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Write a strong paper and vary the information on Smart Grids (intelligent grids). Prepare a academic research that includes the history of it, principles, the grids that we had using before the Smart grids, and make the comparison between the old or traditional network electricity and Smart Grids.


Discuss, the advantages & disadvantages of it. how does that work on the computer? what is the relation between smart grids and computer? and, how can we improve or develop the smart grids to be better?

History of the Smart Grid

A smart grid is well-defined as a control system which is used in many electric and electronic devices. It is also called an electrical grid that involves the number of operational devices and apparatuses for example, smart appliances, smart meters, and energy resources. There are main two fundamental aspects of this advanced technology, for example, microelectronic power conditioning, and regulator of production. The main aim of this report is to recognize the fundamental concept of the smart grid and the role of this technology in the field of electricity or computer systems. In this type of technology meters, electronic equipment’s, and instruments are connected to the grid. In which every unit connected to the grid using a lighting system [3].  In this modern generation, there are many people and organizations which are using this type of power system by which they improved the efficiency and performance of their equipment’s. It is observed that the smart grid is more efficient rather than other energy sources and it reduced the problem of power consumption. This report is divided into five parts, for example, history of the smart grid, principle, the comparison between the smart grid and other power resources, advantages and disadvantages [4].

In this modern technology, due to the increase in power demand the oldest energy resources are not working properly, therefore, many people are using the smart grid concept to increase performance if devices. The first power grid was established in the year 1886 in Great Barrington and at that period, the electric grid was a unidirectional process of power circulation [5]. In the year 1960, the use of smart grids was increased and many organizations used the electric grid rather than other energy resources. It connected a number of central power systems through high power lines. Between 1970 and 1990 the demand of power grids was increased and at that time many problems occurred for example loss of power, power cuts, brownouts, and blackouts [6]. In the 21st century, there are many electronics and communication technologies are developed to reduced drawbacks and limitation of the electric grid. It is estimated that the first fundamental concept of smart grid was produced by EISA in the year 2007 and it was approved by the United States in January 2007. In year 2009, the US keen framework manufacturing was esteemed at about $21.4 billion and by 2014; it will surpass at any rate $42.8 billion [7]. Given the accomplishment of the smart networks in the U.S., the biosphere market is required to develop at a quicker rate, flooding from $69.2 billion out of 2009 to $171.2 billion by year 2014. With the fragments set to profit the most will be keen metering hardware sellers and creators of programming used to transmit and sort out the massive quantity of information gathered by meters [8]. The power grid began in 1896, situated partially on Nikola Tesla's plan distributed in 1888, however as of late, in the previous 50 years, power systems have not kept pace with current difficulties, for example, security dangers, national power business, and conveyance, and appeal of intensity quality [9]. Along these lines, the idea of Smart Grid turned out, and the term keen matrix has been being used since 2005. Most power grid today around the globe take after a similar configuration. The general condition for a standard power lattice begins first with the producing power plant. Here, power is produced through an assortment of courses, for example, coal, oil, and atomic, and also cleaner alternatives, for example, wind, water, and sunlight based power. The power plants create high measures of power that once-over through long 'transmission lines' as a rule crosswise over numerous miles [10].  There are both AC (substituting current) and DC (coordinate current) transmission lines. As a rule, AC is the more typical technique for transmitting force and DC transmission lines require a DC-to-AC converter before they are progressed into circulation electrical cables. Before the power can get to the private and business structures, it must be 'weakened' and appropriated. This weakening happens in light of the fact that the power in the transmission lines is far too substantial to possibly be utilized by ordinary family machines. Along these lines, a bit of gear called a 'transformer' is utilized to step the shut down to a voltage that general machines can utilize [11].  These transformers are held in a 'substation', which takes in a wide range of high voltage lines and parts them up into a bigger number of lower voltage lines. There are wide ranges of voltages that the substations 'venture down'. The higher the voltage, the more drawn out separation is can travel. In this way, there are different 'advance down's that the power must take as it goes from a transmission li ne to the dissemination lines. From the substation, the lines at that point go to the different houses and structures that are associated with the power network each with their own particular voltage meter to quantify their capacity use [11].

