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EEET 5004 Engineering Research Practice

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1.Describe the general background/context and importance of the research question (Some background information that familiarises the reader with your research question and helps him/her to understand the importance of your topic).

2.Write a clear and focused research question.

3.Look at your research question and answer the following:
a.How have you focused your research question to make sure you can undertake this research with a reasonable expenditure of time, money and effort?
b.Will the process of solving this problem be more than a simple exercise in reviewing some existing information or will it involve some investigation? (To answer this, you need to explain very briefly how you are going to answer your research question/solve the research problem and show that this is more than just reviewing some existing information.)



The Problem and its Setting

Background and Motivation 

Climate change and global warming are one of the most endemic and serious threats facing humanity and the entire globe today.  The ever-escalating adversities and implications of climate change and global warming are attributed to anthropogenic factors that result in unprecedented rates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission especially from fossil fuels [1]. On December 12, 2015, the global community once again after the Kyoto Protocol acknowledged the threat posed by climate change to humanity by collectively converging in Paris during the COP2015 summit attended by 195 countries to discuss how to reduce their carbon footprints [2].  The Paris Accord committed countries to reduce their GHG emission in an effort to promote sustainable global warming to at most 20 C. Australia as many other countries committed to decarbonizing their energy systems through strategies such as replacement of non-renewable fossil fuels with carbon-free renewable fuels such as hydrogen and photovoltaic energy. Australia committed to reducing its carbon footprint by 26-28% by 2030 using 2005 as the base year [3, 4]. Hydrogen gas and fuel cells have been attributed to having the potential of significantly mitigating climate change and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing GHG emission. Fuel cells and hydrogen gas are anticipated to have the capacity to reduce the global GHG by 6 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2050 [5]. In order to tap into the potential of hydrogen as a fuel, technological advancements in fuel cells are inevitable.

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices with the capabilities of changing chemical energy directly to electrical energy without combustion thus its oxidant or fuels are supplied externally. The fuel cell has the capacity of tapping into the abundant hydrogen gas as a fuel by converting it into electrical energy with zero carbon emission (see Figure 1). Merewether, Brandon, and Hart equate fuel cells to a battery but the cells are able to combine oxygen and hydrogen gases to produce thermal energy, water, and electricity [6, 7]. Unlike a battery that requires constant recharging with fresh reactants to produce electric energy, fuel cells operate without moving parts, need for combustion, and are endlessly rechargeable [6]. The cells have an immense potential of replacing the conventional power machines as they produce heat, water, and electricity from only while emitting zero CO2. The cells are not limited to using hydrogen as a fuel but can convert other natural gases as well as liquefied fuels such as gasoline and methanol. The cells can be used in transportation applications, stationary power generation and battery replacement [6].

Fuel cells are perceived as a panacea to the many energy and environmental problems of the 21st century by through production of clean and efficient energy and heat from a wide array of primary energy source [8-11]. Lu et al. point out that fuel cells generate a myriad of benefits far beyond the other energy sources and technologies  [12].

The Statement of the Problem and Subproblems 

The annual demand for energy increases at an alarming rate due to increased consumption of energy especially electricity at both industrial and resident level. In the last three decades, the human population has doubled characterized by escalating industrialization and urbanization pursuits. Increase in energy demand increases with the exploitation of energy sources especially fossil fuels more so coal [13, 1]. Fossil fuels heavy usage results in the ever-increasing emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and other toxins into the environment [8].  From 2000 to 2010, the global demand for energy is estimated to have increased by 1.8% annually; the energy is largely obtained from fossil fuels which are unequivocally harmful to the environment [14]. Australia recorded the highest increase (2.3% increase – 6,066 petajoules) in the rate of energy consumption between 2015-16 with an annual increase of 0.6% for the last decade [12]. Oil and coal were the largest sources of energy at 37% and 32% respectively between 2015-16 followed by natural gases at 25% and renewables at 6% [12]. The increased demands of energy obtained from fossil fuels resulted in Australia’s GHG emissions to reach 556.4 metric tons of CO2 in the last three years [3]. Thefeore, there is a dire need for alternative sources of clean and efficient energy.

