through the network you established.

Yes

And, that was pretty successful for you?

Pretty much.

That would cover the technical side of it. How about how you live in this culture, how you dress for work, how you address people, those aspects of living in the environment; learning about the glass ceiling for instance.

The glass ceiling is kind of a downer.

How do you learn about things like that?

You just experience it. It mostly comes in comparison with your peers.  You see the attitudes portrayed about from the manager towards your peers.

You did it by observation.

Yes.

When you came into the test group, that was a fairly well defined job that they had set up for you, or did you help create that?

It was a job that was created specifically for someone to pick up and learn and do.  It was already set up by my temping company.  They had called the TEMPing  company and said I was going to work on.

How was that communicated to you, was there a written instruction?

No, it was all verbal and I said OK.  I was up for trying anything.  I wasn’t prejudiced toward anything that came off.  Except for the things that are very very, like extremely menial.  Like filing.  I did that for a day.  Actually, they wanted me to, I think they wanted to hire someone for three days to do all this filing.  I went in there and said, I can’t do all this.  So, I did it really fast and got it done in a day.  And they were like: wow, how did you do that so fast? All I could think about was, I don’t want to do this tomorrow, I don’t want to do this tomorrow.  There are some jobs that I know that I don’t want to do; and most of it is clerical, clerical duties; I found that out.

The job you are in now is undefined, you are creating that is what you are saying? You are defining what it is, there is no set procedure.

No, I think the only reason why I am doing what I am doing right now is because we have a very small group.  And, anyone can do anything, because it is such a small group, as long as they show that they really want to do it and really want to help.  And the people who are coordinating, not the manager, but everyone else who is coordinating, they usually, they normally are helpful when it comes to that.

So, it is really within your team, your group that you are innovating?

No, that is more from my other project. There is a list of things to do. There is a lot to do and not enough workers. And so, I think I have been producing.

In your present job there are a number of defined tasks; and you just take on the next one in line.

Yes, for the most part.

So, it sounds like you came to the test group through the temping business, and then you made a transition from that position of being a semi outsider, to moving inside the company when they finally offered you a job you would take.  Talk to me about that worked for you.  How was it different going from being a TEMP to being a full time employee.

I don’t know. I felt more like an equal.  More like I am an employee too, rather than being a part timer.

Were you equal with everyone in the company, or just with the women?

I think at that point, it didn’t make a difference. I was a full time employee, versus non employee. Like I was there for six months and hadn’t had an offer. And I guess it was nice to have an offer, and not to have to find another full time job somewhere else.

Did you view the temping as a way to find a full time job.  Was that one of the things that was in your mind when you decided to temp?

I think in the long run, yes, but when I first started, I just wanted the office experience.  I had never worked in an office before.

So, you started out just thinking in terms of getting the office experience.

And finding out the office culture.

And somewhere along that path you were comfortable with saying it is time to work full time; and so, you mentally shifted from being a temp to being a perspective employee.  So, then it was just a matter of deciding who you would go to work for.  What was it that made the company a good decision, just the job offer?

I felt comfortable with it.

You were comfortable here.

Yeah, I was temping for six months.  I got to know the people.  And my house is nearby.

You talked about when you had questions, you could go and talk to someone. What if you had a problem? Is it the same procedure? Can you find somebody to help you work your way through that?

For the most part.  If I can’t find it in a book, there are people who have been working with Word for a long time.  Usually, I have a good rapport with them.

How do you establish that kind of rapport?

I think just stay friendly. Do you mean making friends?

Not making friends, but just being friendly.

Answer:

Methodology

According to the given data, a qualitative analysis was done on the employees of the company of providing system software. For proper conduction of the research project, a qualitative analysis was chosen to be done on corporate culture along with the school-to-work transition process (cyc-net.org, 2018). Through the process of asking open-ended questionnaires, the interviewer was about to access a lot of aspects about corporate culture. Before the process of data analysis, the data collected from the five different participants were transcribed from the audio recording which was done in the process of the interview. Through the conduction of an interview, the aspect of corporate culture became clear to the interviewer.