Principle of Smart Grid

In this modern generation, electric energy system is facing a radical transformation problem and loss of energy is also a common problem for any information and communication system. Therefore to avoid this type of issues the smart grid was developed and it is essential that produce simple integration and reliable services to customers [12]. A smart grid technology is defined as self- services electricity system which is completely based on the fundamental concept of the digital automation process. The main advantage of this technology is that it can determine the solution of any problem in very less time which can decrease workforce and this system can provide reliable, safe, and high-quality services to all customers [13].  It is a combination of electric networks and digital technology and it has the ability to produce electricity from various resources, for example, solar system, wind turbine process, and from hybrid electric vehicles. The smart grid alludes to a propelled power supply bond which keeps running from a noteworthy power plant to the distance inside your home. For instance, there are many power plants in the United States and these power plants create power by utilizing the breeze vitality, atomic vitality, hydro, gaseous petrol and from different assets. These delivering stations create power at a settled electrical voltage and this specific level of voltage is improved to high voltages with the goal that the power transmission's productivity is upgraded over long separations [14].

It is a process which enables two-way communications between electric power systems and customers. In which information of any consumer is detected by various electric power organizations in order to deliver more efficient energy networks. In addition to improving the performance of any power plan this technology also control and monitor demand for power and distributed energy systems [15].  A smart meter is used in this system and it controls the flow of electric energy from one device to another and also decreases carbon dioxide emission. It provides electric energy from supplier to customer with the help of digital innovation system that decreases cost and improves transparency. Power distributed grids are used in smart grid system by which electric energy transfer from supplier to various home appliances.

  • Empowers dynamic support by buyers—Consumer decisions and expanded association with the framework bring substantial advantages to both the lattice and the earth while diminishing the cost of conveyed power. Accommodates all age and capacity alternatives—Diverse assets with "fitting and-play" associations increase the alternatives for electrical age and capacity, including new open doors for more effective, cleaner control generation [15].
  • Enables new items, administrations, and markets—The network's open-get to showcase uncovers squander furthermore, wastefulness and helps drive them out of the framework while offering new shopper decisions, for example, green power items and another age of electric vehicles. Decreased transmission blockage additionally prompts more effective power markets.
  • Provides control quality for the computerized economy—Digital-review control quality for the individuals who require it maintains a strategic distance from creation and efficiency misfortunes, particularly in computerized gadget situations [16].
  • Optimizes resource usage and works proficiently—Desired usefulness at least cost guides tasks and permits more full usage of advantages. More focused on and productive grid maintenance programs result in fewer hardware disappointments and more secure tasks.
  • Anticipates and reacts to framework aggravations (self-mends) — The shrewd lattice will perform constant self-appraisals to recognize, investigate, react to, and as required, re-establish framework parts or system areas.
  • Operates versatility against assault and cataclysmic event—The lattice discourages or withstands the physical or digital assault and enhances open wellbeing [17].

Smart grid involve various technologies and system which are describing below

It has the capability to decide the level of the consumer into various electric energy systems and it reduced the value of peak loads that impact on the cost of electricity generation. There are various sensors used in the smart grid, for example, a smart sensor, and temperature sensor which are used to control the temperature of smart grids [18].

Advantages and Disadvantages

It is very significant portion of any smart grid which is used to produce two-way interactions between the power provider and users. It can be used to control and monitor the flow of electricity and people can transfer power energy from one device to another [18].

The main purpose of the smart substation is that it can control both non-critical and critical operational data for example power factors, security, and transformer status. The main advantage of this system is the transformation process by which people can share power supply from one device to another.

These types of cables are used to produce long-distance transmission system and it has the capability to detect faults in power systems [19].  It is completely based on the real-time data which is used in smart grids to avoid loss of signals.

The main key of any smart grid system is an integrated communication process and it is a very fast process rather than the real-time system. There are various kinds of technologies are used in this process, for example, PLC, wireless networks, SCADA, programming language, Kiel software, and BPL [20].

The main aim of this scheme into smart grid is that it can track the flow of electric energy into various power networks. It uses superconductive cables that can decrease power loss and improve the performance of electric networks.

