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UWB or Ultra Wideband Radio has provided a revolutionary approach for receiving and transmitting waveforms in the form of pulse that has been compressed in time to form frequency in wireless communication. I undertook the project for the design and implementation of Ultra Wideband antenna. During the project, I have observed that any communication occupying more than 500 MHz bandwidth is considered as ultra wideband. While designing the antenna for UWB, I have maintained high efficiency in radiation and obtained the wide impedance bandwidth. In this project, I have developed circular disc monopole and spiral equiangular slot patch antenna for simulation and analysis. While developing the design of the UWB antenna, I have utilized the model of simple transmission line and used “microstrip rectangular patch calculation”.
During the project, I have identified that the development of UWB system requires impedance matching with broad operating bandwidth. Furthermore, I have also observed that high-gain radiation is also required for sufficient operating of the system in any desired directions. Therefore, in order to design and implement a prototype model of UWB antenna, I have developed the following objectives:
Before started working on the antenna design and development, I have studied the various books, journals, articles and past researches relevant to the UWB antenna design. I have conducted a detailed review of the past research for understanding the requirement and specification required for developing the design of UWB monopole antenna. I have further gathered and documented the results obtained from various test. I have used the information for developing a proper project report. I have further developed the set up for conducting the experiment for performance analysis of the antenna. I have used CST Microwave Studio and Finite Element Domain analysis method for conducting the antenna simulation. I have further proposed a preliminary design of the antenna before developing the prototype model.
In this project, I took the responsibility of identifying the parameter required for developing the prototype model of monopole antenna. I have conducted the time domain analysis using CST Microwave Studio. In addition to that, in order to conduct the numerical analysis of the antenna, I have used FDTD of the UWB system. After obtaining optimum results from the analysis proves, I have fabricated and developed the prototype model of the antenna using Printed Circuit Board. Apart from that, I have ensured the efficiency and operational functionality of the developed antenna. I have created the final report for designing the UWB antenna.
The design of the antenna, that I have proposed can operated within the range of maximum 10 GHz to minimum of 4.1 GHz. The UWB monopole antenna obtains the resonant frequency at each of λ/2 times. I have also observed that while operating the antenna at old harmonics, multiple resonances are observed. In this project, I have designed a monopole antenna for observing its impact over the impedance bandwidth and time impedance. In the parametric study of the antenna, I have analyzed the efficiency, radiation patterns, group delay and return loss of the monopole antenna. While on the time domain investigation, I have analyzed the position of received and transmitted pulse signal.
I have worked for design optimization of the UWB antenna design. For this purpose, I have conducted parametric study for determining the appropriate measures before fabricating the initial design of the antenna. I have used my knowledge about the parametric study that I have used for determining the return loss in respect to the ground patch lengths. From the parametric study, I have observed that the antenna was able to operate with length of 34mm of the ground patch. After studying various articles and literature, I have analyzed that the gradual decrease of the ground patch significantly improves the return loss. For improving the total bandwidth of the antenna, I have used feed lines in two step. I have further connected the initial feed line with the SMA connector (SubMiniature version A) and utilized the second feed line for optimization. I have observed that using feed lines has provided good impedance and increased bandwidth of the antenna. In addition to that, I have considered the space coordinate for defining the radiation property of antenna. In the design, I have demonstrate the electric field using E-plane and magnetic field as H-plane. While designing the antenna, I have designed the azimuth angle of both H-plane and E-plane as ? with 90o, 45o and 0o. I have simulated the design and found the efficiency of the antenna is same for all the angle while the gain pattern changes.
After developing the appropriate design for the UWB antenna, I have fabricated the design in PCB (Printed Circuit Board) using FR4 substrate. I have incorporated the simulation results and specification while designing 0.02 tan δ as the loss tangent, 4.4 εr as dielectric constant, 35 µm of copper thickness and 1.6mm h as the thickness of the copper. I have further used Network Analyzer, HP8733ES for calibrating the exact measurement for the antenna. In order to simulate the design, I have altered the frequency to 12 GHz from 1GHz.
Issues: I have simulated the design for optimizing the performance in the time domain using CST Microsoft Studio software. While proposing the design of the rectangular patch antenna, I was required to define and calculate the design parameter of the antenna. I have faced problem in determining the parameter and conducting the rectangular patch. During the initial simulation of the antenna, I was unable to obtain the Lgnd of ground patch for the UWB antenna.
For understanding the source of the problem, I have discussed the UWB system with my project leader. Upon his suggestion, I have integrated FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) for conducting the numeric analysis. I have therefore studied the methods and calculation of Finite Element Method for analysis. I have further generated the Gaussian Pulse for generating the required signal. After integrating the Gaussian Signal, I was able to achieve a compact domain between the frequency and time domain.
While reviewing and analyzing the existing literature based on the design of the UWB antenna, I have come across the analysis of the antenna done with time domain. In this project, I have determined the validation of the antenna efficiency in order to obtain creativeness. I have used Gaussian pulse for exciting the pulse based signals. During the application of Gaussian pulse, I have related the test with the dispersion of the transmitter signal. While simulating the antenna efficacy, I have studied the radiated signal effect while placing the radiated filed along the probe. I have conducted the test while placing the antenna, in three angle position of 90o, 45o and 0o. From the analysis, I have observed minimum distortion therefore, forwarded with the antenna design and development.
I have worked alongside the project leader and team members for efficient and successful completion of the antenna design and fabrication. I have regularly communicated and discussed the progress of antenna design. In case of issues faced during the fabrication process, I have discussed the same with project leader and project team for solving the issue with minimum time and great efficiency.
I was efficiently simulated and optimized the design in PCB for developing the prototype model. From the developed prototype antenna model, I was able to ensure the operation capability between 9.6 GHz to 4.6 GHz. Therefore, I was successful in designing a UWB antenna for communication.
I have applied the technique for impedance matching that has allowed me in enhancing the bandwidth efficiency of the antenna prototype. I have conducted the analysis of the antenna performance for ensuring the effective transmission of signal. Apart from that, with the fluent application of various theories and engineering knowledge I was able to successful design the monopole UWB antenna.
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