                     

                                                             Figure 1: Stages of methodology

                                                                                            (Source: Learner)

There were a total of 5 employees who were interviewed for this research project. All of these participants were needed to be categorized first in order to understand their viewpoints on corporate culture (asic.gov.au, 2018). For proper assessment, these categories were divided into a total of three main sections where the new employees, the old ones and the ones who hired them were separated into different categories. As asserted by Guiso, Sapienza & Zingales (2015), one of the major aspects which were needed to be kept in mind was the presence of overlapping and non-overlapping factors. Through a thorough analysis of the obtained data both of these entities were observed. The overlapping aspects were found three of the chosen five participants were keen on working for a successful organization. However, their viewpoints differed about their functioning in the company which was considered in the non-overlapping aspects.

Other factors which are needed to be accessed for revaluation of the recorded data are the trends and themes of the research. Only through analysis of these aspects, the proper process of coding can be formulated (Davidson, Dey & Smith, 2015). Through the evaluation of the recorded information, some trends have been observed in this research projects. One of the most visible of these trends was that most participants were looking for permanent positions in good organizations rather than working as a temporary staff. The aspect of gaining work experience is another of the trends observed in this interview. This observation has only been successful due to the careful set of qualitative questionnaires.

Corporate culture is observed to be the main theme of this research project (Guiso, Sapienza & Zingales, 2015). The transition from studying to work has been accessed through interviewing of three participants who had been recently hired by the company. The experiences of the participants working for the company have been evaluated through the asking of qualitative open-ended questionnaires. Along with that, the transition from studying to work culture has also been carefully accessed in this research project. It has also been observed that most of the participants are from English major background. This is a common theme observed through the conduction of the interviews. Most of the participants stated the fact that they are looking to expand their horizons of the limited scope for English major students.  

The assessment of all these steps is needed before the process of coding. The data collected from the interview were checked to see that they are valid as well as reliable. This process was done with the help of the follow-up interviews which gave a clear idea of the information needed to be coded. According to Ramdhani, Ramdhani & Ainissyifa (2017), a systematic analysis of all these data was a process which can be given the name of coding. This had been possible because of proper categorization is done through proper evaluation of the questionnaires. The process of coding is such an aspect which is needed to e conducted with the help of computer analysis software. Therefore, with the aid of analysis software, all the collected data were input into the system. This gave an accurate outcome of the frequencies of the data which was needed for evaluation of the interviews conducted.   

Last but not the least, the step which was needed to be done for analysis of the data was to code the information obtained from the participants. In simple words, coding can be defined as a label which is needed to be put for before the aspect of categorization can be followed (Carlos Pinho, Paula Rodrigues & Dibb, 2014). In this case, qualitative analysis has been done, therefore the type of data used was primary. Due to this, it was of utmost importance to maintain all criteria deductive approach. As per the view of Kuron, Lyons, Schweitzer & Ng (2015), this approach is based on scheming fact and existing data. Therefore as primary research was conducted, the analysis was done on the basis of the recorded information. Thus, the codes were prepared on the basis of this where all the analytical data were organized and analyzed. Before this was moved forward, the process of pre-testing was followed in order to cross-check the reliability and validity of the data.   

Results

The usage of the correct methodology helps in achieving an error-free result. This research consisted of qualitative questionnaires; therefore, the process of deductive approach was taken into account (Silverman, 2016). After the process of pre-testing, a clear and through results were obtained. From a proper analysis of the coded texts after categorization, the result which was obtained inclined towards the positive aspects of the company where the employees believed to grow along with the company. The result mostly inclined towards the positive as 4 out of 5 participants preferred working under this company.

This research was conducted to understand the opinion and viewpoint of a few different people on their views of corporate culture. This research helped in gaining thorough knowledge about this aspect. From this research, the aspirations of various participants about the company and their expectations were understood. The common theme was about their academic background was also discovered. Most of the participants who agreed to participate in this research project showed enthusiasm through which the researcher could conduct it with ease. Conduction of this research not only helped in understanding the corporate culture, but also the aspect of the transition from academics to work by interviewing the three new hires. 