Before smart grid, electric grids and traditional power grids are used and it reduced various drawbacks of electric grids. An electric grid is defined as an interconnecting process which is used to produce electricity [21]. This type of grid consists of three systems such as generating station, large voltage transmission cables, and distribution lines. Generating stations are used to generate electric powers from power plants and transmission lines are used to produce a communication platform between the power system and consumers [22]. Distributed lines play a significant role in electric grids which re used to that connect two or more electric consumers at a time and it also distributes eclectic energy from one device to another device. This is a manually operating system which cannot be sued for long distance communication and it is less secure rather than the smart grid. Traditional control grids are utilized to the interrelated number of power systems like transmission cables, smart meters, and distributed substance [23]. It is one of the oldest technologies to transfer electric energy from power resources to consumers and the main drawback of this technology is that it is a very less efficient process. It uses an electromechanical process that means it uses various mechanical devices which are controlled by electric energy. This technology does not provide communication between devices and consumer; therefore, it is not as popular as compared to the smart grid. It is a completely manual operating process in which data or signal may be lost and it is also a one-way communication process which does not provide a feedback system. Electrical framework or power lattice is characterized as the system which interconnects the age, transmission and circulation unit. It supplies the electrical power from producing unit to the circulation unit. A lot of intensity is transmitted from the creating station to stack focus at 220kV or higher [24]. The system shape by these high voltage lines is known as the superlative. The super matrix encourages the sub-transmission to arrange to work at 132kV or less.

Technologies and Systems Involved In Smart Grids

The traditional grid is defined as the interconnection process for different power systems, for example, power transmission, transmission substations, synchronous machines, various kinds of loads, and transmission lines. These types of electric grids are located far from the energy consumption area and in which electric energy transmitted with the help of transmission lines like coaxial cables [25].

It is a modern technology of grids that produce more efficient and also improved the security of power networks. It has the capability to monitor and control various activities of grid-time information process and it also provides real-time information about any event [26]. There are various key components used in this tech ology, for example, smart substations, smart meters, smart appliances, and synchrophasor technologies.

A Smart Grid utilizes creative items and administrations together with savvy checking, control, correspondence, and self-recuperating advancements to:

  • Better encourage the association and task of generators everything being equal and advancements; [2].
  • Enable customers to have an impact in upgrading the activity of the framework;
  • Furnish customers with more prominent data and the decision of supply;
  • Fundamentally decrease the ecological effect of the entire power supply framework;
  • Convey improved levels of dependability and security of supply [27].

Characteristics

Traditional Power grid

Smart Grid

Technology

It uses electromechanical technology and in which a mechanical device is used which is operated by electricity.

The smart grid uses digital automatic technology which can increase communication between power systems and consumers.

Distribution

The traditional power system uses one- way distribution. In which power is distributed from the only main power source.

It is a two- way distribution system and in which power can go back to the main power plant.

Generation

In this type of electric grid, all power sources must be produced from a central location.

In this advanced electric grids power source can be generated from any location and people can transfer electric energy from one device to another.

Sensors

In this technology there are few sensors used and the infrastructure of traditional power grid cannot handle a number of sensors at a time.  

In smart grids system, there are numbers of sensors can be placed on a single line which is one of the most benefits of this power system.  

Monitoring

Due to the many limitations of traditional power grids energy sources are monitored manually by operators.

It uses digital technology by which power systems are monitors by itself.

Restoration

It is a manual handling process to restore their power station.

It is a self-handing process in which sensors can determine faults into electric power systems.

Equipment’s

Failure of infrastructure can increase the problem of the blackout.  

In which power can be rerouted to go around any issues areas.

Control

In which electric energy is very difficult to control and monitor.

In which energy can be easily controlled and monitor by the smart meter and other technologies.

The overall interest in power keeps on developing indeed, even as vitality protection measures and advances in control transformation efficiency decrease the utilization of singular burdens. To encourage the vitality craving of the world, sustainable power source advancements are getting to be doable and offer elective age alternatives that empower thought of the effect on nature and other social and monetary variables [27].  As indicated by the U.S. Vitality Information Organization (EIA), non-hydroelectric inexhaustible vitality is one of the quickest developing vitality sources; its commitment to add up to U.S. electrical age is normal to achieve 14% by 2035. While a significant part of the current sustainable age is given by wind, PV age is getting a charge out of gigantic development around the world. In the United States alone, matrix associated establishments grew 102% to 878 MW of new PV age in 2010, which brought combined introduced ability to 2.1 GW [28]. Utility-introduced PV spoke to as it were 28% of this development, proceeding with a multiyear incline in which the development in PV was driven by nonutility establishments. The PV industry is beginning, and quite a bit of this development depends on ideal government monetary motivations.

It is one of the impotent advantages of smart grid and user can save electric energy. In smart grid, people can share the power system from one network to another and it uses transmission lines for two-way communication purpose.

The smart grid also improved the overall performance of electric networks and it uses digital technology by which it increased the accuracy of systems. There are various power supplier companies which provide methods to improve the security of their network systems.

Smart grid decreased the cost of electric systems and it collects numbers of data from an energy meter system. It uses data analysis process through which users cans analysis use of power grids.