According to Australia’s Hydrogen Strategy Group, fuel cells especially hydrogen fuel cells have the capability of transforming the energy sector, combating climate change and promoting a sustainable globe [5]. However, despite the increased promotion of fuel cell technologies in Australia and across the globe, the deployment and implementation of the technologies have not been felt by the global community. Designing and implementation of the system are faced by a wide array of challenges as well as opportunities. Indeed fuel cells are undeniably an invaluable alternative to fossil fuels due to their zero direct GHG emission and thermodynamic efficiencies but despite the many efforts undertaken by both private and governmental researchers and agencies, its application is under matched with the expectations [16, 10, 17]. This paper, therefore, seeks to evaluate the current status of fuel cell technology and the policy measures adopted by different Australian territories and states in supporting the technology. The subproblem will include an evaluation of the most suitable elements and electrolytes to be used to produce more clean and efficient energy with cell capital.


The scope of the Study

The scope of the research problem shall focus on:

  1. Conducting fuel cell patent analysis in South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. According to Australia’s Hydrogen Strategy Group, these three regions have the highest storage of renewables, heavy vehicles, hydrogen exports and research and development (R&D)[5].
  2. Testing the most suitable and cheapest electrolyte to be used in hydrogen fuel cells.

Research Question 

  1. How does the fuel cell patents affect fuel cell technology in South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland?
  2. What is the most suitable, clean, efficient, and cheap electrolyte to be used in hydrogen fuel cells?

The study shall use hydrogen and oxygen as the source of fuel passing through different types of alkaline electrolytes. The expected outputs of the process are electric energy (electricity), thermal energy (heat) and water. Manufactured hydrogen shall be used in the study while air shall be used to obtain oxygen through the electrolyser the cathode and anode respectively.  



Several assumptions underpin this study. The researcher shall assume that:

  1. There will be readily available fuel cell and related database of journal articles and other researches in South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland.
  2. There will be easily accessible fuel cells patents in South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland.
  3. All the types of alkaline electrolytes used in the hydrogen cells will produce heat, electricity and water.
  4. The amount of heat, water and electricity produced by the hydrogen cell will vary with the type of alkaline electrolyte.

Literature Review 

Environmental Sustainability 

Energy is a central element in the relationship and interactions between society and nature as well as a crucial input for environmental sustainability and development [18]. In the current millennium, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a major causative agent of global warming is a primary environmental threat worldwide. CO2 and other GHGs are majorly emitted from the burning of fossil fuels for energy in an attempt to meet the high energy demand against the availability of clean and cheap substitutes of energy. According to Mahmud, the current global demand for energy is obtained from a mixture of sources stemming from non-renewable to renewables such as solar and wind energy. Coal contributes at least 40% of the global energy, gas about 20% while nuclear energy about 6% [14]. Australia recorded a 2.3% rise in energy consumption between 2015 and 2016 where 63% was generated from coal, 15% from renewables, and 10% from uranium [12]. Energy production increased by 3% in 2015-16 with coal production declining by 1% [12] (see Figure 2). This clearly indicates the need for alternative sources of energy that are clean and efficient.

Many of the environmental problems experienced today are centred on energy demand, supply, exploitation and utilization against human population growth and modernization [18]. Therefore, scientists have been devoted significant resources and time to search for other efficient, clean and cheap alternative sources and method of producing energy. Hydrogen fuels as a fuel and fuel cells as the technology have been noted as the promising method for the generation of more efficient and ecologically friendly energy. Sir William Robert Grove is cited as the first scientist to have experimented and invented the Fuel cell in 1839 where he combined hydrogen gas and oxygen gas through an electrolyte medium in a reaction that produced electricity [6]. Also, other scientists have used different elements such as carbon cycle and solid oxide fuel cells [19]. Thereafter up to date, many scientists have endeavoured to improve and advance Sir Willian’s fuel cell design to produce greater quantities of energy in an efficient manner at lower costs and producing zero GHGs into the environment as well as expanding the application of the fuels to transportation vehicles such as rockets and cars among others. Figure 3 shows the evolution trend in sources of energy by 2100.