There were a variety of questions asked during the interview process for data collection. Many of them exhibited the same nature asked in all the interviews. Therefore, the presentation through which it was depicted was graph charts. This accurately portrayed the number of categories of questions and the answers depicted by the participants. This also showed the organized and presentation skill of the researcher. Most of all, this allowed the result to be presented in a clear and concise manner so that the audience was able to understand clearly.

Overall, the process of analysis of qualitative data was pretty huge. It involved a lot of steps and was time-consuming. However, the usage of a voice recorder and accurate questions made this conduction of research a lot smoother. For proper completion of this research project, the use of the software was also implemented in the last step. The coding software known as Atlas was used for the analysis of the prepared codes for obtaining accurate results. As opined by Buchanan, Chai & Deakin (2014), this software is specially used for qualitative research; therefore, through the help of this accurate end result was obtained. The similarity index of the participants along with the difference was properly observed with the aid of this software. Thus, following of all the above aspects described in the methodology helped in breaking down of the qualitative research and perform a proper analysis which was required for the research project.

References

asic.gov.au, 2018, Corporate governance- Directors and corporate culture, Retrieved on 5 July 2018 from: https://asic.gov.au/regulatory-resources/corporate-governance/directors-and-corporate-culture/

Buchanan, J., Chai, D. H., & Deakin, S. (2014). Empirical analysis of legal institutions and institutional change: multiple-methods approaches and their application to corporate governance research. Journal of Institutional Economics, 10(1), 1-20. Retrieved on 16 July 2018 from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/31041963EA4E0A6480D19CED084DACE4/S1744137413000349a.pdf/empirical_analysis_of_legal_institutions_and_institutional_change_multiplemethods_approaches_and_their_application_to_corporate_governance_research.pdf

Carlos Pinho, J., Paula Rodrigues, A., & Dibb, S. (2014). The role of corporate culture, market orientation and organisational commitment in organisational performance: the case of non-profit organisations. Journal of Management Development, 33(4), 374-398. Retrieved on 10 July 2018 from: https://oro.open.ac.uk/40337/2/JMD_NPO_FINAL_APRILcSD.pdf

cyc-net.org, 2018, Helping at-risk youth make the school-to-work transition, Retrieved on 2 July 2018 from: https://www.cyc-net.org/cyc-online/cycol-0705-lowry.html

Davidson, R., Dey, A., & Smith, A. (2015). Executives'“off-the-job” behavior, corporate culture, and financial reporting risk. Journal of Financial Economics, 117(1), 5-28. Retrieved on 19 July 2018 from: https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Lists/Events/Attachments/22/Davidson_Dey_Smith%20march%202012.pdf

Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2015). Corporate culture, societal culture, and institutions. American Economic Review, 105(5), 336-39. Retrieved on 15 July 2018 from: https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.714.9178&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2015). The value of corporate culture. Journal of Financial Economics, 117(1), 60-76. Retrieved on 12 July 2018 from: https://www.law.northwestern.edu/research-faculty/searlecenter/events/roundtable/documents/Sapienza_Corporate_Culture.pdf

Kuron, L. K., Lyons, S. T., Schweitzer, L., & Ng, E. S. (2015). Millennials’ work values: differences across the school to work transition. Personnel Review, 44(6), 991-1009. Retrieved on 18 July 2018 from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Eddy_Ng/publication/281783636_Millennials%27_work_values_differences_across_the_school_to_work_transition/links/55f8556b08aec948c47b2aee/Millennials-work-values-differences-across-the-school-to-work-transition.pdf

Ramdhani, A., Ramdhani, M. A., & Ainissyifa, H. (2017). Conceptual Framework of Corporate Culture Influenced on Employees Commitment to Organization. International Business Management, 11(3), 826-830. Retrieved on 11 July 2018 from: https://digilib.uinsgd.ac.id/5115/1/826-830%20Corporate%20Culture%20Influenced%20on%20Employees%20Commitment%20to%20Organization.pdf

Silverman, D. (Ed.). (2016). Qualitative research. 1st ed. California: Sage. Retrieved on 17 July 2018 from: https://epdf.tips/qualitative-research-theory-method-and-practice.html

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