This latest power grid decreased losses and electric distortion by which performance of power resources and other devices improved. It uses smart substations which are used to transfer data signals from one location to another and it also provides a medium to provide communication between power suppliers and users.

There have been five monstrous power outages over the previous 40 years, three of which have happened before nine years. More power outages and brownouts are happening because of the moderate reaction times of mechanical switches, an absence of robotized examination, and "poor deceivability" – an "absence of situational mindfulness" with respect to lattice administrators. This issue of power outages has far more extensive ramifications than just pausing for the lights to go ahead. Envision plant generation halted, transient nourishment ruining, activity lights dim, and charge card exchanges rendered inoperable. Such are the impacts of even a short local power outage.

It is an advanced technology of traditional power grids which uses the smart meter and smart substation to control and monitor the flow of electric energy. It improved the demand for electric grids without using any infrastructure and many people use this technology in various peripheral devices.

Among the huge difficulties confronting advancement of brilliant frameworks are the cost of actualizing a brilliant matrix, with gauges for simply the electric utility progressed metering ability running up to $27 billion, and the directions that permit recuperation of such ventures. For point of view, the Brattle Group appraises that it might take as much as $1.5 trillion to refresh the framework by 2030. Guaranteeing interoperability of savvy matrix models is another obstacle state and government controllers should jump. Real specialized obstructions incorporate creating practical capacity frameworks; these capacity frameworks can help settle other specialized difficulties, for example, incorporating disseminated sustainable power source sources with the network, tending to control quality issues that would somehow or another compound the circumstance, and improving resource usage. Without a shrewd lattice, high entrances of variable inexhaustible assets may turn out to be more troublesome and costly to oversee due to the more prominent need to facilitate these assets with dispatch able age and request.

There are various kinds of drawbacks of smart grid which are described below

It is one of the common drawbacks of this technology and users can lose their private information because the smart grid is less secure. It uses smart meters which can be easily hacked by hackers and they use an algorithm process by which hackers can control user personal servers.

Smart Grid organize has much insight at its edges; that is, at the passage point and toward the end client's meter. In any case, the framework has inadequate knowledge in the centre, overseeing the exchanging capacities. This absence of incorporated advancement makes the lattice an unstable system. Building assets have been filled with power age and customer vitality utilization, which are the edges of the system. In any case, if an excessive number of hubs are added to the system before building up the product knowledge to control it, the conditions will prompt an unpredictable savvy framework.

This modern technology depends upon two-way communication in which power supplier organizations transfer electricity from power plants to consumers. It uses wireless networks which are very less secure and it can be hacked by various processes.

Smart grids use various technologies, for example, smart meter; smart appliances embedded system, programming language. All these are very costly and expensive because to control one power system it required more efforts. Therefore many people are not able to adopt this type of electric grids.

The size of memory in smart grid is very less and people are not able to store more data or information. Through this drawback, various companies do not use this technology because customers required a large memory size. It is observed that in future this technology can increase their memory size by which people can store more information at a time.

The computer plays a significant character in the field of smart grid and computer a platform where any person can transfer signals and can control various power systems of the smart grid. In which users can create various source code by using various programming language. Smart grid as a ground level process which required a peripheral device to control and monitor grids and energy systems, therefore, the computer system is used . There are various uses of smart grid into the computer, for example, used for data information, can be used for long-distance communication, by computer users can interface with various peripheral devices. The smart grid can provide power supply to your computer systems and it can handle human peripheral devices such as computers and mobile phones. A smart grid can enable the level of consumer participation and users can use this technology for bill payment through computer systems. It has ability to reduce security issues and enhance performance of power systems. It uses large amount of parts and equipment’s like connecting cables, wires, computer systems and controllers.

