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The title of the report is “The effectiveness and applicability of different lifestyle interventions for enhancing wellbeing.” The paper evaluates the effectiveness and applicability of the various intervention techniques that are used to improve lifestyle for people with obesity. People with metabolic syndrome and psychological distress are subjected to a similar program for a particular period of time to determine how thr various intervention techniques affect them. The intervention techniques that are evaluated in this paper include; evaluation against critical appraisal tools, internet based coaching, mobile based intervention, face to face group intervention and control groups.
A sample of 339 respondents was chosen randomly from a population of 650 people. Various tests are conducted to measure the effectiveness of the intervention techniques identified. The report evaluates the article and determines strengths and weaknesses of the report and the methods used in arriving at the results and conclusions.
From the definition by World Health Organization (WHO),obesity is defined as the accumulation of excess fat in the body. This excess fat may have an effect on the functions of the body. Obesity is defined by comparing with the Body Mass Index of a person. BMI is an index that is determined by dividing the weight of an individual in Kg by their height in m2. When a person has a BMI greater than 30,they are classified as being obese. If the BMI is greater than 25 but less than 30,they are classified as being overweight. Statistics from the WHO indicate that in the year 2016, more than 1.9 billion people aged above 18 years were overweight (World Health Organisation, 2016). Of these, 650 million were obese. Statistics also indicate that obesity has tripled since the year 1975 (Jackson, Kirschbaum,& Steptoe, 2017). There has been a huge discussion however of the suitability of BMI as a measure of obesity. Some scholars have argued that weight and height of an individual alone are not capable of defining whether a person is obese or not. However, it still remains the most popular and commonly used measure of obesity and being obese.
The objectives of this report are to analyze the research paper and identify the weaknesses and strengths of the paper. The professional research done by the researcher is also evaluated in this report. Evaluation is done against critical appraisal tools, internet based coaching, and mobile based evaluation. The applicability of the method of face to face intervention is also evaluated in this critical review paper.
The research aimed at investigating the effect of three intervention techniques on people with psychological disorders and metabolic syndrome. The CONSORT appraisal tool is the critical appraisal tool used to carry out the critical evaluation on this paper. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trial statement is a detailed document that outlines the explanation of the randomized controlled trials results (Dubois, Gutierrez& Lenoir-Wijnkoop, 2016).
The paper identifies diet and nutrition as the major cause of obesity. The eating habits of a person contribute greatly to their health in terms of being obese or overweight. The paper indicates that the food intake of an individual determines the amount of excess fat that accumulates in the body. I agree with the methods used in the collection of data for the study. The participants for the study were recruited using advertisement in local dailies. This method is very appropriate since if offers the entire population under review a chance to participate in the study. Tests were done to select people who were qualified for the research. This reduced the probability of the final results being biased is very low. Evidence based technique were used to evaluate the effectiveness and the appropriateness of the intervention techniques used for people with obesity. Tests were done to examine people who had chronic diseases in the population. The study was also conducted in three cities. This means the data collected would reflect the factors and conditions prevalent in different areas and hence making the study more reliable (Kiess,Wabitsch, Maffeis& Sharma, 2015). The population was subjected to a 12 week program where the various intervention techniques were used. The methods of data analysis used in this study are very appropriate and they provide important insights into the appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention methods.
Internet based coaching was conducted for a period of 12 weeks. The population selected for research is exposed to given set of conditions which help the researcher to obtain the desired results from the study. The intervention consists is about assessing the psychological issues and behaviors ad lifestyle that affects the health of a human being. Each program under the internet based coaching has a different message. The life expectancy of participants, risk of diabetes and heart diseases is also estimated. The study has identified important factors that determine whether a person becomes overweight or not. This method is used by the participants of the research by searching important information regarding obesity (Institute of Medicine & Glickman, 2012). The participants of the study are expected to use the information in the internet to find the ways in which they can be able to lose weight and become healthier. Some of the factors that have been evaluated in the study include; weight management, healthy diet, exercise, stress and life management, sleep improvement, alcohol use and management as well as cessation. Internet based coaching provides important information for coaching the population under study on proper nutrition that helps in weight management, how to avoid alcohol consumption and addiction (Goodman & Fuller, 2011). Health check feedback is conducted to determine which of the intervention methods work best. The participants of the study are taught on stress management techniques. The stress management techniques that the participants are subjected to are intended to help reduce the impact that stress has on weight gain and obesity. Some of the actions and activities that help in managing stress include intense exercises, forgiveness, having enough leisure time and proper methods of conflict resolution. The following is a diagram showing an effective way to warn users of risks in the paths they decide to follow.