Hydrogen Fuel Cells 

According to Ambrose et al., adoption of fuel cells especially clean and efficient hydrogen fuel cells is an inevitable and invaluable strategy to solving the double challenges of energy security and climate change [20, 13]. An increasing momentum towards sustainable transportation manifested by the introduction of hydrogen fuel vehicles (FCVs) has been recorded in many countries across the globe [20]. Technological advancements in fuel energy is a vital and indispensable strategy to leveraging economic development and environmental protection, conservation and sustainability.

For more than 170 years since the invention of the fuel cells, their potential has not been fully tapped.  Nonetheless, significant fruitful studies have been undertaken across the world on the fuel cells with an aim of improving the efficacy of the cells by determining the most suitable combination of elements that would produce the highest power efficiently and cheaply [7, 6]. Federal and state government, policymakers and automakers of Australia are increasingly deploying fuel cells not only in FCVs but as well as stationary applications as well as for exportation. Australia is cited to be well-positioned to be a leader in hydrogen expert sector globally [5].

Fuel Cells Electrolytes

Fuel cells working mechanism exploits hydrogen atom energy carrying capability. Fuel cells are typically composed of a negative electrode (anode) and a positive electrode (cathode) separated by either a solid or liquid substance (electrolyte). The electrodes are always permeable picked based on the source of the fuel, they as well as have catalyst such as palladium or platinum [6, 10, 13] (See figure 4). Application of electrical potential between the electrode forces hydrogen to form on the positive electrode while oxygen is attracted to the negative electrode where either of the gases is collected.

Different sources of fuels (see Figure 5) which are classified into two primary groups: the carbon capture and storage (CCS) fuel including fossils fuels and the renewable hydrogen sources made of water and natural or artificial hydrogen gas [5, 19]. Fuel cells using renewable sources of energy are increasingly being deployed, however, the cells efficiency and production ability are significantly limited by the type of electrolyser.    

As alluded earlier, there are various sources of fuels that can be used in fuel cells but the production capacity of cells depends on the type of electrolyte, electrode and source of fuel. Determining all the potential and efficient electrolytes and elements is an expensive and time-consuming venture due to the different properties of the elements and substances. There are two primary types of electrolytes currently available and used commercially: Alkaline electrolysers and proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers [5, 19] but solid oxide electrolysers are currently available [19]. The former is the most preferable because it is most commonly used and technologically mature as compared to PEM electrolysers [5]. The fuel cell continuous operation requires heat exchangers, compressors, water pumps and purifiers that depend on the type of electrolyte. Following this reason, this study focuses on determining and narrowing down to the most feasible and suitable elements that can be efficiently combined to produce optimal output under varying conditions. Alkaline fuel cells as the first fuel cell designs. The fuel cell design’s working mechanism leverages on the boiling point and high conductivity potential of the used electrolysers [22].


The Research Methodology

This study’s research had two separate research methodologies where the first part shall focus on efforts undertaken by state and territorial governments of Western Australia, Queensland, and South Australia in support fuel cell technology while the second part focuses on testing and determining suitable, cheap, and efficient electrolysers for hydrogen fuel gas.

Patent Analysis

According to Haslam, Jupesta, and Parayil [17], diffusion of innovation and technological development and advancements often follow an S-curve where the progress is often slow at initial stages but gradually and steadily gains a momentum of rapid advancements to a plateau or optimal point where a market dominance is achieved with relatively constant advancements. The trend of advancements depicts the potential of the innovation or technology to be expanded and improved. Therefore, through a patent analysis, it is possible to identify the trend of fuel cell technology development and advancements in Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland hence helping the Australian policymakers in promoting the fuel cell technology.