A smart grid is a current power scheme which usages sensors, automation, communication system, and processors to increase the security, suppleness, and performance of an electric system. In which grids are connected by computer systems in the form of virtualization because the computer provides a platform where consumers can control the flow of electric signals. There are various kinds of software’s and programming languages are used in this technology such as PLC, Kiel software, C, and C++ and SCADA . All this software’s and sources coding are performed on peripheral a device which is called a computer system. It offers shoppers expanded decision by encouraging chances to control their power utilizes and reacts to power value changes by altering their utilization. A savvy matrix incorporates different and scattered vitality assets and obliges electric vehicle charging. It encourages association and coordinated task. To put it plainly, it brings all components of the power framework generation, conveyance, and utilization closer together to enhance by and large framework activity for the advantage of shoppers and nature . It is a large scale process which increases power generation facility to every electric device and computer is a part of them in which smart grid transfer power into SMPS and UPS and these devices share their power to another small components and processors. High-speed computers can be used to find faults and any problem with electrical grids and after that, it provides a recovery system by which users can remove this type of problem. For human it is very difficult to determine a long-term pattern in various power networks, therefore, fuse networks and diodes are used. The main purpose of the computer in the smart grid is that it is used for interfacing where users can interconnect two or more peripheral devices. it is estimated that this type of technology is less secure and human personal information can be lost. Therefore firewall software is installed into the computer system by which users can reduce various security risks and attacks. An electric matrix with the data and communications innovation (ICT) is known as a Smart Grid. In SG, information about purchasers' power utilization conduct is gathered naturally with the utilization of the ICT [1]. This helps increment the effectiveness, unwavering quality, and execution of the electric framework. The European Technology Platform is setting up an SG strategy to beat numerous difficulties in the mongrel lease power supply, regarding dependability, adaptability, effectiveness, stack change, top power cut, and permanency advertise free market activity reaction bolster. Reliability is given by an SG its highlights, for example, the capacity for blame location and self-mending. In SG applications, bidirectional vitality stream takes into account adaptable system topology with disseminated age. The request side administration highlight of the SG guarantees proficiency in vitality utilization. The heap alteration highlight helps adjust stacks despite their varieties. In the event that a client's heap surpasses a normal sift old, power can be sliced for this client to control power use in mind-boggling expense/crest use periods.

It is estimated that the lack of security is one of the biggest difficulty in smart grid and it is increasing very fast by which users can lose their personal information’s. There are many organizations and power suppliers companies developed stargazes and action plans to improve the security of smart grids. In the last five years around 131 smart grids plans were funded and many users used this technology in their power networks and other peripheral devices [21]. There are following steps can be sued to increase the efficiency of smart grids-

Automated distribution system- this type of system can decrease the frequency of sustained outage and it provides a platform where users can control the flow of the power system. It also decreases the number of affected users with the help of the rerouting system [11].

Automated voltage control system- it is a very important step because it has the ability to reduce energy losses and distortion. People can improve the efficiency of their power devices by adopting automated voltage system.

Remotely accessible smart meters- it can reduce the cost of components, increase outage management, user self-service, and also produce various tools to understand the concept of smart grids.

Adopting various security plans- there are various kinds of programmes are developed to reduce security risks in smart grids, for example, firewall, cryptography, cloud computing, pattern recognition process, and virtualization technique.

Smart grid advancement has a tendency to be driven by one of two key dreams for upgrading electric power connections for the two utilities and their clients: the European Union, what's more, U.S. models . The European Union vision is by all accounts driven principally by natural concerns, while the U.S. getting ready for the brilliant lattice has been propelled principally by a craving for dependability changes. In the United States, attractive attributes of the keen lattice incorporate self-recuperating transmission and conveyance control designs that will be impervious to purposeful assaults and cataclysmic events, what's more, high power quality levels along a wide scope of measurements that go well past blackout insights [1]. One of the key objectives of model keen lattices, for example, the one being created by the Pecan Street Project in Austin, Texas, is to advance dynamic client support and basic leadership and in this way to make another lattice operational condition in which both utilities and power clients influence each other.

Conclusion

The smart grid is one of the biggest variations in the history of the energy system and it is more efficient rather than traditional power grids. It is observed that between 2014 and 2018 the rate of smart grids is increased by 28% worldwide and many organizations adopted this technology to improve the productivity of their power systems. There are many benefits of this technology such as more reliable, improved flexibility, decreased electric losses, and also improved the mobility of peripheral devices. This report explained the working principle of smart grids, the comparison between traditional power grids and smart grids, advantages and disadvantages and role of a computer system in the field of smart grids. The main advancement in smart grid technology is that it is an automatic process which provides two-way infrastructures between control contractor organizations and customers. Therefore the problem of security can be reduced by adopting various plans like cryptography, pattern recognition, and firewall software. People should secure their data or information through cloud computing and they can avoid cyber-attacks by improving their security programmes.

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My Assignment Help. 'Understanding Smart Grid Technology' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/ee-153-power-electronics/recognize-the-fundamental-concept-of-the-smart-grid-html> accessed 12 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Understanding Smart Grid Technology [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 12 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/ee-153-power-electronics/recognize-the-fundamental-concept-of-the-smart-grid-html.

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