Many authors recommend that participants need to set themselves targets when they start using the internet coaching intervention technique to help change lifestyle. Continuous evaluation should also be done to measure the level of progress achieved over a period of time. (Branca, Nikogosian& Lobstein, 2007) argues that participants in such a research need to ensure that the techniques used have a positive impact. Otherwise they should make necessary adjustments and changes to ensure that their lifestyles are able to change and they become healthier. An article by (Blackstone, 2016) argues that exercises are one of the most effective intervention technique to help improve the lifestyle of an individual. The article argues that exercises help in losing weight and in managing stress and hence helping to deal with obesity. Internet lessons can provide information on the exercises that are important in helping to deal with obesity.
Mobile based intervention is also used as an intervention technique for improving lifestyle to prevent and deal with obesity. The principles of acceptance and commitment therapy were used as the basis of undertaking this program. Acceptance and commitment is a form of counselling that is almost similar to cognitive behavior therapy. Various psychological intervention techniques that use acceptance and mindfulness are used for this technique. In the research by the authors, the participants of the study were given smart phones that had an application called Ovia. The application is designed to help in training people on mental wellness. The app is designed in such a manner that it is able to cater for the psychological and physiological needs of an individual. The application has four different paths of intervention and they include; Mindful mind, Wise Mind, Values, and Healthy Body. The core processes of Acceptance, Commitment, and Therapy are mindfulness mind, a wise mind, and values (Green, Sim& Breiner, 2013). The application has about 46 exercises in text and audio and they exclude physical activity and diet. An individual can choose one of the paths depending on their individual needs. An individual with obesity can choose the path of a healthy body. The ACT app has received very positive reviews in the Google play section where customers are allowed to rate products. More than 60% of the people who rated the application gave it a 5 star rating. This shows that the application is very effective for users’ psychologically and physiologically. The other strength of this technique is that it is evolving over time and it has undergoing significant improvements which will make it adaptable to the individual needs of users. Allow time and space for unpleasant thoughts and feelings of an individual and then dealing with them in a manner that the person will not be affected psychologically. The intervention technique is very good since it helps in avoiding stress and promoting physical exercises. Smart-phones are also widely used and hence many people have access to them. At any time, an individual can decide to use the application and follow the path unlike the other intervention techniques which are more complicated and more involving.
The shortcoming of this technique is that it emphasis on the psychological aspect of dealing with obesity and improving lifestyle of an individual. The technique fails to address the factors of nutrition and how it affects the lifestyle of people with obesity. This is despite the fact that most of the research findings indicate nutrition as a major intervention in improving the lifestyle of people with obesity. The ACT application does not also offer a path for physical exercises which are also very critical towards lifestyle improvement.
The intervention technique is composed of six groups for a period of 8 weeks. Each section was supposed to last 90 minutes. The face to face intervention method was applied by ensuring each group had between 6 and 12 participants in order to ensure that the groups were not overcrowded to the extent that it would become difficult for the participants to learn. There were also psychologists who acted as coaches for the groups. This is an important strength since it will ensure that the participants have people with deep knowledge of obesity intervention techniques as well as people who understand psychology to guide them.
The advantage of face to face intervention is that each participant can be able to learn since they can observe how each user handles different problems. The users can be able to gain motivation by observing others overcome challenges and this helps them to solve their own problems. In addition to this, group interaction helps the people to share different experiences (Green, Sim& Breiner, 2013). This is very important psychologically since participants in the group are able to realize that there are people undergoing worse situations and hence they become more positive and hence relieving stress.
The fact that face to face therapy is done in groups makes it economical for the participants. This is because the cost of coaching all the participants is pooled together and they are able to shoulder the burden of the cost as a group rather and individually.
According to an article by (Watson, 2014), face to face intervention has a very huge impact in helping to change and improve lifestyles. The author narrates how he had trouble in attending the group therapies to help in dealing with issues of smoking. He says that time,he realized how the honesty and narrations of the group members helped him to quit the smoking habit and how this helped to change his lifestyle.