The data for patent analysis shall be obtained from IP Australia database, an agency of the Australian government mandated with the responsibility of administering intellectual property (IP) legislation and rights related to designs, trademarks, and patents among others [23]. The database allows a search of all the patents filed in Australia, patents for each state and territory shall be determined by the organisations hosting the patents. The patent search shall be conducted using the term “fuel cell” hence shall return all patents containing the term “fuel cell.” The study will only consider patents filed in the last 15 years that is from 2003-2017 (See Appendix 1). The number of patents per territory per year shall be a group and analysed descriptively using frequency and interpreted using trendlines.

Design and Testing of Fuel Cells

Task 1: Designing and Building a Fuel Cell

The first step for this practical section shall design and develop a working fuel cell that shall be used in the subsequent experiments. The primary objective of the design for the generation of the optimal electricity from the fuel cell.

Task 2: Obtaining of all the electrolysers

The study aims to determine the most efficient and cheap electrolyte to be used in the hydrogen fuel cell. Therefore, at this juncture, the researcher shall obtain several electrolysers including solid and liquid electrolytes that shall be tested.

Task 3: System Configuration

At this section, assumptions regarding engineering design, electrochemistry calculations, and heat transfer, as well as cost calculations of the fuel cell system, shall be undertaken with an aim of optimizing the systems electric power production [16]. The engineering assumptions shall be based on the air and hydrogen consumption as well as the production of electricity, heat and water; electrochemistry shall focus inf voltage and current calculation shall be performed while heat transfer shall focus on the cooling potential of the electrolyte.

Task 4: System Modelling

Calculation based on the series of assumption determined under system configuration shall be undertaken with reference to the targeted quantity of electricity to be produced by the cell. General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) software shall be used to scrutinize the electrochemistry relations.

Task 5: Cost Model

Fuel cells require additional support equipment such as water purifiers and pumps, circulating pumps. Heat exchanger, hydrogen storage tank among other peripheral equipment which cost money. The fuel cell itself require money as well, therefore a need to develop a cost model for the cell against the anticipated life expectancy of the cell.

Task 6: Testing the Fuel Cell

This is the second last section where the fuel cell shall be tested using different electrolysers.

Task 7: Data Analysis and Interpretation

The data obtained from Task 6 shall be analysed based on the heat, water and electric power produced by each electrolyte against the cost model. The cost model shall be used to determine the most suitable electrolyte.

An outline of the proposed study


  1. Collection of patent information from the IP Australia database on patents filled in Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland.
    • Grouping the data by filling Appendix 1 data collection shit.
    • Analysis and presentation of the patent information of the three regions.
  2. Designing of the fuel cells
    • Listing all the materials need to make the fuel cells
    • Collecting the materials
    • Making the fuel cell
  3. System Configurations
    • Making assumptions about the functionality of the fuel cell and the expected outcomes
  4. System Modelling
    • Calculating and theoretical testing of the assumptions
  5. Testing the Fuel Cell
    • Measuring the input and output of the fuel cell
    • Replacing the electrolysers and measuring their output
  6. Cost Modelling
    • Comparing the output of fuel cell per type of electrolyte
    • Deciding on the most suitable and efficient electrolyte.


The experiment shall require:

  1. Electrodes, electrolytes and other peripheral materials to make the fuel cell


The study is anticipated to be completed within three weeks as shown in Appendix 2,

Research Output

Patent analysis result shall be presented in trendlines charts, three trendlines shall be on the chart for the three regions. For Fuel cell test, the cost model and the heat, water and electricity output for each electrolyte used shall be presented in tables.



[1] I. Staffell and P. Dodds, Eds., The role of hydrogen and fuel cells in future energy systems (A H2FC SUPERGEN White Paper), London, UK: H2FC SUPERGEN, 2017.

[2] W. R. W. Daud, S. K. Kamarudin, A. Ahmad, M. M. Nasef and A. B. Mohamad, “Preface to the special issue on “Sustainable fuel cell and hydrogen technologies: The 5th International Conference on Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology (ICFCHT 2015), 1–3 September 2015, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia”,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 14, no. 42, pp. 8973-8974, 2017.

[3] G. Bourne, A. Stock, W. Steffen, P. Stock and L. Brailsford, “Working Paper: Australia’s Rising Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Climate Council of Australia, Potts Point, AU, 2018.

[4] M. M. Ghanem, O. M. Al Wassal, A. A. Kotv and M. A. El-Shahhat, “Microbial Fuel Cell for Electricity Generation and Waste Water Treatment,” International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 40-45, 2016.

[5] Hydrogen Strategy Group, “Hydrogen for Australia’s future: A briefing paper for the COAG Energy Council,” Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, ACT, 2018. Available:

[6] E. A. Merewether, “Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells,” U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, vol. 2179, pp. 1-14, 2003.

[7] N. Brandon and D. Hart, “An Introduction to Fuel Cell Technology and Economics,” Centre for Energy Policy and Technology (ICCEPT), Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, 1999.

[8] European Commission, “Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells: A vision of our future,” European Commission, Brussels, 2003. Available:

[9] M. Ni, M. K. Leung and D. Y. Leung, “Technological development and the prospect of alkaline fuel cells,” in Proceedings of 16th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Lyon, France, 2006.

[10] A. Dicks and J. Larminie, Fuel Cell Systems Explained, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Son, 2003.

[11] M. Cifrain and K. Kordesch, “Hydrogen/oxygen (air) fuel cells with alkaline electrolytes,” in Handbook of Fuel Cells-Fundamentals, Technology and Applications, W. Vielstich, A. Lamm and H. A. Gasteiger, Eds., Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2003, pp. 267-280.

[12] T. Lu, Y. Cai, L. Souamy, X. Song, L. Zhang and J. Wang, “Solid oxide fuel cell technology for sustainable development in China: An overview,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 43, pp. 12870-12891, 2018.

[13] R. O'hayre, S. W. Cha, F. B. Prinz and W. Colella, Fuel cell fundamentals, 3 ed., New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

[14] K. Mahmud, “Fuel cell and renewable hydrogen energy to meet household energy demand,” International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, vol. 54, pp. 97-102, 2013.

[15] Department of the Environment and Energy, “Australian Energy Update 2017,” Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra, ACT, 2017. Available:

[16] L. Ariyanfar, H. Ghadamian and R. Roshandel, “Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) Engineering Design; Modeling and Simulation for UPS Provide in Laboratory Application,” in World Renewable Energy Congress-Sweden, Linköping, Sweden, 2011.

[17] G. E. Haslam, J. Jupesta and G. Parayil, “An Analysis of Fuel Cell Technology for Sustainable Transport in Asia,” Research Gate, 2015.

[18] I. Dincer, “Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies for Sustainable Future,” Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-14, 2008.

[19] C. Kubert, “Fuel cell technology: A clean, reliable source of stationary power,” Fuel Cells: Briefing papers for state policymakers, pp. 1-22, August 2011.

[20] A. F. Ambrose, A. Q. Al-Amin, R. Rasiah, R. Saudur and N. Amin, “Prospects for introducing hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in Malaysia,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, no. 14, pp. 9125-9134, 2017.

[21] R. Raza, N. Akram, M. S. Javed, A. Rafique, K. Ullah, A. Ali, M. Saleem and R. Ahmed, “Fuel cell technology for sustainable development in Pakistan–An overview,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 53, pp. 450-461, 2016.

[22] M. Alhassan and M. Umar Garba, “Design of an Alkaline Fuel Cell,” Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, vol. 9, pp. 99-106, 2006.

[23] IP Australia, “Find Patents & Licences,” 2018. [Online]. Available:

[24] K. Kendall, “Hydrogen and fuel cells in city transport,” International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 40, p. 30–35, 2016.

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