The control groups consist of people who were involved in the research but did not participate in any of the groups and did not use any intervention technique.
The effectiveness of the intervention in this case depends on individual`s will power, resourcefulness and their willingness to change their lifestyle. Despite the fact that intervention techniques discussed being effective in helping in self improvement, the will and determination of a person is the key to achieving all the change(Bagchi& Sreejayan, 2012). From the change to be permanent or long term, the individual needs to be determined in maintaining the new lifestyle and avoiding to go back to the original lifestyle. An individual needs to be very focused and determined on achieving the change or otherwise the intervention will not work as expected. A person may also fault to keep off habits such as smoking once they are away from the therapy groups. Other methods of avoiding the behaviors need to be used to support the intervention techniques that have been identified. Continuing with the physical experiences is also important in changing lifestyle. Physical exercising needs to be made a way of life and not a onetime affair. Regular exercises are one of the best ways of controlling metabolism and in maintain good health. Control groups also help in providing guidelines in nutrition which greatly helps in lifestyle change. People get used to consuming more healthy food and are hence able to avoid the illnesses that come as a result of obesity and being overweight.
There are also cases that have been reported where, the thyroid glands that regulate metabolism become inactive. They result to hyporthyroidism which contributes to weight gain.
A great deal of statistical data was found on the effectiveness and applicability of the lifestyle intervention techniques. Many research articles against which the article being critically reviewed was compared show that methods that were applied by the researcher were appropriate and the research was conducted professionally. The data collected was not biased since the participants in the study were chosen from different locations after important tests have been conducted. Most of the intervention techniques which were tested in the research yielded positive outcomes to the people who used them. Internet based coaching, face-to-face mobile intervention, and mobile intervention were found to be the most effective of all the techniques used. The effectiveness of control groups was difficult to measure since it depends on the resourcefulness and willingness of an individual. The research has been able to answer important questions on the effectiveness and appropriateness of the lifestyle intervention techniques using accurate and dependable measures and tests.
Bagchi, D., & Sreejayan, N. (2012). Nutritional And Therapeutic Interventions For Diabetes And Metabolic Syndrome [Recurso Electrónico]. Paises Bajos, Elsevier Academic Press.
Blackstone, R. P. (2016). Obesity The Medical Practitioner's Essential Guide. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1007/978-3-319-39409-1
Branca, F., Nikogosian, H., & Lobstein, T. (2007). The Challenge Of Obesity In The Who European Region And The Strategies For Response. Copenhagen, Denmark, Who Regional Office For Europe.
Dubois, D. J., Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, I., & Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I. (2016). Today's Nutrition And Tomorrow's Public Health: Challenges And Opportunities. [s.l.], Frontiers Media Sa.
Goodman, C. C., & Fuller, K. S. (2011). Pathology For The Physical Therapist Assistant. London, Elsevier Health Sciences. Http://Site.Ebrary.Com/Id/11045420.
Green, L. W., Sim, L. J., & Breiner, H. (2013). Evaluating Obesity Prevention Efforts: a Plan For Measuring Progress.
Institute Of Medicine (U.S.), & Glickman, D. (2012). Accelerating Progress In Obesity Prevention: Solving The Weight Of The Nation. Washington, Dc, National Academies Press.
Jackson, S. E., Kirschbaum, C. And Steptoe, A. (2017), Hair Cortisol And Adiposity In a Population-Based Sample Of 2,527 Men And Women Aged 54 To 87 Years. Obesity, 25: 539–544. Doi:10.1002/Oby.21733
Kiess, W., Wabitsch, M., Maffeis, C., & Sharma, A. M. (2015). Metabolic Syndrome And Obesity In Childhood And Adolescence. https://Public.Eblib.Com/Choice/Publicfullrecord.Aspx?p=3016651.
Mcphee, S. J., Papadakis, M. A., & Rabow, M. W. (2012). 2013 Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment. New York, Mcgraw-Hill Medical.
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Watson, R. R. (2014). Nutrition In The Prevention And Treatment Of Abdominal Obesity. Burlington, Elsevier Science. https://Public.Eblib.Com/Choice/Publicfullrecord.Aspx?p=1641898.
World Health Organisation – Obesity - Http://Www.Who.Int/Topics/Obesity/En/
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